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A

McConkie, Rebecca L. “‘A Miracle from Day One’: Publication of the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts.” The Religious Educator: Perspectives on the Restored Gospel 5, no. 2 (2004): 13–21.

Later this year, the Religious Studies Center will publish a volume called Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible: Original Manuscripts, edited by Scott H. Faulring, Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews. To help readers understand the scope and purpose of this project, the Religious Educator held the following interview with two of the editors.

Greenspahn, Frederick E. “Abstract of Y. Koler ‘Noah’” Old Testament Abstracts 6, no. 483 (1983): 148.
Callender, Dexter E. Adam in Myth and History: Ancient Israelite Perspectives on the Primal Human. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2000.
Hafen, Bruce C. and Marie K. Hafen. “Adam, Eve, the Book of Moses, and the Temple: The Story of Receiving Christ’s Atonement.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses’ (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Hafen, Bruce C., and Marie K. Hafen. “Adam, Eve, the Book of Moses, and the Temple: The Story of Receiving Christ’s Atonement.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 46 (2021): 157-200.

Abstract: The authors begin by highlighting the importance of Book of Moses research that has discovered plausible findings for its historicity, rendering it at least reasonable to give the benefit of the doubt to sacred premises — even if, ultimately, the choice of premises is just that, a choice. Emphasizing the relevance of the Book of Moses to the temple, they note that the Book of Moses is not only an ancient temple text, but also the ideal scriptural context for a modern temple preparation course. Going further, the authors address an important question raised by some who have asked: “Since Christ is at the center of the gospel, why doesn’t the temple endowment teach the story of the life of Christ? What’s all this about Adam and Eve?” The answer given in detail in the paper is as follows: “The story of the life of Christ is the story of giving the Atonement. And the story of Adam and Eve is the story of receiving the Atonement. Their story is our story, too.”

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the Latter-day Saint community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See Bruce C. Hafen and Marie K. Hafen, “Adam, Eve, the Book of Moses, and the Temple: The Story of Receiving Christ’s Atonement,” in Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Springville, UT: Book of Mormon Central; Redding, CA: FAIR; Tooele, UT: Eborn Books, 2021), page numbers forthcoming. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/ancient-threads-in-the-book-of-moses/.]Historicity and Plausibility of the Book of Moses.

Keywords: Adam and Eve, atonement, Book of Moses, temple
Stone, Michael E. Adam’s Contract with Satan: The Legend of the Cheirograph of Adam. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2002.
Jackson, Kent P. “An Age of Contrasts: From Adam to Abraham.” Ensign 26, no. 2, February 1986, 28–30.
Jackson, Kent P., with Charles Swift. “The Ages of the Patriarchs in the Joseph Smith Translation.” In A Witness for the Restoration: Essays in Honor of Robert J. Matthews, edited by Kent P. Jackson and Andrew C. Skinner, 1–11. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2007.
Fletcher-Louis, Crispin H. T. All the Glory of Adam: Liturgical Anthropology in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2002.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. “Ancient Affinities within the LDS Book of Enoch Part Two.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 4 (2013): 29-74.

Abstract: In this article, we will examine affinities between ancient extracanonical sources and a collection of modern revelations that Joseph Smith termed “extracts from the Prophecy of Enoch.” We build on the work of previous scholars, revisiting their findings with the benefit of subsequent scholarship. Following a perspective on the LDS canon and an introduction to the LDS Enoch revelations, we will focus on relevant passages in pseudepigrapha and LDS scripture within three episodes in the Mormon Enoch narrative: Enoch’s prophetic commission, Enoch’s encounters with the “gibborim,” and the weeping and exaltation of Enoch and his people.

Keywords: Enoch
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. “Ancient Affinities within the LDS Book of Enoch, Part One.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 4 (2013): 1–27.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. “Ancient Affinities within the LDS Book of Enoch, Part Two.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 4 (2013): 29–74.
Currid, John D. Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1997.
Hardy, Grant. “Ancient History and Modern Commandments: The Book of Mormon in Comparison with Joseph Smith’s Other Revelations.” In Producing Ancient Scripture: Joseph Smith’s Translation Projects and the Making of Mormon Christianity, edited by Mark Ashurst-McGee, Michael Hubbard MacKay and Brian M. Hauglid, 205–227. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 2020.

