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A

Andersen, M. Steve. “The Practice and Meaning of Declaring Lineage in Patriarchal Blessings.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 46 (2021): 209-232.

Abstract: In this paper, I show that declarations of lineage in patriarchal blessings have, since the earliest days of the Restoration, evolved in terms of frequency of inclusion, which tribal lineages predominate, and understanding of the meaning of the declaration. I argue for a non- literal understanding consistent with scripture and science, but posit that these declarations have deep and important significance in connection with the gathering of Israel.

Anderson, Carli. “Enthroning the Daughter of Zion: The Coronation Motif of Isaiah 60-62.” Paper presented at the 2014 Temple on Mount Zion Conference. October 25, 2014.
Anderson, Rick. “Mormonism and Intellectual Freedom.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 10 (2014): 161-173.

Abstract: To many outside the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (and to some of its members), the Church’s teachings and practices appear not only socially and experientially constraining, but intellectually restrictive as well, given its centralized system of doctrinal boundary maintenance and its history of sometimes sanctioning members who publicly dissent from its teachings. Do these practices amount to a constraint of intellectual freedom? This essay argues that they do not, and offers several possible explanations for the commonly-asserted position that they do.

Anderson, Rick. “Mormonism, Materialism, and Politics: Six Things We Must Understand in Order to Survive as Latter-day Saints.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 21 (2016): 239-248.

Abstract: We are called as Latter-day Saints to be a force for good in the world in every way possible, which necessarily includes active and positive engagement with political and social issues. At the same time, it is essential to our spiritual survival that we never allow ourselves to forget the radical difference between the philosophies of men — no matter how superficially harmonious some of these may seem with particular principles of the gospel or with some aspects of traditional Mormon culture — and the teachings of the prophets. In a world that constantly entices us with messages designed to lure us away from the eternal truths of the restored gospel and into the embrace of philosophies that are partially and contingently true at best and actively destructive at worst, we must exercise constant vigilance. This essay suggests and discusses six propositions that, if understood and embraced, should help us maintain that vigilance.

Anderson, Rick. “Addressing Prickly Issues.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 23 (2017): 253-261.

Review of A Reason for Faith: Navigating LDS Doctrine & Church History, ed. Laura Harris Hales. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book; Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2016. 264 pp. $24.99.

Abstract: This collection of essays conveniently assembles faithful and rigorous treatments of difficult questions related to LDS history and doctrine. While two or three of the essays are sufficiently flawed to give cause for concern and while some of its arguments have been expressed differently in earlier publications, overall this book can be confidently recommended to interested and doctrinally mature Latter-day Saints.

Arp, Nathan J. “Joseph Knew First: Moses, the Egyptian Son.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 32 (2019): 187-198.

Abstract: After about 1500 years of slumber, ancient Egyptian was brought back to life in the early 19th century, when scholars deciphered hieroglyphs. This revolutionary success opened the door to a reevaluation of history from the viewpoint of ancient Egypt. In the wake of this new knowledge, the first scholar posited the idea in 1849 that the name of Moses stemmed from the Egyptian word for child. Subsequently, this idea was refined, and currently the majority of scholars believe Moses’s name comes from the Egyptian verb “to beget,” which is also the root for the Egyptian word for child, or in the case of a male child, a “son.” Before this discovery and certainly before a scholarly consensus formed on the Egyptian etymology of the name of Moses, Joseph Smith restored a prophecy from the patriarch Joseph that played upon the name of Moses and its yet to be discovered Egyptian meaning of “son.” This article explores the implications of this overt Egyptian pun and its role as a key thematic element in the restored narratives in the Book of Moses.

Arp, Nathan J. “Count Your Many Mormons: Mormon’s Personalized and Personal Messages in Mosiah 18 and 3 Nephi 5.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 41 (2020): 75-86.

Abstract: The present work analyzes the narrative art Mormon employs, specifically Mormon’s unique strategies for personalized and personal messaging, which can be seen in how Mormon connects the narration of the baptism at the waters of Mormon in Mosiah chapter 18 with his self- introductory material in 3 Nephi chapter 5. In these narratives, Mormon seems to simultaneously present an overt personalized message about Christ and a covert personal connection to Alma1 through the almost excessive repetition of his own name. Mormon discreetly plants evidence to suggest his intention for the careful re-reader to discover that Mormon was a 12th generation descendant of the first Alma. Mormon’s use of personalizing and personal messages lends emotive power to his narratives and shines a light on Mormon’s love for Christ’s church.

Ashton, Alan C. “Easters: The Eternal Atoning Sacrifice Testifies of the Everlasting Redeeming Savior.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 28 (2018): 237-256.

Abstract: Easters come year after year, reminding us of new life brought to the children of men by the eternal atoning sacrifice of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. He grants us peace, forgiveness, grace, mercy, contentment, and joy in our hearts, and thus we gratefully testify of our everlasting redeeming Savior. All things bear witness of Jesus Christ. The Lord spoke thus face-to-face with Moses upon a high mountain: “And behold, all things have their likeness, and all things are created and made to bear record of me, both things which are temporal, and things which are spiritual; things which are in the heavens above, and things which are on the earth, and things which are in the earth, and things which are under the earth, both above and beneath: all things bear record of me.”

The intent of this article is to discuss scriptures that bear testimony of the reality of the Lord’s infinite atonement, to express deep gratitude for our Savior, and to praise Him for His grace, mercy, wisdom, power, and holiness.

Jordan, Benjamin R., and Warren P. Aston. “The Geology of Moroni’s Stone Box: Examining the Setting and Resources of Palmyra.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 30 (2018): 233-252.

Abstract: The story of Joseph Smith retrieving gold plates from a stone box on a hillside in upstate New York and translating them into the foundational text of the Restoration is well known among Latter-day Saints. While countless retellings have examined these events in considerable detail, very few have explored the geological aspects involved in this story. In particular, none have discussed in detail the geological materials that would have been required by the Nephite prophet Moroni ca. ad 421 to construct a sealed container able to protect the gold plates from the elements and from premature discovery for some fourteen centuries. This paper reports the outcomes from a field investigation into what resources would have been available to Moroni in the Palmyra area. It was conducted by the authors in New York state in October 2017.

Aston, Warren P. “Nephi’s ‘Shazer’: The Fourth Arabian Pillar of the Book of Mormon.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 39 (2020): 53-72.

Abstract: Many Book of Mormon students are aware that several locations along Lehi’s Trail through the Arabian Peninsula now have surprising and impressive evidence of plausibility, including the River Laman, Valley of Lemuel, Nahom, and Bountiful. One specific named location that has received much less attention is Shazer, a brief hunting stop mentioned in only two verses. After reviewing the potential etymology of the name, Warren Aston provides new information from discoveries made during field work in late 2019 at the prime candidate for the Valley of Lemuel, discoveries that lead to new understanding about the path to Shazer. Contrary to previous assumptions about Lehi’s journey, Aston shows there was no need to backtrack through the Valley of Lemuel to begin the “south-southeast” journey toward Shazer. It appears that Nephi’s description of crossing the river from the family’s campsite and then going south-southeast toward Shazer is exactly what can be done from the most likely candidate for a campsite in the most likely candidate for the Valley of Lemuel. In light of fieldwork and further information, Aston also reviews the merits of several locations that have been proposed for Shazer and points to a fully plausible, even probable, location for Shazer. The account of Shazer, like Nahom, the River of Laman/Valley of Lemuel, and Bountiful, may now be a fourth Arabian pillar anchoring and supporting the credibility of the Book of Mormon’s Old World account.

And it came to pass that we did take our tents
and depart into the wilderness, across the river Laman.
And it came to pass that we traveled for the space of four days,
nearly a south-southeast direction,
and we did pitch our tents again;
and we did call the name of the place Shazer.

And it came to pass that we did take our bows and our arrows,
and go forth into the wilderness to slay food for our families;
and after we had slain food for our families
we did return again to our families in the wilderness,
to the place of Shazer.

—1 Nephi 16:12-14.

Atwood, Ryan. “Lehi’s Dream and the Plan of Salvation.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 37 (2020): 141-162.

Abstract: Lehi’s dream symbolically teaches us about many aspects of Heavenly Father’s plan of salvation. The central message of Lehi’s dream is that all must come unto Jesus Christ in order to be saved. Each of us has the choice to pursue the path that leads to eternal joy and salvation or to choose a different way and experience undesirable outcomes. In this paper, elements of Lehi’s dream and supporting scriptures are analyzed to see how they relate to key aspects of the plan of salvation and our journey through life.

B

Bailey, David H. “Science vs. Religion: Can This Marriage Be Saved?” Paper presented at The 2013 Interpreter Symposium on Science & Mormonism: Cosmos, Earth & Man. November 9, 2013.
Bailey, David H., and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Science and Mormonism.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 19 (2016): 17-37.

Editor’s Note: In celebration of the long-awaited publication of the expanded proceedings of the 2013 Interpreter Science and Mormonism Symposium — Cosmos, Earth, and Man (Orem and Salt Lake City: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016), we share an expanded version of the introduction to that volume in this issue of the journal. The second Interpreter Science and Mormonism Symposium, subtitled Body, Brain, Mind, and Spirit, will be held at Utah Valley University in Orem, Utah in the Classroom Building, Room 101, from 8:30 am-3:30 pm on March 12, 2016. For more information about the book and the upcoming symposium, see MormonInterpreter.com.

Abstract: From the beginning, Latter-day Saints have rejected the notion that science and religion are incompatible. In this article, we give an overview of studies that have surveyed the professional participation of Mormons in science and the views of American academics and scientists on religion in general, Mormons in particular, and why many thoughtful people in our day might be disinclined to take religion seriously. We conclude with a brief survey of current LDS perspectives on science. Our brief survey demonstrates that it is not only futile for religion and science to battle each other; it is also unnecessary. .

Bailey, David H., Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, John H. Lewis, Gregory L. Smith, and Michael L. Stark. Science and Mormonism: Cosmos, Earth, and Man. Interpreter Science and Mormonism Symposia 1. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016.

This book features the personal perspectives of prominent LDS scientists addressing the theme of “Cosmos, Earth, and Man.” Many of these were drawn from the first Interpreter Symposium on Science and Mormonism, held in Provo, Utah on 9 November 2013. In the pages of this book, readers will appreciate the concise and colorful summaries of the state-of-the-art in scientific research relating to these topics and will gain a deeper appreciation of the unique contributions of LDS doctrine to the ongoing conversation.

Baird, Brian J. “Understanding Jacob’s Teachings about Plural Marriage from a Law of Moses Context.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 25 (2017): 227-237.

Abstract: This paper reviews the Book of Mormon prophet Jacob’s proscription against plural marriage, arguing that the verses in Jacob 24–30 should be interpreted in a Law of Moses context regarding levirate marriage, by which a man was responsible for marrying his dead brother’s wife if that brother died before having an heir. I also review how these verses have been used in arguments for and against plural marriage, and how levirate marriage practices worked in Mosaic tradition.