Walton, John H. Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament: Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2006.
Parry, Donald W. “Ancient Sacred Vestments: Scriptural Symbols and Meanings.” In Temple Insights: Proceedings of the Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference “The Temple on Mount Zion, 22 September 2012, edited by William J. Hamblin and David Rolph Seely. Temple on Mount Zion Series 2, 215–235. Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.
Goff, Matthew, Loren T. Stuckenbruck, and Enrico Morano, eds. Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.
Sparks, Kenton L. Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005.
Bowen, Matthew L. “‘And They Shall Be Had Again’: Onomastic Allusions to Joseph in Moses 1:41 in View of the So-called Canon Formula.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 32 (2019): 297–304.
Bowen, Matthew L. ““And They Shall Be Had Again”: Onomastic Allusions to Joseph in Moses 1:41 in View of the So-called Canon Formula.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 32 (2019): 297-304.

Abstract: Moses 1:41 echoes or plays on the etymological meaning of the name Joseph — “may he [Yahweh] add,” as the Lord foretells to Moses the raising up of a future figure through whom the Lord’s words, after having been “taken” (away) from the book that Moses would write, “shall be had again among the children of men.” Moses 1:41 anticipates and employs language reminiscent of the so-called biblical canon formulas, possible additions to biblical texts meant to ensure the texts’ stability by warning against “adding” or “diminishing” (i.e., “taking away”) from them (e.g., Deuteronomy 4:2; 5:22 [MT 5:18]; 12:32 [MT 13:1]; cf. Revelation 22:18– 19). This article presupposes that the vision of Moses presents restored text that was at some point recorded in Hebrew.

Keywords: Book of Moses, canon formula, Joseph, Moses 1, wordplay
Rubinkiewicz, Ryszard. L’Apocalypse d’Abraham en vieux slave : Introduction, texte critique, traduction et commentaire. Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolikiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego, Zrodlai i monografie 129. Lublin, Poland: Société des Lettres et des Sciences de l’Université Catholique de Lublin, 1987.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. and David J. Larsen. “L’Apocalypse d’Abraham: Témoin Ancien du Livre de Moïse (The Apocalypse of Abraham : Ancient Witness of the Book of Moses).” Invited lecture at the FAIR France Conference, Strasbourg, France. March 29, 2009.
Rubinkiewicz, Ryszard. “Apocalypse of Abraham.” In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, edited by James H. Charlesworth, 2 vols, 1:681–705. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1983.
Kulik, Alexander. “Apocalypse of Abraham.” In Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture, 3 vols., edited by Louis H. Feldman, James L. Kugel and Lawrence H. Schiffman, 2:1453–1481. Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Publication Society, 2013.
Robinson, Stephen E. “The Apocalypse of Adam.” BYU Studies 17, no. 2 (Winter 1977): 1–28.

In most forms of Gnosticism secret oral tradition is often associated with accounts of the creation of the world, the experiences of Adam and Eve in the Garden, and the fall of man. It is usually in this creation setting or in a temple or on a mountaintop that Gnosticism places the revelation of the esoteric mysteries and the knowledge needed to thwart the archontic powers and return to God.

Pratt, Parley P. “The Apocryphal Book of Enoch.” Millennial Star 1 (July 1840): 61–63.
Griggs, C. Wilfred, ed. Apocryphal Writings and the Latter-day Saints. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1986.

The Lord has told us that many things in the Apocrypha are true and many false. The fascination that apocryphal writings generally hold for Latter-day Saints was recognized in a 1983 BYU symposium on this topic addressed by fifteen scholars representing a wide range of expertise. Those addresses are collected in this book.

Blumell, Lincoln H., Matthew J. Grey, and Andrew H. Hedges, eds. Approaching Antiquity: Joseph Smith and the Ancient World. Salt Lake City and Provo, UT: Deseret Book and BYU Religious Studies Center, 2015.
Townsend, Colby. “Appropriation and Adaptation of J Material in the Book of Mormon.” Thesis for Honors Degree, Bachelor of Arts, Comparative Literary and Cultural Studies, World Languages and Cultures, University of Utah, 2016.

This study explores the influence of the King James Bible (KJV) on the Book of Mormon (BM) by examining how the BM appropriates and adapts the text of the J source of the Pentateuch-a narrative strand from Genesis to Deuteronomy-and weaves phrases, ideas, motifs, and characters into the text. I identify the full range of influence of the J source of the Pentateuch on the text of the BM in Part II, and then analyze the use of Gen. 2-4 in its own literary context, in ancient sources, and finally in the BM. Through close reading and analysis the study highlights the gaps between the meaning of Gen. 2-4 in its own literary context and the way that the BM interprets its themes and overall message. The BM employs a thoroughly 19th century American- Christian worldview in both its use of the J source and its interpretation of that important text. This study has important implications for BM studies broadly and for historical-critical studies of the BM in particular. Moving forward, BM studies will need to grapple with the heavy influence that the KJV had on the composition of the BM. Past studies have identified limited influence of the KJV on the text for several reasons, but whatever the reasons it is clear that there are specific ways to move the field forward. Studies have focused on the block quotations of Isaiah in the BM, and some have explored the use of Sermon on the Mount in 3 Nephi and other portions of the text. Unfortunately, there are very few studies that have attempted to broaden the scope and look at the influen ce of a larger section of the KJV and its more subtle uses throughout the entire BM It is my hope that this study can be a stepping-stone of sorts for future work. I have looked specifically at how the BM uses parts of Genesis through Deuteronomy, but this leaves the door open to exploring the influence of any and all of the other parts of the KJV and their influence on the text of the BM.