Baker, Jenny Oaks. “Christmastime: When Our Souls Can Sing.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 27 (2017): 257-260.

Abstract: Christmas is upon us, and it is a special, magical time. I have seen the love of God touch countless lives through the glorious music of the season.

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Wilcox, Bradley R., Wendy Baker-Smemoe, Bruce L. Brown, and Sharon Black. “Comparing Book of Mormon Names with Those Found in J.R.R. Tolkien’s Works: An Exploratory Study.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 30 (2018): 105-124.

Abstract: The works of Tolkien and the Book of Mormon have been compared in a variety of ways by multiple authors and researchers, but none have looked specifically at the unusual names found within both. Wordprint studies are one tool used in author attribution research, but do authors use specific sounds more than others — consciously or subconsciously — when selecting or inventing names? Some research suggests they may and that their patterns could create a “sound print” or phonoprint. This constitutes a fresh and unusual path of research that deserves more attention. The purpose of this exploratory study was to see if phonoprints surfaced when examining Dwarf, Elf, Hobbit, Man, and other names created by Tolkien and Jaredite, Nephite, Mulekite, and Lamanite names found in the Book of Mormon. Results suggest that Tolkien had a phonoprint he was unable to entirely escape when creating character names, even when he claimed he based them on distinct languages. In contrast, in Book of Mormon names, a single author’s phonoprint did not emerge. Names varied by group in the way one would expect authentic names from different cultures to vary. Although much more research needs to be done to establish the validity and reliability of using phonoprints for author identification, this study opens a door for future research.

Wilcox, Bradley R., Bruce L. Brown, Wendy Baker-Smemoe, Sharon Black, and Dennis L. Eggett. “Comparing Phonemic Patterns in Book of Mormon Personal Names with Fictional and Authentic Sources: An Exploratory Study.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 33 (2019): 105-122.

Abstract: In 2013 we published a study examining names from Solomon Spalding’s fictional manuscript, J. R. R. Tolkien’s fictional works, and nineteenth-century US census records. Results showed names created by authors of fiction followed phonemic patterns that differed from those of authentic names from a variety of cultural origins found in the US census. The current study used the same methodology to compare Book of Mormon names to the three name sources in the original study and found that Book of Mormon names seem to have more in common with the patterns found in authentic names than they do with those from fictional works. This is not to say that Book of Mormon names are similar to nineteenth- century names, but rather that they both showed similar patterns when phonotactic probabilities were the common measure. Of course, many more invented names and words from a variety of authors and time periods will need to be analyzed along with many more authentic names across multiple time periods before any reliable conclusions can be drawn. This study was exploratory in nature and conducted to determine if this new line of research merits further study. We concluded it does.

Barney, Kevin L. “What’s in a Name? Playing in the Onomastic Sandbox.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 29 (2018): 251-272.

Abstract: Name as Key-Word brings together a collection of essays, many of them previously published, whose consistent theme is exploring examples of onomastic wordplay or puns in Mormon scripture in general and the Book of Mormon in particular. Without a knowledge of the meaning of these names, the punning in the scriptural accounts would not be recognized by modern English readers. Exploring the (probable) meanings of these names helps to open our eyes to how the scriptural authors used punning and other forms of wordplay to convey their messages in a memorable way.

Review of Matthew L. Bowen, Name as Key-Word: Collected Essays on Onomastic Wordplay and the Temple in Mormon Scripture (Salt Lake City: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2018). 408 pp., $24.95.

Barney, Kevin L. “Baptized for the Dead.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 39 (2020): 103-150.

Abstract: This thorough treatment of the mention of baptism for the dead in 1 Corinthians 15:29 gives a meticulous analysis of Paul’s Greek argument, and lays out the dozens (or perhaps hundreds) of theories that have been put forth with respect to its interpretation. Barney concludes that “the most natural reading” and the “majority contemporary scholarly reading” is that of “vicarious baptism.” Therefore, “the Prophet Joseph Smith’s reading of the passage to refer to such a practice was indeed correct.”

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the LDS community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.See Kevin L. Barney, “Baptized for the Dead,” in “To Seek the Law of the Lord”: Essays in Honor of John W. Welch, ed. Paul Y. Hoskisson and Daniel C. Peterson (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, 2017), 9–58. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/to-seek-the-law-of-the-lord-essays-in-honor-of-john-w-welch-2/.]

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Barney, Quinten. “Samuel the Lamanite, Christ, and Zenos: A Study of Intertextuality.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 18 (2016): 159-170.

Abstract: During Christ’s mortal ministry at Jerusalem, his teachings often drew upon the writings of Isaiah, Moses, and other prophets with whom his audience was familiar. On the other hand, Christ never seems to quote Nephi, Mosiah, or other Book of Mormon prophets to the Jews and their surrounding neighbors, despite being the ultimate source for their inspired writings. It is because of this apparent confinement to Old Testament sources that intertextual parallels between the words of Christ in Matthew 23–24 and the words of Samuel the Lamanite in Helaman 13–15 jump out as intriguing. This paper explores the intertextual relationship between these chapters in Helaman and Matthew and suggests that the parallels between these texts can be attributed to a common source available to both Samuel and Christ, the writings of the prophet Zenos.

Belnap, Daniel. “The Role of Visual Aesthetics in Ancient Israel’s Temple Worship.” Paper presented at the 2014 Temple on Mount Zion Conference. October 25, 2014.
Belnap, David M. “The Theory of Evolution is Compatible with Both Belief and Unbelief in a Supreme Being.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 16 (2015): 261-281.

Abstract: The crux of the creation–evolution conflict is a futile desire to scientifically prove or disprove the existence of God. The conflict is manifest in the common belief that creation means a divine, supernatural process and that evolution denotes an atheistic, accidental event. Evolution involves a random change in an inherited trait followed by selection for or against the altered trait. If humans use this principle to design machines, solve complex mathematical problems, engineer proteins, and manipulate living organisms, then certainly a super-intelligent being could have used evolution to create life on earth. This reasoning indicates that evolution does not prove atheism and that evolution is a constructive process. The theory of evolution is a mechanistic description and therefore, like all other scientific principles, is neutral on the question of God’s existence. Evolution is compatible with the simple scriptural accounts of creation. Consequently, belief or unbelief in God is put back where it should be — on individual choice.

Belnap, David M. “The Inclusive, Anti-Discrimination Message of the Book of Mormon.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 42 (2021): 195-370.

Abstract: Attitudes of superiority lead to societal conflict. The racial interpretation of a few Book of Mormon verses has contributed to these attitudes and conflicts, yet hundreds of inclusive messages are found in more than half of the book’s verses. God’s message, love, mercy, and justice are for all people. Righteous people did not think themselves above others, nor did they persecute others or start wars. War is tragic and is caused by wickedness. Conspiracies are a great evil. Righteous people were kind in their attitudes and actions, regardless of others’ social status or ethnicity. Some Book of Mormon people even gave their lives or put their lives at risk to act kindly, and some of these went from hating others to giving up their lives on behalf of others. The inclusive messages in the Book of Mormon are consistent with the position advocated by current Latter-day Saint leaders condemning all racism and disavowing racist hypotheses such as those derived from a few Book of Mormon verses (i.e., that skin color is related to righteousness). The inclusive messages also are consistent with the view that skin color in the Book of Mormon is not literal but is metaphorical. The Book of Mormon instructs us that the right way to interact is with love and respect, through examples of people respecting and reaching out to others, promises to all people, condemnation of unkindness and anti-Semitism, calls to all people to repent, and emphasizing the flaws of one’s own group and not those of others.

Bennett, Jim. “‘Somebody Wrote It:’ The Book of Mormon’s Missionary Message to a 21st-Century World.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 34 (2020): 265-278.

Abstract: Nathan Oman’s “Welding Another Link in Wonder’s Chain: The Task of Latter-day Saint Intellectuals in the Church’s Third Century” wisely called for “new language in which to celebrate the Restoration.” That new language can be found in understanding the power of the Book of Mormon, which is the tangible miracle at the heart of the Restoration that defies the critics. My father, Senator Robert F. Bennett, devoted his final years to arguing that the Book of Mormon’s existence is a stumbling block to those who try to dismiss it as an obvious fraud. Those who scoff at the Book of Mormon have yet to come up with a plausible secular account of its existence, and this allows the Book of Mormon to endure as the centerpiece of our missionary efforts. But rather than simply use the Book of Mormon to attempt to answer questions people are no longer asking, we need to create a missionary message that uses this sacred scripture to connect people, directly and personally, to Jesus Christ.

Bennett, Richard E. “A Uni-Dimensional Picture of a Multi-Faceted Nauvoo Community.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 40 (2020): 1-14.

Review of Benjamin E. Park, Kingdom of Nauvoo: The Rise and Fall of a Religious Empire on the American Frontier (New York City: Liveright Publishing, 2020). 336 pages. $28.95 (hardback).Abstract: Benjamin Park recently wrote a substantive revisionist history of Nauvoo, Illinois, the one-time Church capital under the leadership of Joseph Smith, Jr. This article serves as a critical review of Park’s work. Congratulating the author for placing this well-known Latter-day Saint story within the larger Jacksonian American democratic context, as well as for utilizing a great many primary sources hardly used before, Richard Bennett in this critical review assesses both the strengths and the weaknesses of this important new book. While complimenting Park for his significant contributions on politics, women, and race in Nauvoo, Bennett nonetheless finds much to criticize in what he sees as a unidimensional, highly political study that disregards many previous studies of Nauvoo and fails to address many other critically important facets of the city’s life and history from its inception in 1839 until the Saints’ departure in 1846.

Benson, RoseAnn. “The Title of Liberty and Ancient Prophecy.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 23 (2017): 299-307.

Abstract: Captain Moroni cites a prophecy regarding Joseph of Egypt and his posterity that is not recorded in the Bible. He accompanies the prophecy with a symbolic action to motivate his warriors to covenant to be faithful to their prophet Helaman and to keep the commandments lest God would not preserve them as he had Joseph.

Benson, RoseAnn. “Campbellites and Mormonites: Competing Restoration Movements.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 31 (2019): 233-244.

Abstract: In October 1830, Oliver Cowdery, Peter Whitmer Jr., Parley P. Pratt, and Ziba Peterson were the first missionaries sent to travel through the western states to the Indian territory at the far reaches of the United States. Pratt, a former resident of northeastern Ohio, suggested they stop in the Kirtland, Ohio, area and visit his preacher friend, Sidney Rigdon. It was Rigdon who had earlier convinced Pratt that the restoration of the ancient order that included faith in Jesus Christ, repentance, baptism for the remission of sins, and the promise of the gift of the Holy Spirit could be found in Alexander Campbell’s restoration movement. Within a few weeks, the four missionaries baptized Rigdon and more than 100 new converts into Joseph Smith’s restoration movement — many of whom had been members of Campbell’s restoration movement. Although both Alexander Campbell and Joseph Smith called their movements restorations, the foundation upon which each was built was very different.