al-Tha’labi, Abu Ishaq Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim. “‘Ara’is Al-Majalis Fi Qisas Al-Anbiya’ or “Lives of the Prophets”.” Translated by William M. Brinner. Studies in Arabic Literature, Supplements to the Journal of Arabic Literature, Volume 24. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2002.
Lindsay, Jeffrey Dean. “‘Arise from the Dust’: Insights from Dust-Related Themes in the Book of Mormon. Part 1: Tracks from the Book of Moses.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 22 (2016): 179–232.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “The Ark and the Tent: Temple Symbolism in the Story of Noah.” In Temple Insights: Proceedings of the Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference ‘The Temple on Mount Zion,’ 22 September 2012, edited by William J. Hamblin and David Rolph Seely. Temple on Mount Zion Series 2, 25–66. Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.
Finkel, Irving L. The Ark Before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood. London, England: Hodder & Stoughton, 2014.
Himmelfarb, Martha. Ascent to Heaven in Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Bokovoy, David E. Authoring the Old Testament: Genesis-Deuteronomy. Contemporary Studies in Scripture. Salt Lake City, UT: Greg Kofford Books, 2014.

B

Nibley, Hugh. “Before Adam.” In Old Testament and Related Studies, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 1, edited by John W. Welch, Gary P. Gillum, and Don E. Norton. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1986.

Originally presented as a talk given on 1 April 1980 at Brigham Young University.

A controversial examination of evolution and the Latter-day Saint view on creation and the various roles of Adam.

See also: “Before Adam” (1980)
Jackson, Kent P. “Behold I.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 169–75.

On two occasions while he worked on his New Translation of Genesis in 1830, the Prophet Joseph Smith dictated to his scribe Oliver Cowdery a word combination that in English is awkward and umgrammatical, though in the Hebrew it is not: “Behold I.” The first occurrence reads, “Behold I am the Lord God Almighty.” The second reads, “Behold I send me.” Both passages are in the Book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price, but “Behold I” is not found in either of those passages today because, after the time of Joseph Smith, each was edited out of the text . .

Sears, Joshua M. “‘Behold These Thy Brethren!’: Deeply Seeing All of Our Brothers and Sisters.” In Covenant of Compassion: Caring for the Marginalized and Disadvantaged in the Old Testament, edited by Avram R. Shannon, Gaye Strathearn, George A. Pierce and Joshua M. Sears, 101–23. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2021.
Matthews, Robert J. “Beyond the Biblical Account: Adam, Enoch, Noah, Melchizedek, Abraham, and Moses in Latter-day Revelation.” In A Witness of Jesus Christ: The 1989 Sperry Symposium on the Old Testament, edited by Richard D. Draper, 134–154. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1990.
Kugel, James L. The Bible As It Was. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1997.
Matthews, Robert J. ‘A Bible! A Bible!’: How Latter-day Revelation Helps Us Understand the Scriptures and the Savior. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1990.
Frederick, Nicholas J. The Bible, Mormon Scripture, and the Rhetoric of Allusivity. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2016.
Malan, Solomon Caesar, ed. The Book of Adam and Eve: Also Called The Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan: A Book of the Early Eastern Church. Translated from the Ethiopic, with Notes from the Kufale, Talmud, Midrashim, and Other Eastern Works. London, England: Williams and Norgate, 1882. Reprint, San Diego, CA: The Book Tree, 2005.
Robinson, Stephen E. “The Book of Adam in Judaism and Early Christianity.” In The Man Adam, edited by Joseph Fielding McConkie and Robert L. Millet, 131–150. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1990.
Nibley, Hugh. “The Book of Enoch as a Theodicy.” in Enoch the Prophet, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 2. 66–88.
Keywords: Pearl of Great Price;Book of Moses;Enoch;theodicy;Pearl of Great Price;Book of Moses;Enoch (Prophet)
Townsend, Colby (under the pseudonym of Yakov Ben Tov). “The Book of Enoch, the Book of Moses, and the Question of Availability.” In Faith-Promoting Rumor. Originally published at https://faithpromotingrumor.com/2017/09/24/the-book-of-enoch-the-book-of-moses-and-the-question-of-availability/. Available at: https://cdn.interpreterfoundation.org/ifarchive/Ben-Tov-Availability-of-1-Enoch-Cirillo-error-The-Book-of-Enoch-the-Book-of-Moses-and-the-Question-of-Availability-FAITH-PROMOTING-RUMOR.pdf.