Bentley, Joseph I., and John W. Welch. “Road to Martyrdom: Legal Aspects of Joseph Smith’s Last Days.” “A Life Lived in Crescendo” Firesides. The Interpreter Foundation YouTube channel. November 21, 2021.

This fireside will examine several lesser-known aspects of Joseph Smith’s road to martyrdom. In addition to mentioning outside opponents and background legal factors, we will focus on the motives of those Nauvoo insiders who were most instrumental in causing the prophet’s death. How early did their efforts begin? What were their three principal plans to kill him? Was Joseph’s order as Mayor to suppress the Nauvoo Expositor the main cause of his death on June 27, or was there another legal pretext?

As pressures mounted, why did Joseph and Hyrum cross the Mississippi River early Sunday morning, June 23? What did they do in Iowa? Why did they return to Nauvoo and go on Monday to Carthage? Why then did all the members of the Nauvoo City Council leave Joseph and Hyrum alone, trapped in Carthage? Where were the Twelve Apostles and Joseph’s friends? Where was Governor Ford, and the Carthage Greys? Who was in the mob that stormed the Carthage Jail, and where did they go? How was this all pulled off? Was it a perfect storm?

In its legal aftermath, what was the final outcome of the many Expositor riot cases? Did the Mormon insiders get compensated for the loss of their press? What were the legal charges that put Joseph and Hyrum Smith in Carthage Jail until they were killed, and how did those legal matters finally play out? Did any members of the mob face an earthly justice? How did the martyrdom influence subsequent developments and the desired goal of driving all Mormons from Illinois?

Berman, Joshua. “The Temple: A Multi-Faceted Center and Its Problems.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 17 (2016): 63-84.

Editor’s Note: At the request of BYU Law Professor John W. Welch, Dr. Berman graciously provided this article for publication as an introduction to a series of lectures he will be giving in Utah on October 7 and 8, 2015. The first lecture will focus on the differences between the Tabernacle and the Temple, the second lecture will discuss recent findings linking inscriptions from Ramesses II to the sea account in Exodus, and the third lecture will touch on issues in biblical law. These lectures are co-sponsored by the Academy for Temple Studies, BYU Studies, the Ancient Near Eastern Studies Department in the David M. Kennedy Center for International Studies, the J. Reuben Clark Law School, and The Interpreter Foundation, and details can be found online. This article is adapted from The Temple: Its Symbolism and Meaning Then and Now (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, first ed., 1995).

Abstract: One of the primary identities of the Temple is that it is the place of hashra’at ha-shekhinah, the site at which God’s presence is most manifest. It is no surprise then, that the Temple is the focal point of prayer. Yet, as the site at which God’s presence is most intimately manifest, the Temple is also the center of the nation in several major spheres of collective life. This centrality is exhibited in the structure of the Book of Deuteronomy. Chapters 12-26 depict commandments that are to be the social and religious frame of life in the land of Israel. Within this section the central shrine, “the place in which God shall establish His name,” is mentioned nearly twenty times. The Temple is cast as the center for sacrifices (ch. 12), the consumption of tithes (14:23-25), the celebration of the festivals (ch. 16), and the center of the judicial system (ch. 17). In this chapter we will explore how the Temple constitutes the national center for social unity, education, and justice. The concentration of activity and jurisdiction at the Temple, however, renders it prone to abuse, and in the second half of this chapter, we will probe the social and religious ills that emerged as an endemic part of the Temple’s existence.

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Birch, A. Jane. “Getting into the Meat of the Word of Wisdom.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 11 (2014): 1-36.

Abstract: In verse 13 of the Word of Wisdom, the Lord tells us, “it is pleasing unto me that they [flesh of beasts and fowls of the air] should not be used, only in times of winter, or of cold, or famine” (D&C 89:13). Judging from the variety of interpretations this single verse has inspired, it would appear to be deeply enigmatic. Interestingly, most interpretations have been put forward with little supporting evidence. This article is the first comprehensive analysis of the diverse explanations for D&C 89:13 that have been suggested since 1833. In this article, I attempt to analyze these various interpretations in light of the available evidence.

Birch, A. Jane. “Questioning the Comma in Verse 13 of the Word of Wisdom.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 10 (2014): 133-149.

Abstract: The 1921 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants included an additional comma, which was inserted after the word “used” in D&C 89:13: “And it is pleasing unto me that they should not be used, only in times of winter, or of cold, or famine.” Later authors have speculated that the addition of the comma was a mistake that fundamentally changed the meaning of the verse. This article examines this “errant comma theory” and demonstrates why this particular interpretation of D&C 89:13 is without merit.

Bitton, Davis. “I Don’t Have a Testimony of the History of the Church.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 31 (2019): 285-302.

Abstract: In this masterful presentation, accomplished historian Davis Bitton addresses the role of history and belief. Testimonies, he asserts, are born of belief and spiritual witnesses, not from historical events. It is quite possible to know all about Church history and still remain a believing member.

[Editor’s Note: This essay was presented at the 2004 FAIR Conference.

In preparation for publication it has been lightly copy edited and some citations and annotations added.].

Wilcox, Bradley R., Wendy Baker-Smemoe, Bruce L. Brown, and Sharon Black. “Comparing Book of Mormon Names with Those Found in J.R.R. Tolkien’s Works: An Exploratory Study.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 30 (2018): 105-124.

Abstract: The works of Tolkien and the Book of Mormon have been compared in a variety of ways by multiple authors and researchers, but none have looked specifically at the unusual names found within both. Wordprint studies are one tool used in author attribution research, but do authors use specific sounds more than others — consciously or subconsciously — when selecting or inventing names? Some research suggests they may and that their patterns could create a “sound print” or phonoprint. This constitutes a fresh and unusual path of research that deserves more attention. The purpose of this exploratory study was to see if phonoprints surfaced when examining Dwarf, Elf, Hobbit, Man, and other names created by Tolkien and Jaredite, Nephite, Mulekite, and Lamanite names found in the Book of Mormon. Results suggest that Tolkien had a phonoprint he was unable to entirely escape when creating character names, even when he claimed he based them on distinct languages. In contrast, in Book of Mormon names, a single author’s phonoprint did not emerge. Names varied by group in the way one would expect authentic names from different cultures to vary. Although much more research needs to be done to establish the validity and reliability of using phonoprints for author identification, this study opens a door for future research.

Wilcox, Bradley R., Bruce L. Brown, Wendy Baker-Smemoe, Sharon Black, and Dennis L. Eggett. “Comparing Phonemic Patterns in Book of Mormon Personal Names with Fictional and Authentic Sources: An Exploratory Study.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 33 (2019): 105-122.

Abstract: In 2013 we published a study examining names from Solomon Spalding’s fictional manuscript, J. R. R. Tolkien’s fictional works, and nineteenth-century US census records. Results showed names created by authors of fiction followed phonemic patterns that differed from those of authentic names from a variety of cultural origins found in the US census. The current study used the same methodology to compare Book of Mormon names to the three name sources in the original study and found that Book of Mormon names seem to have more in common with the patterns found in authentic names than they do with those from fictional works. This is not to say that Book of Mormon names are similar to nineteenth- century names, but rather that they both showed similar patterns when phonotactic probabilities were the common measure. Of course, many more invented names and words from a variety of authors and time periods will need to be analyzed along with many more authentic names across multiple time periods before any reliable conclusions can be drawn. This study was exploratory in nature and conducted to determine if this new line of research merits further study. We concluded it does.

Black, Susan Easton. “Sensationalism: A One-sided Perspective.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 38 (2020): 107-110.

Review of Benjamin E. Park, Kingdom of Nauvoo: The Rise and Fall of a Religious Empire on the American Frontier (New York City: Liveright Publishing, 2020). 336 pages. $28.95 (hardback).

Abstract: While Benjamin Park shows promise as a writer and historian, his book, Kingdom of Nauvoo, opts for poorly sourced sensationalism instead of illuminating the joy of Nauvoo’s true history.

Blythe, Christopher J. “Vaughn J. Featherstone’s Atlanta Temple Letter.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 37 (2020): 309-318.

Abstract: In this essay, I examine a letter written by Elder Vaughn J. Featherstone in 1983 and deposited in the cornerstone of the Atlanta Georgia Temple. The letter is addressed to twenty-first century members of the Church and is written with the expectation that these future Saints will have been alive for the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. I consider the claims made about this letter from a recent viral video entitled “7 Year Tribulation in the SEVENTH Seal TIMELINE.”.

Bokovoy, David E. “‘Thou Knowest That I Believe’: Invoking The Spirit of the Lord as Council Witness in 1 Nephi 11.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 1 (2012): 1-23.

Abstract: The Book of Mormon features an esoteric exchange between the prophet Nephi and the Spirit of the Lord on an exceedingly high mountain. The following essay explores some of the ways in which an Israelite familiar with ancient religious experiences and scribal techniques might have interpreted this event. The analysis shows that Nephi’s conversation, as well as other similar accounts in the Book of Mormon, echoes an ancient temple motif. As part of this paradigm, the essay explores the manner in which the text depicts the Spirit of the Lord in a role associated with members of the divine council in both biblical and general Near Eastern conceptions. .

Bokovoy, David E. “Holiness to the Lord: Biblical Temple Imagery in the Sermons of Jacob the Priest.” Paper presented at the 2012 Temple on Mount Zion Conference. September 22, 2012.
Bokovoy, David E. “Ancient Temple Imagery in the Sermons of Jacob.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 46 (2021): 31-46.

Abstract: This essay makes a compelling argument for Jacob, the brother of Nephi, having deep knowledge of ancient Israelite temple ritual, concepts, and imagery, based on two of Jacob’s sermons in 2 Nephi 9 and Jacob 1-3. For instance, he discusses the duty of the priest to expiate sin and make atonement before the Lord and of entering God’s presence. Jacob quotes temple-related verses from the Old Testament, like Psalm 95. The allusions to the temple are not forced, but very subtle. Of course, Jacob’s central topic, the atonement, is a temple topic itself, and its opposite, impurity, is also expressed by Jacob in terms familiar and central to an ancient temple priest. The temple is also shown as a gate to heaven.

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the LDS community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See David E. Bokovoy, “Ancient Temple Imagery in the Sermons of Jacob,” in Temple Insights: Proceedings of the Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, “The Temple on Mount Zion,” 22 September 2012, ed. William J. Hamblin and David Rolph Seely (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2014), 171–186. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/temple-insights/.].

Boyce, Duane. “Sustaining the Brethren.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 14 (2015): vii-xxxii.

Abstract: Believing Latter-day Saints hold different views about what it means to sustain the presiding Brethren of the Church. In this article, I outline some considerations that might be kept in mind as members of the Church evaluate their views on this vital topic and the Lord’s admonition to sustain the Brethren by their faith, prayers, and actions.

Boyce, Duane. “Reclaiming Jacob.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 22 (2016): 107-129.

Abstract. A chapter of Adam Miller’s Future Mormon concerns Jacob’s encounter with Sherem in Jacob 7. While novel, Miller’s treatment of Jacob and Sherem appears inadequate. He overlooks features of the text that seem to subvert his unconventional conclusions about them. This essay identifies a number of such matters, falling in four major categories, and shares thoughts on the need for perspective when discussing Jacob’s conduct — or the conduct of any prophet, for that matter. It also highlights the jeopardy we face of being the second group to fall for Sherem’s lies.

Boyce, Duane. “The Ammonites Were Not Pacifists.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 20 (2016): 293-313.

Abstract: Although it is common to believe that the Ammonites were pacifists, the report of their story demonstrates that this is a mistake. Appreciating the Ammonites’ non-pacifism helps us think more clearly about them, and it also explains several features of the text. These are textual elements that surprise us if we assume that the Ammonites were pacifists, but that make perfect sense once we understand that they were not. Moreover, in addition to telling us that the Ammonites were not pacifists, the text also gives us the actual reason the Ammonites came to eschew all conflict — and we learn from this why significant prophetic leaders (from King Benjamin to Alma to Mormon) did not reject the sword in the same way. The text also reveals the intellectual flaw in supposing that the Ammonites’ early acts of self-sacrifice set the proper example for all disciples to follow.

Boyce, Duane. “A Lengthening Shadow: Is Quality of Thought Deteriorating in LDS Scholarly Discourse Regarding Prophets and Revelation? Part One.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 26 (2017): 1-48.

Abstract: Many mistakes that occur in scholarly endeavors are understandable. The truth is often difficult to discover, and this makes errors inevitable and expected. And, of course, some mistakes are so insignificant that to complain of them would be mere pedantry. But this is not true of all errors. Some are both obvious and of such significance to their topics that they are egregious. With respect to the gospel, there is reason to be concerned that this is occurring to some degree on the topic of prophets and the Lord’s revelations to them. Erroneous claims and arguments are not difficult to find, including some published under the auspices of reputable and mainstream entities. Is it possible that such errors are becoming common, and commonly accepted, in Latter-day Saint scholarly discourse? To help answer this question, it is useful to consider, among others, works by Terryl Givens, Patrick Mason, and Grant Hardy. This paper will do so in three Parts.

Boyce, Duane. “A Lengthening Shadow: Is Quality of Thought Deteriorating in LDS Scholarly Discourse Regarding Prophets and Revelation? Part Three.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 26 (2017): 93-122.

Abstract: Many mistakes that occur in scholarly endeavors are understandable. The truth is often difficult to discover, and this makes errors inevitable and expected. And, of course, some mistakes are so insignificant that to complain of them would be mere pedantry. But this is not true of all errors. Some are both obvious and of such significance to their topics that they are egregious. With respect to the gospel, there is reason to be concerned that this is occurring to some degree on the topic of prophets and the Lord’s revelations to them. Erroneous claims and arguments are not difficult to find, including some published under the auspices of reputable and mainstream entities. Is it possible that such errors are becoming common, and commonly accepted, in Latter-day Saint scholarly discourse? Part One considered multiple examples, primarily from Terryl Givens and Patrick Mason, that begin to suggest a positive answer to this question, and Part Two did the same with regard to examples from Grant Hardy. This Part considers several additional instances that can be treated more briefly and then provides a general conclusion to the two-part question that has guided this exploration.

Boyce, Duane. “A Lengthening Shadow: Is Quality of Thought Deteriorating in LDS Scholarly Discourse Regarding Prophets and Revelation? Part Two.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 26 (2017): 49-92.

Abstract: Many mistakes that occur in scholarly endeavors are understandable. The truth is often difficult to discover, and this makes errors inevitable and expected. And of course, some mistakes are so insignificant that to complain of them would be mere pedantry. But this is not true of all errors. Some are both obvious and of such significance to their topics that they are egregious. There is reason to be concerned that this is occurring to some degree on the topic of prophets and the Lord’s revelations to them. Erroneous claims and arguments are not difficult to find, including some published under the auspices of reputable and mainstream entities. Is it possible that such errors are becoming common, and commonly accepted, in LDS scholarly discourse? Part One considered multiple examples, primarily from Terryl Givens and Patrick Mason, that begin to suggest a positive answer to this question. This installment, Part Two, considers examples from Grant Hardy that also suggest an affirmative answer.

Boyce, Duane. “D&C 21, George Albert Smith, and Hugh B. Brown: A Fresh Look at Three Incidents in Church History.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 32 (2019): 229-252.

Abstract. When discussions arise about the relationship between Church members and the prophets who lead them, certain episodes in Church history often appear. These include the Lord’s words about “all patience and faith” in Doctrine and Covenants 21:4–5, as well as incidents involving George Albert Smith and Hugh B. Brown. On the surface, such episodes might seem to raise doubts about the reliability of the presiding Brethren in representing the Lord or to minimize the importance of Church orthodoxy itself. A closer look shows such interpretations to be a mistake, however. When we clarify the record, we see that these episodes do not support the conclusions that are sometimes drawn from them. Examining these incidents also permits making a point about so-called “blind obedience.”.

Boyce, Duane. “Jacob Did Not Make a False Prediction.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 33 (2019): 161-174.

Review of Adam S. Miller, “Reading Signs or Repeating Symptoms,” in Christ and Antichrist: Reading Jacob 7, eds. Adam S. Miller and Joseph M. Spencer (Provo, Utah: Neal A. Maxwell Institute, 2017), 10 pages (chapter), 174 pages (book).


Abstract. The Neal A. Maxwell Institute recently published a volume on the encounter between Jacob and Sherem in Jacob 7. Adam Miller’s contribution to this book is a reiteration of views he published earlier in his own volume. One of Miller’s claims is that Jacob made a false prediction about the reaction Sherem would have to a sign if one were given him — an assertion that is already beginning to shape the conventional wisdom about this episode. This shaping is unfortunate, however, since the evidence indicates that this view of Jacob’s prediction is a mistake. Once we see this, it is easier to avoid other mistakes that seem evident in Miller’s approach.

Boyce, Duane. “Text as Afterthought: Jana Riess’s Treatment of the Jacob-Sherem Episode.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 33 (2019): 123-140.

Review of Jana Riess, “‘There Came a Man’: Sherem, Scapegoating, and the Inversion of Prophetic Tradition,” in Christ and Antichrist: Reading Jacob 7, eds. Adam S. Miller and Joseph M. Spencer (Provo, Utah: Neal A. Maxwell Institute, 2017), 17 pages (chapter), 174 pages (book).

Abstract: The Neal A. Maxwell Institute recently published a book on the encounter between Jacob and Sherem in Jacob 7. Jana Riess’s contribution to this volume demonstrates the kind of question-asking and hypothesis formation that might occur on a quick first pass through the text, but it does not demonstrate what obviously must come next, the testing of those hypotheses against the text. Her article appears to treat the text as a mere afterthought. The result is a sizeable collection of errors in thinking about Jacob and Sherem.

Boyce, Duane. “‘Yes, It’s True, But I Don’t Think They Like to Hear it Quite That Way’: What Spencer W. Kimball Told Elaine Cannon.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 32 (2019): 277-286.

Abstract: Elaine Cannon, who was general president of the Young Women some four decades ago, had an interesting conversation with President Spencer W. Kimball in 1978. According to Sister Cannon’s firsthand account, President Kimball revealed important insight into how he thought about himself as the prophet as well as how he thought leaders should talk to the general membership about that topic. Sister Cannon’s report is thus a valuable part of the historical record regarding both Spencer W. Kimball and prophets generally.

Boyce, Duane. “Did Captain Moroni Lack the Typical Religious Virtues?” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 45 (2021): 217-240.

Abstract: In his well-known volume about the Book of Mormon, Grant Hardy focuses primarily on the book’s main narrators. However, he also makes a number of observations about other figures in the book that are of particular interest, including some about Captain Moroni. In addition to those I address elsewhere, these observations include the claim that Moroni lacked the typical religious virtues — which Hardy identifies as “humility, self-sacrifice, kindness, and relying upon the Lord.” They also include the assertion that Helaman, in his manifest reliance upon God, serves as a counterexample to Moroni’s military leadership. A close look at the text, however, indicates that both these claims are mistaken.

Boyce, Duane. “‘Beloved by All the People’: A Fresh Look at Captain Moroni.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 45 (2021): 181-204.

Abstract: In his well-known volume about the Book of Mormon, Grant Hardy focuses primarily on the book’s main narrators. However, he also makes a number of observations about other figures in the book that are of particular interest, including some about Captain Moroni. In addition to those I address elsewhere, these observations range from the assertion that Captain Moroni slaughtered his political opponents in one instance, to his claim that Moroni is not depicted as “particularly religious,” to his claim that Moroni had a “quick temper.” The question is: Are such observations supported in the text? Carefully examining this question both shows the answer to be “no” and allows a deeper look into Captain Moroni.

Bradley, Don. “A Passover Setting for Lehi’s Exodus.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 34 (2020): 119-142.

Abstract: Later in his life, former Palmyra resident Fayette Lapham recounted with sharp detail an 1830 interview he conducted with Joseph Smith Sr. about the coming forth of the Book of Mormon. Among the details he reports that Lehi’s exodus from Jerusalem occurred during a “great feast.” This detail, not found in the published Book of Mormon, may reveal some of what Joseph Sr. knew from the lost 116 pages. By examining the small plates account of this narrative in 1 Nephi 1−5, we see not only that such a feast was possible, but that Lehi’s exodus and Nephi’s quest for the brass plates occurred at Passover. This Passover setting helps explain why Nephi killed Laban and other distinctive features of Lehi’s exodus. Read in its Passover context, the story of Lehi is not just the story of one man’s deliverance, but of the deliverance of humankind by the Lamb of God. The Passover setting in which it begins illuminates the meaning of the Book of Mormon as a whole.

[Editor’s Note: This article is an excerpt from Chapter 7 of the author’s new book, The Lost 116 Pages: Reconstructing the Book of Mormon’s Lost Stories (Salt Lake City: Kofford Books, 2019).].

Brown, Amanda Colleen. “Toward a Deeper Understanding: How Onomastic Wordplay Aids Understanding Scripture.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 29 (2018): 247-250.

Abstract: Matthew L. Bowen’s book compels readers to consider both the Book of Mormon’s construction and the significance of names in the text. Bowen and his coauthors invite readers to contemplate not only scripture but its stages of construction to completion, be they first draft, editing, final abridgement, or translation. Bowen’s work reveals how, in the endeavor to sacralize the act of scripture reading, specific details like names and their meanings can invigorate one’s understanding of the narrative and its theology, preventing such reading from becoming a rote endeavor.