Originally posted at https://faithpromotingrumor.com/2017/09/24/the-book-of-enoch-the-book-of-moses-and-the-question-of-availability/. Note that this blog post has since been removed without explanation, but was not disavowed by the author and was originally archived at https://web.archive.org/web/20181217192041/https://faithpromotingrumor.com/2017/09/24/the-book-of-enoch-thebook-of-moses-and-the-question-of-availability/ (accessed November 22, 2018). It seems that the archive.org version has now been removed, but the original article can now be found at: https://cdn.interpreterfoundation.org/ifarchive/Ben-Tov-Availability-of-1-Enoch-Cirillo-error-The-Book-of-Enoch-the-Book-of-Moses-and-the-Question-of-Availability-FAITH-PROMOTING-RUMOR.pdf.

Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “The Book of Enoch: Its Reception in Second Temple Jewish and in Christian Tradition.” Early Christianity 4, no. 1 (2013): 7–40.
Evans, Craig A., Joel N. Lohr, and David L. Petersen, eds. The Book of Genesis: Composition, Reception, and Interpretation. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Formation and interpretation of Old Testament Literature 152, ed. Christl M. Maier, Craig A. Evans and Peter W. Flint. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2012.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “The Book of Giants among the Dead Sea Scrolls: Considerations of Method and a New Proposal on the Reconstruction of 4q530.” In Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences, edited by Matthew Goff, Loren T. Stuckenbruck and Enrico Morano. Wissenschlaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 360, ed. Jörg Frey, 129–141. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. The Book of Giants from Qumran: Texts, Translation, and Commentary. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 1997.
Kósa, Gåbor. “The Book of Giants tradition in the Chinese Manichaica.” In Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences, edited by Matthew Goff, Loren T. Stuckenbruck and Enrico Morano. Wissenschlaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 360, ed. Jörg Frey, 145-86. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.
VanderKam, James C. The Book of Jubilees. Guides to Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, edited by Michael A. Knibb. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.
Bialik, Hayim Nahman, and Yehoshua Hana Ravnitzky, eds. The Book of Legends (Sefer Ha-Aggadah): Legends from the Talmud and Midrash. Translated by William G. Braude. New York, NY: Schocken Books, 1992.
Matthews, Robert J. “The Book of Moses.” In A Bible! A Bible!, edited by Robert J. Matthews, 100–114. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1990.
Taylor, Bruce T. “Book of Moses.” In Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols., edited by Daniel H. Ludlow, 1:216–217. New York: Macmillan, 1992.
Matthews, Robert J. “Book of Moses.” In Encyclopedia of Latter-day Saint Church History, edited by Arnold K. Garr, Donald Q. Cannon and Richard O. Cowan, 121–22. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2000.
Jackson, Kent P. ““Book of Moses,” 71–73; “Book of Moses Manuscripts,” 78; “Cain,” 84; “Canaan, People Of,” 85; “Curse, Cursed, Cursing,” 99–100; “Inspired Version,” 166; “Intelligences,” 167; “Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible,” 187–188; “Like Unto God/like Unto the Son of Man,” 199; ”Meridian of Time,” 207; “One Flesh,” 227; “Patriarchs, Ages Of,” 233; “Pearl of Great Price: An Overview and Introduction,” 1–5; “Pearl of Great Price, Historical Development Of,” 234–135; “Perdition,” 237; “Satan,” 258–259.” In Pearl of Great Price Reference Companion, edited by Dennis L. Largey. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2017.
Jackson, Kent P. The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2005.

This book is a study of the text of Selections from the Book of Moses, an excerpt of Genesis from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. Commonly called the Book of Moses, it is the first section in the Pearl of Great Price, one of the standard works of scripture of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., Matthew L. Bowen, Ryan Dahle, Mark J. Johnson, Stephen T. Whitlock, and others. “Book of Moses Essays.” Seventy-Seven Essays on the Book of Moses. In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. 2020-21.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Book of Moses FAQ.” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 09, 2020.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Book of Moses Textual Criticism 1 — Article Preview: Did God or Enoch weep?” The Interpreter Foundation, August 27, 2020.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Book of Moses Textual Criticism 2 — Article Preview: Were the Names ‘Mahijah’ and ‘Mahujah’ Inspired by Adam Clarke’s Commentary?” The Interpreter Foundation, September 3, 2020.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Book of Moses Textual Criticism 3: Was the Book of Moses Simply an Unplanned Afterthought to Moses 1? A response to Thomas A. Wayment. ‘Intertextuality and the Purpose of Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible.’” The Interpreter Foundation, September 10, 2020.
Budge, Ernest Alfred Wallis. The Book of the Bee. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1886.
Budge, E. A. Wallis, ed. The Book of the Cave of Treasures. London, England: The Religious Tract Society, 1927. Reprint, New York City, NY: Cosimo Classics, 2005.
Henning, W. B. “The Book of the Giants.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11, no. 1 (1943): 52–74.
Milik, Józef Tadeusz, and Matthew Black, eds. The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments from Qumran Cave 4. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1976.

The Enoch Scroll of the texts from Qumran Library Cave 4 has provided parts in Aramaic among the Dead Sea Scrolls discovery between 1947 and 1956. Contents: Aramaic Book of Enoch, Astronomical Book, Book of Watchers, Book of Dreams, Book of Giants, Enochic Writings. NOTE: The Book of Enoch w/ Aramaic fragments from Milik, see The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition, Florentino García Martínez, Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar, 1999

Reynolds, Noel B. “The Brass Plates Version of Genesis.” In By Study and Also By Faith: Essays in Honor of Hugh W. Nibley on the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday, 27 March 1990, vol. 2. Edited by John M. Lundquist and Stephen D. Ricks. Provo, UT, and Salt Lake City: FARMS and Deseret Book, 1990.

This second of two volumes of essays honoring Hugh Nibley includes scholarly papers based on what the authors have learned from Nibley. Nearly every major subject that Dr. Nibley has encompassed in his vast learning and scholarly production is represented here by at least one article. Topics include the sacrament covenant in Third Nephi, the Lamanite view of Book of Mormon history, external evidences of the Book of Mormon, proper names in the Book of Mormon, the brass plates version of Genesis, the composition of Lehi’s family, ancient burials of metal documents in stone boxes, repentance as rethinking, Mormon history’s encounter with secular modernity, and Judaism in the 20th century.

Are there indirect evidences of distinctive contents of the brass plates? Can we learn anything about the plates and their contents through an examination of indirect textual evidence in the Book of Mormon?

Reynolds, Noel B. “The Brass Plates Version of Genesis.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 34 (2020): 63-96.

Abstract: The Book of Mormon peoples repeatedly indicated that they were descendants of Joseph, the son of Jacob who was sold into Egypt by his brothers. The plates of brass that they took with them from Jerusalem c. 600 bce provided them with a version of many Old Testament books and others not included in our Hebrew Bible. Sometime after publishing his translation of the Book of Mormon, Joseph Smith undertook an inspired revision of the Bible. The opening chapters of his version of Genesis contain a lot of material not included in the Hebrew Bible. But intriguingly, distinctive phraseology in those chapters, as now published in Joseph Smith’s Book of Moses, also show up in the Book of Mormon text. This paper presents a systematic examination of those repeated phrases and finds strong evidence for the conclusion that the version of Genesis used by the Nephite prophets must have been closely similar to Joseph Smith’s Book of Moses.

[Editor’s Note: This paper appeared first in the 1990 festschrift published to honor Hugh W. Nibley.

It is reprinted here as a convenience for current scholars who are interested in intertextual issues regarding the Book of Mormon. It should be noted that Interpreter has published another paper that picks up this same insight and develops considerable additional evidence supporting the conclusions of the original paper.

This reprint uses footnotes instead of endnotes, and there are two more footnotes in this reprint than there are endnotes in the original paper.].

Keywords: Book of Moses, Brass Plates, Genesis
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. and Matthew L. Bowen. “‘By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified’: The Symbolic, Salvific, Interrelated, Additive, Retrospective, and Anticipatory Nature of the Ordinances of Spiritual Rebirth in John 3 and Moses 6.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 24 (2017): 123–316. Reprint, In Stephen D. Ricks and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, eds. Sacred Time, Sacred Space, and Sacred Meaning. Proceedings of the Third Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 5 November 2016. The Temple on Mount Zion Series. Vol. 4. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2020, pp. 43–237.