Review of Matthew L. Bowen, Name as Key-Word: Collected Essays on Onomastic Wordplay and the Temple in Mormon Scripture (Salt Lake City: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2018). 408 pp., $24.95.

Brown, Amanda Colleen. “Never Static, Never Simple: One Woman’s Conversations Within the Marginalia of If Truth Were a Child.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 33 (2019): 257-266.

Review of George B. Handley, If Truth Were A Child: Essays, (Provo, Utah: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, 2019), 253 pp. $19.99 (paperback).

Abstract: George B. Handley challenges his readers to reevaluate conventional definitions of truth and the approaches they employ to define their own truths. He argues that the individual quest for truth should include as many available resources as possible, whether those resources are secular or religious. His framework of intellectual and religious experience allows him to discuss truth in the context of literary theory and of the events that shaped his own faith. My review focuses on four themes: balancing experience and learning, balancing the individual and the community, balancing answers and faith, and balancing individual readings of holy texts. Ultimately, Handley’s discussion of those themes gives readers the tools to navigate the current public discourse more effectively, empowering them to look beyond their own perspectives to discover the good in everyone and find balance in their lives.

Brown, Amanda Colleen. “Alma’s Reality: Reading Alma as Sinful, Repentant, Traumatized, Questioning, and Righteous.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 46 (2021): 249-252.

Review of Kylie Nielson Turley, Alma 1–29: A Brief Theological Introduction (Provo, UT: The Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, 2020). 162 pages. $9.95 (paperback).

Abstract: Kylie Nielson Turley delves deep into the conversion and ministry of Alma the Younger, reading new life into a well-known narrative. By analyzing Alma’s story with the full weight of his humanity in mind, she breathes emotion into Alma’s conversion and missionary efforts. Her efforts to read Alma without a veneer of superhumanity result in a highly relatable figure who has known wickedness, repentance, loss, depression, and righteousness.

Brown, Amanda Colleen. “Subtle Hebraic Features in the Book of Mormon.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 42 (2021): 37-40.

Review of Donald W. Parry, Preserved in Translation: Hebrew and Other Ancient Literary Forms in the Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book; Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2020). 171 pages. Hardback, $19.99.Abstract: Donald W. Parry combines a lifetime of insights about the Old Testament and Book of Mormon into one volume. Written for a non- academic audience, this book will provide a glimpse into some of the Book of Mormon’s literary complexities that originate from Hebrew grammar and style.

Wilcox, Bradley R., Wendy Baker-Smemoe, Bruce L. Brown, and Sharon Black. “Comparing Book of Mormon Names with Those Found in J.R.R. Tolkien’s Works: An Exploratory Study.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 30 (2018): 105-124.

Abstract: The works of Tolkien and the Book of Mormon have been compared in a variety of ways by multiple authors and researchers, but none have looked specifically at the unusual names found within both. Wordprint studies are one tool used in author attribution research, but do authors use specific sounds more than others — consciously or subconsciously — when selecting or inventing names? Some research suggests they may and that their patterns could create a “sound print” or phonoprint. This constitutes a fresh and unusual path of research that deserves more attention. The purpose of this exploratory study was to see if phonoprints surfaced when examining Dwarf, Elf, Hobbit, Man, and other names created by Tolkien and Jaredite, Nephite, Mulekite, and Lamanite names found in the Book of Mormon. Results suggest that Tolkien had a phonoprint he was unable to entirely escape when creating character names, even when he claimed he based them on distinct languages. In contrast, in Book of Mormon names, a single author’s phonoprint did not emerge. Names varied by group in the way one would expect authentic names from different cultures to vary. Although much more research needs to be done to establish the validity and reliability of using phonoprints for author identification, this study opens a door for future research.

Wilcox, Bradley R., Bruce L. Brown, Wendy Baker-Smemoe, Sharon Black, and Dennis L. Eggett. “Comparing Phonemic Patterns in Book of Mormon Personal Names with Fictional and Authentic Sources: An Exploratory Study.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 33 (2019): 105-122.

Abstract: In 2013 we published a study examining names from Solomon Spalding’s fictional manuscript, J. R. R. Tolkien’s fictional works, and nineteenth-century US census records. Results showed names created by authors of fiction followed phonemic patterns that differed from those of authentic names from a variety of cultural origins found in the US census. The current study used the same methodology to compare Book of Mormon names to the three name sources in the original study and found that Book of Mormon names seem to have more in common with the patterns found in authentic names than they do with those from fictional works. This is not to say that Book of Mormon names are similar to nineteenth- century names, but rather that they both showed similar patterns when phonotactic probabilities were the common measure. Of course, many more invented names and words from a variety of authors and time periods will need to be analyzed along with many more authentic names across multiple time periods before any reliable conclusions can be drawn. This study was exploratory in nature and conducted to determine if this new line of research merits further study. We concluded it does.

Brown, Lisle G. “Tamid: Zacharias and the Second Temple.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 48 (2021): 339-376.

Abstract: This essay follows Zacharias’ biography from entering the priesthood till the day the angel Gabriel appeared to him in Herod’s temple. After recounting the procedures to become a priest, Brown focuses on the day when Zacharias prepared to bring one of the two central standing offerings. He points out that likely, a priest would only have a once in a lifetime chance to partake in the core of this ceremony, entering the Holy Room and burning incense on the Inner Altar. Brown paints a very visual picture of this day, immersing us in the ritual of the time, a ritual that became even more significant for Zacharias by seeing an angel in the temple, something that has not happened before nor after in the Second Temple.


[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the LDS community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See Lisle G. Brown, “Tamid: Zacharias and the Second Temple,” in Temple Insights: Proceedings of the Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, “The Temple on Mount Zion,” 22 September 2012, ed. William J. Hamblin and David Rolph Seely (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2014), 241–78. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/temple-insights/.]

Brown, Matthew B., Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Stephen D. Ricks, and John S. Thompson. Ancient Temple Worship: Proceedings of the Expound Symposium, 14 May 2011. Temple on Mount Zion 1. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.

The first volume in a series by Eborn Books and The Interpreter Foundation. The second title in this series is TEMPLE INSIGHTS. The Interpreter Foundation is a new organization, much like FARMS [The Foundation of Ancient Research and Mormon Studies.] Contributors and Chapters: 1. Cube, Gate and Measuring Tools: A Biblical Pattern, by Matthew B. Brown. 2. The Tabernacle: Mountain of God in the Cultus of Israel, by L. Michael Morales. 3. Standing in the Holy Place: Ancient and Modern Reverberations, by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. 4. Understanding Ritual Hand Gestures of the Ancient World, by David Calabro. 5. The Sacred Embrace and the Sacred Handclasp, by Stephen D. Ricks. 6. Ascending into the Hill of the Lord: What the Psalms Can Tell Us, by David J. Larsen. 7. The Sod of YHWH and the Endowment, by William J. Hamblin. 8. Temples All the Way Down: Notes on the Mi\'raj of Muhammad, by Daniel C. Peterson. 9. The Lady at the Horizon: Egyptian Tree Goddess Iconography, by John S. Thompson. 10. Nephite Daykeepers: Ritual Specialists in Mesoamerica, by Mark Alan Wright. 11. Is Decrypting the Genetic Legacy of America\'s Indigenous Populations Key to the Historicity of the Book of Mormon? by Ugo A. Perego and Jayne E. Ekins.

Brown, Matthew B. “Cube, Gate, and Measuring Tools: A Biblical Pattern.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 37 (2020): 41-66.

Abstract: This article explores the biblical pattern that relates the temple-related symbols of the cube, the gate, and measuring tools. The tools of architecture and measurement were associated with the kingship motifs of creation and conquering chaos, and on the day when a person was initiated as a king in ancient Israel, all of these concepts were applied to him.

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the LDS community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.See Matthew B. Brown, “Cube, Gate, and Measuring Tools: A Biblical Pattern,” in Ancient Temple Worship: Proceedings of The Expound Symposium 14 May 2011, ed. Matthew B. Brown, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Stephen D. Ricks, and John S. Thompson (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2014), 1–26. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/ancient-temple-worship/.].

Brown, Matthew B. “The Handclasp, the Temple, and the King.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 42 (2021): 421-426.

Abstract: In this article Matthew Brown examines the possible meaning behind the imagery of the handclasp between God in heaven and the earthly king. He focuses on this imagery as it is articulated in Psalms 27, 41, 63, 73, and 89. He argues that Psalms 41 and 73 feasibly indicate that when the king of Israel was initiated within the precincts of the temple into the office of kingship he passed through the veil of the Holy of Holies (see Exodus 26:33) and symbolically entered into God’s presence.

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the LDS community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See Matthew B. Brown, “The Handclasp, the Temple, and the King,” in Temple Insights: Proceedings of the Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, “The Temple on Mount Zion,” 22 September 2012, ed. William J. Hamblin and David Rolph Seely (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2014), 5–10. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/temple-insights/.].

Brown, S. Kent. “Nice Try, But No Cigar: A Response to Three Patheos Posts on Nahom (1 Nephi 16:34).” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 19 (2016): 149-152.

Abstract: A series of three Patheos posts on the subject of Nahom rings out-of-tune bells all over the place.

Brown, S. Kent. “Jesus’s First Visit to the Temple.” Paper presented at the 2018 Temple on Mount Zion Conference. November 10, 2018.
Brown, S. Kent. “The First Easter.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 32 (2019): 33-38.

Abstract: Scriptural accounts are rife with information about the import of the first Easter. Understanding the events of the week before the death and resurrection of Christ can help us appreciate the words of the witnesses as well as the importance of these events in our lives.

Brown, S. Kent. “Jesus’ First Visit to the Temple.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 45 (2021): 331-362.

Abstract: In this rich and detailed description, S. Kent Brown paints an evocative, historically contextualized account of Jesus Christ’s first visit to the Jerusalem Temple since his infancy, when at age twelve he traveled with his family to attend Passover.

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the Latter-day Saint community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See S. Kent Brown, “Jesus’ First Visit to the Temple,” in The Temple: Symbols, Sermons, and Settings, Proceedings of the Fourth Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 10 November 2018, ed. Stephen D. Ricks and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2021), 235–66. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/the-temple-symbols-sermons-and-settings/.]

Brown, S. Kent, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Man and Son of Man: Probing Theology and Christology in the Book of Moses and in Jewish and Christian Tradition.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Brown, S. Kent. “Enoch, the Book of Moses, and the Book of Giants: More Light on the 1977 Visit of Professor Matthew Black to BYU.” In Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR Blog Posts, May 17, 2021.

A discussion of remarks given at Brigham Young University by Professor Matthew Black and his wife, Ethel.