Abstract: In chapter 3 of the Gospel of John, Jesus described spiritual rebirth as consisting of two parts: being “born of water and of the spirit.”1 To this requirement of being “born again into the kingdom of heaven, of water, and of the Spirit,” Moses 6:59–60 adds that one must “be cleansed by blood, even the blood of mine Only Begotten; … For … by the blood ye are sanctified.”2 In this article, we will discuss the symbolism of water, spirit, and blood in scripture as they are actualized in the process of spiritual rebirth. We will highlight in particular the symbolic, salvific, interrelated, additive, retrospective, and anticipatory nature of these ordinances within the allusive and sometimes enigmatic descriptions of John 3 and Moses 6. Moses 6:51–68, with its dense infusion of temple themes, was revealed to the Prophet in December 1830, when the Church was in its infancy and more than a decade before the fulness of priesthood ordinances was made available to the Saints in Nauvoo. Our study of these chapters informs our closing perspective on the meaning of the sacrament, which is consistent with the recent re-emphasis of Church leaders that the “sacrament is a beautiful time to not just renew our baptismal covenants, but to commit to Him to renew all our covenants.”3 We discuss the relationship of the sacrament to the shewbread of Israelite temples, and its anticipation of the heavenly feast that will be enjoyed by those who have been sanctified by the blood of Jesus Christ.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Matthew L. Bowen. ““By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified”: The Symbolic, Salvific, Interrelated, Additive, Retrospective, and Anticipatory Nature of the Ordinances of Spiritual Rebirth in John 3 and Moses 6.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 24 (2017): 123-316.

[Editor’s Note: This article is an updated and extended version of a presentation given at the Third Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference: The Temple on Mount Zion, November 5, 2016, at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. For a video version of the presentation, see https://interpreterfoundation.org/conferences/2016-temple-on-mount-zion-conference/2016-temple-on-mount-zion-conference-videos/]

Abstract: In chapter 3 of the Gospel of John, Jesus described spiritual rebirth as consisting of two parts: being “born of water and of the spirit.”

To this requirement of being “born again into the kingdom of heaven, of water, and of the Spirit,” Moses 6:59–60 adds that one must “be cleansed by blood, even the blood of mine Only Begotten; … For … by the blood ye are sanctified.”

In this article, we will discuss the symbolism of water, spirit, and blood in scripture as they are actualized in the process of spiritual rebirth. We will highlight in particular the symbolic, salvific, interrelated, additive, retrospective, and anticipatory nature of these ordinances within the allusive and sometimes enigmatic descriptions of John 3 and Moses 6. Moses 6:51–68, with its dense infusion of temple themes, was revealed to the Prophet in December 1830, when the Church was in its infancy and more than a decade before the fulness of priesthood ordinances was made available to the Saints in Nauvoo. Our study of these chapters informs our closing perspective on the meaning of the sacrament, which is consistent with the recent re-emphasis of Church leaders that the “sacrament is a beautiful time to not just renew our baptismal covenants, but to commit to Him to renew all our covenants.”

We discuss the relationship of the sacrament to the shewbread of Israelite temples, and its anticipation of the heavenly feast that will be enjoyed by those who have been sanctified by the blood of Jesus Christ.

Keywords: born again, covenants, John 3, Joseph Smith-History, Moses 6, ordinances, rebirth
Bowen, Matthew L. “‘By the Word of My Power’: The Divine Word in the Book of Moses.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses’ (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.

C

Cross, Frank Moore. Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.

The essays in this volume address key aspects of Israelite religious development. Cross traces the continuities between early Israelite religion and the Canaanite culture from which it emerged; explores the tension between the mythic and the historical in Israel’s religious expression; and examines the reemergence of Canaanite mythic material in the apocalypticism of early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Sherry, Thomas E. “Changing Attitudes toward Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible.” In Plain and Precious Truths Restored: The Doctrinal and Historical Significance of the Joseph Smith Translation, edited by Robert L. Millet and Robert J. Matthews, 187–226. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1995.
Ouaknin, Marc-Alain, and Éric Smilévitch, eds. Chapitres de Rabbi Éliézer (Pirqé de Rabbi Éliézer): Midrach sur Genèse, Exode, Nombres, Esther. Les Dix Paroles, ed. Charles Mopsik. Lagrasse, France: Éditions Verdier, 1992.
Parry, Donald W. “The Cherubim, the Flaming Sword, the Path, and the Tree of Life.” In The Tree of Life: From Eden to Eternity, edited by John W. Welch and Donald W. Parry, 1–24. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2011.
LeFevre, David A. “Christology in the Joseph Smith Translation of the Gospels.” In “Thou Art the Christ, the Son of the Living God”: The Person and Work of Jesus in the New Testament (The 47th Annual Brigham Young University Sidney B. Sperry Symposium), edited by Eric D. Huntsman, Lincoln H. Blumell and Tyler J. Griffin, 362–90. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2018.
Anderson, Lavina Fielding. “Church Publishes First LDS Edition of the Bible.” Ensign 9, October 1979, 9-18.
Jackson, Kent P. “The Coming Forth of the King James Bible.” In The King James Bible and the Restoration, edited by Kent P. Jackson, 43–60. Provo, UT and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book and , 2011.
Ri, Andreas Su-Min. Commentaire de la Caverne des Trésors: Étude sur l’Histoire du Texte et de ses Sources. Supplementary Volume 103. Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 581. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters, 2000.
Barney, Kevin L. “A Commentary on Joseph Smith’s Revision of First Corinthians.” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 53, no. 2 (Summer 2020): 57-105.
Hauglid, Brian M., and Ray L. Huntington. “A Community of Christ Perspective on the JST Research of Robert J. Matthews: An Interview with Ronald E. Romig.” The Religious Educator: Perspectives on the Restored Gospel 5, no. 2 (2004): 49–55.
Hedges, Andrew H. “‘Compassion upon the Earth’: Man, Prophets, and Nature.” In Stewardship and the Creation: LDS Perspectives on the Environment, edited by George B. Handley, Terry B. Ball, and Stephen L. Peck, 81–88. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2006.
Wayment, Thomas A., ed. The Complete Joseph Smith Translation of the Old Testament: A Side-by-Side Comparison with the King James Version. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2009.
Baden, Joel S. The Composition of the Pentateuch: Renewing the Documentary Hypothesis. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
Bruno, Cheryl L. “Congruence and Concatenation in Jewish Mystical Literature, American Freemasonry, and Mormon Enoch Writings.” Journal of Religion and Society 16 (2014): 1–19.

The Biblical character Enoch is a central figure in early Jewish mystical literature, where his story is redolent with themes related to the concepts of transformation and communion with the Divine. This rich and mythic wisdom significantly influenced American Royal Arch Freemasonry, and through it, early Mormonism. This paper explores the shared aspects of these traditions: where they overlap, and specifically, where Mormonism may rely upon Freemasonry. The Enoch pseudepigrapha and their Masonic and Mormon iterations are presented as a series of related mystical traditions. Linked by common themes of theophany, grand assembly, and heavenly ascent, they are utilized in similar, yet innovative ways to impart spiritual truth to their followers.

Hallo, William W., and K. Lawson Younger, eds. The Context of Scripture. 3 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 1996–2002.
Jackson, Kent P. “The Cooperstown Bible.” New York History 95, no. 2 (Spring 2014): 243–270.
Budge, Ernest Alfred Wallis. Coptic Martyrdoms, etc., in the Dialect of Upper Egypt. London, England: The British Museum, 1914.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Ryan Dahle. “Could Joseph Smith Have Drawn on Ancient Manuscripts When He Translated the Story of Enoch? Recent Updates on a Persistent Question.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 33 (2019): 305–373.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Ryan Dahle. “Could Joseph Smith Have Drawn on Ancient Manuscripts When He Translated the Story of Enoch?: Recent Updates on a Persistent Question.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 33 (2019): 305-374.

Abstract: In this article, we offer a general critique of scholarship that has argued for Joseph Smith’s reliance on 1 Enoch or other ancient pseudepigrapha for the Enoch chapters in the Book of Moses. Our findings highlight the continued difficulties of scholars to sustain such arguments credibly. Following this general critique, we describe the current state of research relating to what Salvatore Cirillo took to be the strongest similarity between Joseph Smith’s chapters on Enoch and the Qumran Book of Giants — namely the resemblance between the name Mahawai in the Book of Giants and Mahujah/Mahijah in Joseph Smith’s Enoch account. We conclude this section with summaries of conversations of Gordon C. Thomasson and Hugh Nibley with Book of Giants scholar Matthew Black about these names. Next, we explain why even late and seemingly derivative sources may provide valuable new evidence for the antiquity of Moses 6–7 or may corroborate details from previously known Enoch sources. By way of example, we summarize preliminary research that compares passages in Moses 6–7 to newly available ancient Enoch texts from lesser known sources. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of findings that situate Joseph Smith’s Enoch account in an ancient milieu. Additional work is underway to provide a systematic and detailed analysis of ancient literary affinities in Moses 6–7, including an effort sponsored by Book of Mormon Central in collaboration with The Interpreter Foundation.

Keywords: 1 Enoch, Book of Giants, Book of Moses, Dead Sea Scrolls, Hugh Nibley, Joseph Smith, Mahijah, Mahujah, Nibley, pseudepigrapha
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Creation, Fall, and the Story of Adam and Eve.” In In God’s Image and Likeness 1. Updated ed. Salt Lake City, UT: Eborn Books, 2014.

The stories of the Grand Councils in Heaven, the Creation, the Fall, and the revelation of the Plan of Salvation to mankind are foundational to LDS doctrine. As it turns out, they are also the focus of a vast ancient literature by Jewish commentators, Islamic scholars, and early Christians, as well as the nexus of perennial controversies about science and religion.