Brown, S. Kent, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Man and Son of Man: Probing Theology and Christology in the Book of Moses and in Jewish and Christian Tradition.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 1257–332. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Bukowski, Mark. “Untangling Scripture from the Philosophies of Men.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 18 (2016): 65-78.

Review of Terryl L. Givens, Wrestling the Angel: The Foundations of Mormon Thought: Cosmos, God, Humanity (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2014). 424 pp.

Abstract: Terryl Givens’ masterful work Wrestling the Angel takes on the daunting task of examining the history of Christian belief while also examining the worldly philosophies which shaped its scriptural interpretation. As in the biblical story of Jacob’s struggle with the angel, we all must forge our own testimonies while confronting a secular world including godless philosophies. Sometimes testimony wins, and tragically sometimes the world wins and a testimony is lost. In dealing with this intellectual “matter unorganized,” interpretation of the secular philosophy becomes the key. With the right interpretation, philosophies deemed “secular” or “godless” can be seen as helpful and even providentially provided by the Lord to help provide a philosophical grounding for a testimony instead of destroying it. Aspects of the philosophy of Immanuel Kant can be seen as laying a groundwork for much of contemporary American philosophy, Continental philosophy, and a possible basis for interpretations of these philosophies, which help rather than hinder the spread of the gospel. Kant’s concept of the synthetic a priori, for example, can help us understand how humans organize our individual ideas about reality from “matter unorganized,” perhaps in a way similar to how our “human” God organizes our world. Kant’s philosophy had vast influences, arguably resulting in a new way to see the relationship between God and mankind, which is compatible with the gospel. Finally I examine Givens’ view of humanism and how it can be interpreted as helpful rather than hindering the gospel.

Bushman, Claudia L. “Resurrection Month.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 44 (2021): 137-144.

Abstract: We tend to have big events and a full month celebrating Christmas, but here we are in a very Christian church that has come to almost ignore the events of the crucifixion and the resurrection. The Last Supper and the events that followed it are the important events of the season. With some planning and creativity, we can immerse ourselves in a Resurrection Month by thinking about the gift of life and promise for the future that we have been given, reading the old scriptures, and reliving the life and times of our elder brother and great teacher.

Bushman, Richard Lyman. “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 46 (2021): 291-312.

Abstract: In this essay, Richard Bushman borrows a critical perspective from Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. He analyzes the representation of antiquity in two of Joseph Smith’s striking translations, the Book of Mormon and the Book of Moses. The two texts, produced within a few years of one another, created distinctive stages on which to dramatize the human-God relationship. The question is: What can we learn from this comparison about God, prophets, and human destiny?

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the Latter-day Saint community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See Richard L. Bushman, “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality,” in Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Springville, UT: Book of Mormon Central; Redding, CA: FAIR; Tooele, UT: Eborn Books, 2021), 51–74. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/ancient-threads-in-the-book-of-moses/.].

Bushman, Richard Lyman. “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Bushman, Richard Lyman. “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 51–74. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.

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Campbell, Mark. “‘Believe All the Words’: A Key to Spiritual Outpouring.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 51 (2022): 295-316.

Abstract: In the Book of Mormon, many people received a remarkable spiritual outpouring following a declaration or demonstration of full belief in what they had already received or were about to receive. This paper examines nine examples of this that exhibit strong similarities in both language and substance. These examples demonstrate that the key to receiving a spiritual outpouring is to “believe all the words” of God that one has already received or is about to receive, after which great blessings will follow. However, such full belief must be thoughtful and inspired, not merely credulous. The findings of this paper provide another example of the rich narrative and doctrinal patterns in the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: belief, Book of Mormon, prophets, revelation, spiritual endowment
Card, Orson Scott. “Christmas Is About a Baby.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 13 (2015): 169-173.

When I was a child, I completely understood all the Santa Claus stuff. No great moment of disillusionment, because my parents were wise enough to let us help create the illusion for the younger kids as soon as we were old enough.

Carmack, Stanford A. “A Look at Some ‘Nonstandard’ Book of Mormon Grammar.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 11 (2014): 209-262.

Abstract: Much of the earliest Book of Mormon language which has been regarded as nonstandard through the years is not. Furthermore, when 150 years’ worth of emendations are stripped away,

the grammar presents extensive evidence of its Early Modern English character, independent in many cases from the King James Bible. This paper argues that this character stems from its divine translation.

Carmack, Stanford A. “The Implications of Past-Tense Syntax in the Book of Mormon.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 14 (2015): 119-186.

Abstract: In the middle of the 16th century there was a short-lived surge in the use of the auxiliary did to express the affirmative past tense in English, as in Moroni «did arrive» with his army to the land of Bountiful (Alma 52:18). The 1829 Book of Mormon contains nearly 2,000 instances of this particular syntax, using it 27% of the time in past-tense contexts. The 1611 King James Bible — which borrowed heavily from Tyndale’s biblical translations of the 1520s and ’30s — employs this syntax less than 2% of the time. While the Book of Mormon’s rate is significantly higher than the Bible’s, it is close to what is found in other English-language texts written mainly in the mid- to late 1500s. And the usage died out in the 1700s. So the Book of Mormon is unique for its time — this is especially apparent when features of adjacency, inversion, and intervening adverbial use are considered. Textual evidence and syntactic analysis argue strongly against both 19th-century composition and an imitative effort based on King James English. Book of Mormon past-tense syntax could have been achieved only by following the use of largely inaccessible 16th-century writings. But mimicry of lost syntax is difficult if not impossible, and so later writers who consciously sought to imitate biblical style failed to match its did-usage at a deep, systematic level. This includes Ethan Smith who in 1823 wrote View of the Hebrews, a text very different from both the Bible and the Book of Mormon in this respect. The same may be said about Hunt’s The Late War and Snowden’s The American Revolution.

Editor’s note: Because of the complex typesetting of this article, it has not been reproduced on this webpage. The reader is referred to the PDF version to view the article.

Carmack, Stanford A. “What Command Syntax Tells Us About Book of Mormon Authorship.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 13 (2015): 175-217.

Abstract: The variety of command syntax found in the Book of Mormon is very different from what is seen in the King James Bible. Yet it is sophisticated and principled, evincing Early Modern English linguistic competence. Interestingly, the syntactic match between the 1829 text and a prominent text from the late 15th century is surprisingly good. All the evidence indicates that Joseph Smith would not have produced the structures found in the text using the King James Bible as a model, nor from his own language. The overall usage profile of command syntax seen in the Book of Mormon strongly supports the view that the Lord revealed specific words to Joseph Smith, not simply ideas.

Carmack, Stanford A. “Why the Oxford English Dictionary (and not Webster’s 1828).” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 15 (2015): 65-77.

In order to properly consider possible meaning in the Book of Mormon (BofM), we must use the Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Royal Skousen opened the door to this approach, but unfortunately many have resisted accepting it as valid or have not understood the advantages inherent in it. The usual method of consulting Webster’s 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language has serious drawbacks. First, that approach is based on the incorrect assumption that the English language of the text is Joseph Smith’s own language or what he knew from reading the King James Bible (kjb). That incorrect assumption leads us to wrongly believe that nonbiblical lexical meaning in the BofM is to be sought in 1820s American English, or even perhaps from Smith making mistakes in his attempt to imitate biblical language (which is a canard). Second, by using Webster’s 1828 dictionary we can easily be led astray and form inaccurate judgments about old usage and we can miss possible meaning in the text.

Carmack, Stanford A. “Exploding the Myth of Unruly Book of Mormon Grammar.” Paper presented at the 2015 Exploring the Complexities in the English Language of the Book of Mormon Conference. March 14, 2015.
Carmack, Stanford A. “Joseph Smith Read the Words.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 18 (2016): 41-64.

2 Nephi 27:20, 22, 24

wherefore thou shalt read the words which I shall give unto thee. . .Wherefore when thou hast read the words which I have commanded thee . . .the Lord shall say unto him that shall read the words that shall be delivered him.

Carmack, Stanford A. “The Case of Plural Was in the Earliest Text.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 18 (2016): 109-137.

Abstract: Because it is primarily an Early Modern English text (in terms of its English language), the earliest text of the Book of Mormon understandably employs plural was — for example, “the words which was delivered” (Alma 5:11). It does so in a way that is substantially similar to what is found in many writings of the Early Modern period ­— that is, it manifests the syntactic usage, variation, and differential rates typical of that era.

Editor’s note: Because of the complex typesetting of this article, the rest of it has not been reproduced on this webpage. The reader is referred to the PDF version to view the entire article.

Carmack, Stanford A. “The Case of the {-th} Plural in the Earliest Text.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 18 (2016): 79-108.

Abstract: The earliest text of the Book of Mormon employs the {-th} plural — for example, “Nephi’s brethren rebelleth” — in a way that is substantially similar to what is found in many writings of the Early Modern period. The earliest text neither underuses nor overuses the construction, and it manifests inflectional variation and differential usage rates typical of Early Modern English. The totality of the evidence tells us that the Book of Mormon is most reasonably classified as a 16th- or 17th-century text, not as a 19th-century text full of biblical hypercorrections.

Editor’s note: Because of the complex typesetting of this article, the rest of it has not been reproduced on this webpage. The reader is referred to the PDF version to view the entire article.

Carmack, Stanford A. “The More Part of the Book of Mormon Is Early Modern English.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 18 (2016): 33-40.

Royal Skousen has done an excellent job of summarizing the use of the construction “the more part of + ‹ NOUN PHRASE ›” (and close variants) in the Book of Mormon at Helaman 6:21 in his Analysis of Textual Variants. In this phrase, the adjective more conveys an obsolete meaning of ‘greater’. My concern here is to compare Book of Mormon usage to that of the King James Bible and the textual record and to place it in its proper time.

Editor’s note: Because of the complex typesetting of this article, the rest of it has not been reproduced on this webpage. The reader is referred to the PDF version to view the entire article.

Carmack, Stanford A. “Barlow on Book of Mormon Language: An Examination of Some Strained Grammar.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 27 (2017): 185-196.

Abstract: Comments made by Philip Barlow on Book of Mormon language for an Oxford-published book are examined. Inaccuracies are pointed out, and some examples are given that show matching with 1611 King James usage as well as with other earlier usage. One important conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that those who wish to critique the English language of the Book of Mormon need to take the subject more seriously and approach it with genuine scholarship, instead of repeating earlier errors. This has a direct bearing on forming accurate views of Joseph Smith and Book of Mormon translation.

There are some errors which is easilier persuaded unto than to some truths.

Henry, Earl of Monmouth (translator)

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Carmack, Stanford A. “How Joseph Smith’s Grammar Differed from Book of Mormon Grammar: Evidence from the 1832 History.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 25 (2017): 239-259.

Abstract: Some of the grammar of Joseph Smith’s 1832 History is examined. Three archaic, extra-biblical features that occur quite frequently in the Book of Mormon are not present in the history, even though there was ample opportunity for use. Relevant usage in the 1832 History is typical of modern English, in line with independent linguistic studies. This leads to the conclusion that Joseph’s grammar was not archaizing in these three types of morphosyntax which are prominent in the earliest text of the Book of Mormon. This corroborating evidence also indicates that English words were transmitted to Joseph throughout the dictation of the Book of Mormon.

Carmack, Stanford A. “On Doctrine and Covenants Language and the 1833 Plot of Zion.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 26 (2017): 297-380.

Abstract: Contrary to the generally accepted view, it seems likely that much of the wording of the Doctrine and Covenants was transmitted to Joseph Smith as part of the revelatory process. Apparent bad grammar and a limited reading of “after the manner of their language” (D&C 1:24) have led to the received view that “the language of the revelations was Joseph Smith’s.”

This judgment, however, is probably inaccurate. Abundant cases of archaic forms and structures, sometimes overlapping with Book of Mormon usage, argue for a different interpretation of “after the manner of their language.” Scholars have chosen, for the most part, to disregard the implications of a large amount of complex, archaic, well-formed language found in both scriptural texts. As for the 1833 Plot of Zion, transmitted words in Doctrine and Covenants revelations, a key statement by Frederick G. Williams, and a small but significant amount of internal archaic usage mean that the layout, dimensions, and even some language of the city plat were specifically revealed as well.

Carmack, Stanford A. “Is the Book of Mormon a Pseudo-Archaic Text?” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 28 (2018): 177-232.

Abstract: In recent years the Book of Mormon has been compared to pseudo-biblical texts like Gilbert J. Hunt’s The Late War (1816). Some have found strong linguistic correspondence and declared that there is an authorial relationship. However, comparative linguistic studies performed to date have focused on data with low probative value vis-à-vis the question of authorship. What has been lacking is non-trivial descriptive linguistic analysis that focuses on less contextual and more complex types of data, such as syntax and morphosyntax (grammatical features such as verb agreement and inflection), as well as data less obviously biblical and/or less susceptible to conscious manipulation. Those are the kinds of linguistic studies that have greater probative value in relation to authorship, and that can determine whether Joseph Smith might have been able to produce Book of Mormon grammar. In order to determine whether it is a good match with the form and structure of pseudo-biblical writings, I investigate nearly 10 kinds of syntax and morphosyntax that occur in the Book of Mormon and the King James Bible, comparing their usage with each other and with that of four pseudo-biblical texts. Findings are summarized toward the end of the article, along with some observations on biblical hypercorrection and alternative LDS views on Book of Mormon language.

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Carmack, Stanford A. “Bad Grammar in the Book of Mormon Found in Early English Bibles.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 36 (2020): 1-28.

Abstract: This study describes ten types of grammatical usage found in early modern Bibles with correlates in the original text of the Book of Mormon. In some cases Joseph Smith’s own language could have produced the matching grammar, but in other cases his own linguistic preferences were unlikely to have produced the patterns or usage found in the original text. Comparative linguistic research indicates that this grammatical correspondence shouldn’t be a surprise, since plenty of Book of Mormon syntax matches structures and patterns found in Early Modern English.

Carmack, Stanford A. “Pitfalls of the Ngram Viewer.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 36 (2020): 187-210.

Abstract: Google’s Ngram Viewer often gives a distorted view of the popularity of cultural/religious phrases during the early 19th century and before. Other larger textual sources can provide a truer picture of relevant usage patterns of various content-rich phrases that occur in the Book of Mormon. Such an approach suggests that almost all of its phraseology fits comfortably within its syntactic framework, which is mostly early modern in character.

Carmack, Stanford A. “Personal Relative Pronoun Usage in the Book of Mormon: An Important Authorship Diagnostic.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 49 (2021): 5-36.

Abstract: This study compares personal relative pronoun usage in the earliest text of the Book of Mormon with 11 specimens of Joseph Smith’s early writings, 25 pseudo-archaic texts, the King James Bible, and more than 200,000 early modern (1473–1700) and late modern (1701–1800+) texts. The linguistic pattern of the Book of Mormon in this domain — a pattern difficult to consciously manipulate in a sustained manner — uniquely points to a less-common early modern pattern. Because there is no matching of the Book of Mormon’s pattern except with a small percentage of early modern texts, the indications are that Joseph Smith was neither the author nor the English-language translator of this pervasive element of the dictation language of the Book of Mormon. Cross-verification by means of large database comparisons and matching with one of the finest pseudo-archaic texts confirm these findings.

Carmack, Stanford A. “The Book of Mormon’s Complex Finite Cause Syntax.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 49 (2021): 113-136.

Abstract: This paper describes and compares the Book of Mormon’s 12 instances of complex finite cause syntax, the structure exemplified by the language of Ether 9:33: “the Lord did cause the serpents that they should pursue them no more.” This is not King James language or currently known to be pseudo-archaic language (language used by modern authors seeking to imitate biblical or related archaic language), but it does occur in earlier English, almost entirely before the year 1700. In the Book of Mormon, the syntax is always expressed with the modal auxiliary verbs should and shall. Twenty-five original examples of this specific usage have been identified so far outside of the Book of Mormon (not counting two cases of creative biblical editing — see the appendix). The text’s larger pattern of clausal verb complementation after the verb cause, 58 percent finite in 236 instances, is utterly different from what we encounter in the King James Bible and pseudo-archaic texts, which are 99 to 100 percent infinitival in their clausal complementation. The totality of the evidence indicates that Joseph Smith would not have produced this causative syntax of the Book of Mormon in a pseudo-archaic effort. Therefore, this dataset provides additional strong evidence for a revealed-words view of the 1829 dictation.

Carmack, Stanford A. “Book of Moses English: A Comparison of Grammatical Usage Found in Old Testament Revision 1.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Carmack, Stanford A. “The Original English of the Book of Moses and What It Indicates about the Book’s Authorship.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 631–702. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Carmack, Stanford A. “A Comparison of the Book of Mormon’s Subordinate That Usage.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 50 (2022): 1-32.

Abstract: This paper compares the Book of Mormon’s subordinate that usage with what is found in the King James Bible, pseudo-archaic writings, and the greater textual record. In this linguistic domain, the Book of Mormon manifests as thoroughly archaic, and it surpasses all known pseudo-archaic writings in breadth and depth of archaism. The implications of this set of linguistic data indicate that the translation as originally dictated by Joseph Smith cannot plausibly be explained as the result of Joseph’s own word choices, but it is consistent with the hypothesis that the wording was somehow provided to him.

Book of Mormon excerpt with an archaic subordinate that:“after that they had hid themselves, I Nephi crept into the city”

(1 Nephi 4:5)1

Keywords: archaism, Book of Mormon, linguistics
Christensen, Clayton M. “‘He Did It’: A Christmas Message.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 18 (2016): 11-13.
Christensen, Kevin. “Book Review: Temple Mysticism: An Introduction, by Margaret Barker.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 5 (2013): 191-199.

Review of Margaret Barker, Temple Mysticism: An Introduction (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 2011), 181 pp. $18.94.

Christensen, Kevin. “Prophets and Kings in Lehi’s Jerusalem and Margaret Barker’s Temple Theology.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 4 (2013): 177-193.

For an introduction, see Benjamin L. McGuire, “Josiah’s Reform: An Introduction.”

For a counterpoint, see William J. Hamblin, “Vindicating Josiah.”

Abstract: King Josiah’s reign has come under increasing focus for its importance to the formation of the Hebrew Bible, and for its proximity to the ministry of important prophets such as Jeremiah and Lehi. Whereas the canonical accounts and conventional scholarship have seen Josiah portrayed as the ideal king, Margaret Barker argues Josiah’s reform was hostile to the temple. This essay offers a counterpoint to Professor Hamblin’s “Vindicating Josiah” essay, offering arguments that the Book of Mormon and Barker’s views and sources support one another.

Christensen, Kevin. “Sophic Box and Mantic Vista: A Review of Deconstructing Mormonism.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 7 (2013): 113-179.

A review of Deconstructing Mormonism: An Analysis and Assessment of the Mormon Faith (Cranford, N.J, American Atheist Press: 2011) by Thomas Riskas and of Myths, Models and Paradigms: A Comparative Study of Science and Religion (New York, Harper & Row: 1974) by Ian J. Barbour.

Abstract: Riskas’s Desconstructing Mormonism claims that believers are trapped in a box for which the instructions for how to get out are written on the outside of the box. He challenges believers to submit to an outsider test for faith. But how well does Riskas describe the insider test? And is his outsider test, which turns out to be positivism, just a different box with the instructions for how to get out written on its outside? Ian Barbour’s Myths Models and Paradigms provides instructions on how to get out of the positivistic box that Riskas offers, and at the same time provides an alternate outsider test that Mormon readers can use to assess what Alma refers to as “cause to believe.” The important thing, however, is that we are dealing here not with the old donnybrook between science and religion but with the ancient confrontation of Sophic and Mantic. The Sophic is simply the art of solving problems without the aid of any superhuman agency, which the Mantic, on the other hand, is willing to solicit or accept. ((Hugh Nibley, “Paths that Stray: Some Notes on the Sophic and Mantic” in Stephen Ricks, ed., The Ancient State, Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, vol. 10 (Salt Lake City and Provo: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1991), 380-–381.)).

Christensen, Kevin. “Eye of the Beholder, Law of the Harvest: Observations on the Inevitable Consequences of the Different Investigative Approaches of Jeremy Runnells and Jeff Lindsay.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 10 (2014): 175-238.

Review of “Letter to a CES Director: Why I Lost My Testimony,” Jeremy Runnells, April 2013, Updated February 23, 2014. 83 pages. http://cesletter.com/Letter-to-a-CES-Director.pdf.

Abstract: In his Letter to a CES Director, Jeremy Runnells explains how a year of obsessive investigation brought about the loss of his testimony. In an LDS FAQ, LDS blogger Jeff Lindsay deals with all of the same questions, and has done so at least twenty years and has not only an intact testimony, but boundless enthusiasm. What makes the difference? In the parable of the Sower, Jesus explained that the same seeds (words) can generate completely different harvests, ranging from nothing to a hundred-fold increase, all depending on the different soil and nurture. This essay looks at how different expectations and inquiries for translation, prophets, key scriptural passages on representative issues can lead to very different outcomes for investigators.

Christensen, Kevin. “Profound Depth in a Slender Book.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 13 (2015): 9-12.

A review of Blake T. Ostler, Fire on the Horizon: A Meditation on the Endowment and Love of Atonement. Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2013, 119 pages + subject and scripture indices.

Christensen, Kevin. “Image is Everything: Pay No Attention to the Man Behind the Curtain.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 17 (2016): 99-150.

Abstract: Soon after the appearance of my Interpreter review of Jeremy Runnells’ Letter to a CES Director, he promised to provide his personal response. Although this response has not yet appeared, he did post an essay called “The Sky is Falling” by his friend Johnny Stephenson. After I read the essay closely in May, I realized that it provides, however unintentionally, a valuable set of discussion points with illustrative examples. My response begins with some preliminaries, surveys essential background issues concerning facts, ideology, and cognitive dissonance, and then addresses his historical arguments regarding the First Vision and priesthood restoration accounts.

Christensen, Kevin. “Playing to an Audience: A Review of Revelatory Events.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 28 (2018): 65-114.

Review of Ann Taves, Revelatory Events: Three Case Studies in the Emergence of New Spiritual Paths Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2016, 366 pages with notes and index $29.93 (paperback).

Abstract: Ann Taves’s book offers a comparative look at the origins of three groups, among them Mormonism. While she does not address the issue of competing explanations by each group about their origins or how to best navigate among them in terms that are not self-referential, that crucial circumstance is modeled by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. So I, too, have a pattern that applies to my arguments just as much it does to those offered by Professor Taves. Where her book attempts to solve the puzzle of Joseph Smith, my review offers a test of her rules for puzzle solving. This includes comparisons with the standard approach to document testing cited by Hugh Nibley, looking at key aspects of her argument and treatment of sources, and by considering Richard L. Anderson’s crucially relevant study of imitation gospels compared to the Book of Mormon. My own response should be tested not just as secular or religious, but against standards that are dependent on neither secular nor religious grounds. That is, to be valid, my response should argue “Why us?” in comparison to her case, rather than just declare that what she offers is “Not us.” We can decide situationally whether to define key concepts such as religion, spirituality, theology, and ministry or sit back and track how others are defining them. Either stance has its strengths and liabilities. Each allows us to see some things while obscuring others. The key is to figure out what we want to see under any given circumstances.

The current paradigm is going toward a non-faith-based study, which has no future. By this I do not mean simply that the study is not faith-based; it is based on non-faith, so criticism does not mean close study; it so often means destructive study. New paradigms emerge from those aware of the crisis, who recognize the situation is not likely to be remedied by the methods that caused it.

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Christensen, Kevin. “Light and Perspective: Essays from the Mormon Theology Seminar on 1 Nephi 1 and Jacob 7.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 31 (2019): 25-70.

Abstract: The Mormon Theology Seminar has produced two volumes of essays exploring 1 Nephi 1 on Lehi’s initial visions, and Jacob 7 on the encounter with Sherem. These essays provide valuable insights from a range of perspectives and raise questions for further discussion both of issues raised and regarding different paradigms in which scholars operate that readers must navigate.

Review of Adam S. Miller, ed., A Dream, a Rock, and a Pillar of Fire: Reading 1 Nephi 1 (Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute, 2017), 140 pp., $15.95.

Review of Adam S. Miller and Joseph M. Spencer, eds., Christ and Antichrist: Reading Jacob 7 (Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute, 2017), 148 pp., $15.95.


[I]t would be foolish to ignore an avenue that could potentially provide new insights into the Book of Mormon narrative.

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Christensen, Kevin. “Table Rules: A Response to Americanist Approaches to the Book of Mormon.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 37 (2020): 67-96.

Review of Elizabeth Fenton and Jared Hickman, Americanist Approaches to The Book of Mormon (New York: Oxford University Press, 2019). 456 pages. $99 (hardback), $35 (paperback).Abstract: Americanist Approaches to The Book of Mormon is an ambitious collection of essays published by Oxford University Press. By “Americanist” the editors refer to their preferred mode of contextualization: to situate the Book of Mormon as a response to various currents of nineteenth- century American thought. The “table rules” in this case determine who gets invited to the table and what topics can be discussed, using what types of evidence. The approach is legitimate, and the contributors offer a range of interesting perspectives and observations. Several essays base their arguments on the notion that the Book of Mormon adapts itself to a series of racist tropes common in the nineteenth century. In 2015, Ethan Sproat wrote an important essay that undercuts the arguments of those authors, but none of them address his case or evidence. This raises the issue of the existence of other tables operating under different assumptions, confronting the same text, and reaching very different conclusions. How are we to judge which table’s rules produce the best readings?

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Clark, David L. “‘If I Pray Not Amiss’” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 30 (2018): 63-76.

Abstract: In 2

Nephi, it is suggested that the Lord answers prayers but that requests made in prayer should not violate some kind of standard that would make them “amiss.” This undefined standard most likely excludes many prayers requesting immunity from those conditions of mortality which all mortals accepted and embraced with great enthusiasm in the great Council in Heaven. However, except for limited latter-day explanations of that great conference, our eager acceptance of all details of the conditions of mortality did not carry over into mortal memory. Consequently, when we request exemption from those conditions joyfully endorsed in premortal time, perhaps many qualify for the “prayers amiss” category. Exceptions from mortal conditions are granted only for divine and sometimes incomprehensible purposes.

Clark, David L. “Hugh B. Brown’s Program for Latter-Day Saint Servicemen During WWII.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 34 (2020): 143-160.

Abstract: Prior to U.S. involvement in WWII, the First Presidency asked Hugh B. Brown to initiate and serve as coordinator of a program that would reinforce the spiritual welfare of the increasing number of Latter-day Saint men entering the military. Brown initially answered the challenge by organizing religious services at training camps along the West Coast because of the large number of Church-member men training there. However, following Pearl Harbor, he expanded the program to 65 training camps in many parts of the country. He also created USO-type facilities in Salt Lake City and San Diego, distributed pocket-size scriptures, wrote faith-strengthening articles, and answered requests for spiritual support from Latter-day Saint servicemen. In 1943, Brown’s program enlarged with the addition of assistant coordinators and became part of the newly formed Servicemen’s Committee chaired by Elder Harold B. Lee. In 1944, Brown was recalled as the British Mission president and left 13 assistants to manage his program through the conclusion of the war. Interviews with veterans who experienced Brown’s program suggest that the pocket-size copies of the Book of Mormon carried everywhere, even in battle, may have been Brown’s most significant contribution to their war-time spiritual maintenance. It is the army’s job to armor-plate with steel. I have found the kind of armor-plating that is stronger than any metal…What finer gift could a man receive than the armor of the gospel of Jesus Christ? Such a man is prepared to live and be prepared to die.

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Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 3: 1 Nephi 8-10.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 21, 2019.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 4: 1 Nephi 11-15.” The Interpreter Foundation website. January 18, 2020.
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Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 9: 2 Nephi 26-30.” The Interpreter Foundation website. February 22, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 10: 2 Nephi 31-33.” The Interpreter Foundation website. February 29, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 11: Jacob 1-4.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 7, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 12: Jacob 5-7.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 10, 2020.
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Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 14: Easter.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 24, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 15: Mosiah 1-3.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 31, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 16: Mosiah 4-6.” The Interpreter Foundation website. April 14, 2020.
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Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 18: Mosiah 11-17.” The Interpreter Foundation website. April 28, 2020.
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Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 23: Alma 8-12.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 2, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 24: Alma 13-16.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 9, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 25: Alma 17-22.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 16, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 26: Alma 23-29.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 23, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 27: Alma 30-31.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 30, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 28: Alma 32-35.” The Interpreter Foundation website. July 7, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 29: Alma 36-38.” The Interpreter Foundation website. July 14, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 30: Alma 39-42.” The Interpreter Foundation website. July 21, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 31: Alma 43-52.” The Interpreter Foundation website. July 28, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 32: Alma 53-63.” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 4, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 33: Helaman 1-6.” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 11, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 34: Helaman 7-12.” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 18, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 35: Helaman 13-16.” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 25, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 36: 3 Nephi 1-7.” The Interpreter Foundation website. September 1, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 37: 3 Nephi 8-11.” The Interpreter Foundation website. September 8, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 38: 3 Nephi 12-16.” The Interpreter Foundation website. September 15, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 39: 3 Nephi 17-19.” The Interpreter Foundation website. September 22, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 40: 3 Nephi 20-26.” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 6, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 41: 3 Nephi 27-4 Nephi.” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 13, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 42: Mormon 1-6.” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 20, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 43: Mormon 7-9.” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 27, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 44: Ether 1-5.” The Interpreter Foundation website. November 3, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 45: Ether 6-11.” The Interpreter Foundation website. November 10, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 46: Ether 12-15.” The Interpreter Foundation website. November 17, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 47: Moroni 1-6.” The Interpreter Foundation website. November 24, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 48: Moroni 7-9.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 1, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 49: Moroni 10.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 8, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 50: Christmas.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 15, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 1.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 22, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 2.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 29, 2020.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 3.” The Interpreter Foundation website. January 5, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 4.” The Interpreter Foundation website. January 12, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 5.” The Interpreter Foundation website. January 19, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 6.” The Interpreter Foundation website. January 26, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 7.” The Interpreter Foundation website. February 2, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 8.” The Interpreter Foundation website. February 9, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 9.” The Interpreter Foundation website. February 16, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 10.” The Interpreter Foundation website. February 23, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 11.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 2, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 12.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 9, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 13.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 16, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 14.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 23, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 15.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 30, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 16.” The Interpreter Foundation website. April 6, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 17.” The Interpreter Foundation website. April 13, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 18.” The Interpreter Foundation website. April 20, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 19.” The Interpreter Foundation website. April 27, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 20.” The Interpreter Foundation website. May 4, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 21.” The Interpreter Foundation website. May 11, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 22.” The Interpreter Foundation website. May 18, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 23.” The Interpreter Foundation website. May 25, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 24.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 1, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 25.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 8, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 26.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 15, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 27.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 22, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 28.” The Interpreter Foundation website. June 29, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 29.” The Interpreter Foundation website. July 6, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 30.” The Interpreter Foundation website. July 13, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 31.” The Interpreter Foundation website. July 20, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 32.” The Interpreter Foundation website. July 27, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 33.” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 3, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 34.” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 10, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 35.” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 17, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 36.” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 24, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 37.” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 31, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 38.” The Interpreter Foundation website. September 7, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 39.” The Interpreter Foundation website. September 14, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 40.” The Interpreter Foundation website. September 21, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 41.” The Interpreter Foundation website. September 28, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 42.” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 5, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 43.” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 12, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 44.” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 19, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 45.” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 26, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 46.” The Interpreter Foundation website. November 2, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 47.” The Interpreter Foundation website. November 9, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 48.” The Interpreter Foundation website. November 16, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 49.” The Interpreter Foundation website. November 23, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 50.” The Interpreter Foundation website. November 30, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 51.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 7, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Doctrine and Covenants Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 52.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 14, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Old Testament Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 1.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 21, 2021.
Claybaugh, Jonn. “Old Testament Study and Teaching Helps — Lesson 2: Genesis 1–2; Moses 2–3; Abraham 4–5.” The Interpreter Foundation website. December 28, 2021.
Keywords: Come Follow Me; Old Testament
Claybaugh, Jonn.