Bowen, Matthew L. “‘Creator of the First Day’: The Glossing of Lord of Sabaoth in D&C 95:7.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 22 (2016): 51–77.

D

Orlov, Andrei A. Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in Early Jewish Demonology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2011.
Machiela, Daniel A. The Dead Sea Genesis Apocryphon [1QapGen]: A New Text and Translation with Introduction and Special Treatment of Columns 13–17. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 79. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2009.

The so-called Genesis Apocryphon (1Q20) from Qumran Cave 1 has suffered from decades of neglect, due in large part to its poor state of preservation. As part of a resurgent scholarly interest in the Apocryphon, and its prominent position among the Aramaic Dead Sea Scrolls, this volume presents a fresh transcription, translation, and exstenive textual notes drawing on close study of the original manuscript, all available photographs, and previous publications. In addition, a detailed analysis of columns 13-15 and their relation to the oft-cited parallel in the Book of Jubilees reveals a number of ways in which the two works differ, thereby highlighting several distinctive features of the Genesis Apocryphon. The result is a reliable text edition and a fuller understanding of the message conveyed by this fragmentary but fascinating retelling of Genesis.

Abegg, Martin Jr., Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible. New York City, NY: Harper, 1999.
Parry, Donald W., and Emanuel Tov, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader. 2nd edition, Volume 1. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2013.
Parry, Donald W., and Emanuel Tov, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader. 2nd edition, Volume 1. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2013.
Martinez, Florentino Garcia, and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition. 2 vols. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1997-1998.
Parry, Donald W., and Stephen D. Ricks. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Questions and Responses for Latter-day Saints. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), 2000.

Since their initial discovery in 1947, the ancient scrolls found in caves near the Dead Sea have stirred public curiosity. For Latter-day Saints, whose scriptural tradition speaks of sacred records to come forth in the last days, the Dead Sea Scrolls naturally give rise to questions such as:

— Are there references to Christ or Christianity in the scrolls?

— Do the scrolls contain scripture missing from the Bible?

— Is the plan of salvation attested in the scrolls?

— Do the scrolls refer to Joseph Smith or other latter-day figures?

The Dead Sea Scrolls: Questions and Responses for Latter-day Saints succinctly deals with these and other questions on topics of particular interest to LDS readers. These topics are based on actual questions that Latter-day Saints have asked the authors as they have taught classes at Brigham Young University, shared their research at professional symposia, and spoken in other settings.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Did Moses Write the Book of Genesis? — Old Testament KnoWhy JBOTL03B.” In The Interpreter Foundation. January 11, 2018.
Widtsoe, John A. “Did the Flood Cover the Highest Mountains of the Earth?” In Evidences and Reconciliations: Aids to Faith in a Modern Day, edited by John A. Widtsoe. 2nd ed, 109-12. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1943.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. and David J. Larsen. “Die Apokalypse Abrahams: Ein antiker Zeuge für das Buch Mose (The Apocalypse of Abraham : Ancient Witness of the Book of Moses).” Invited lecture at the FAIR Germany Conference, Frankfurt, Germany. 28 March 2009.
Orlov, Andrei A. Divine Manifestations in the Slavonic Pseudepigrapha. Orientalia Judaica Christiana 2. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2009.
Andrus, Hyrum L. Doctrinal Commentary on the Pearl of Great Price. Revised edition. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2003.
Parker, Jared T. “The Doctrine of Christ in 2 Nephi 31–32 as an Approach to the Vision of the Tree of Life.” In: The Things Which My Father Saw: Approaches to Lehi’s Dream and Nephi’s Vision (2011 Sperry Symposium). Ed. Daniel L. Belnap, Gaye Strathearn, and Stanley A. Johnson. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011. 161–178.
Cassuto, Umberto. The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch.. Translated by Israel Abrahams. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1961.
Cohen, H. Hirsch. The Drunkenness of Noah. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1974.

E

Skousen, Royal. “The Earliest Textual Sources for Joseph Smith's “New Translation” of the King James Bible.” The FARMS Review 17, no. 2 (2005): Article 13.

Review of Scott H. Faulring, Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. Joseph Smith's New Translation of the Bible: Original Manuscripts.

Nibley, Hugh. “The Early Christian Prayer Circle.” BYU Studies 19, no. 1, (1978): 41–78.

Reprinted in Mormonism and Early Christianity, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley vol. 4, 45–99. Also reprinted in LDS Views on Early Christianity and Apocrypha: Articles from BYU Studies, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book.

Draws upon a host of sources and shows certain parallels between an early Christian form of prayer and that of the Latter-day Saint prayer circle.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Egypt; Nag Hammadi; early Christianity; prayer circles;temples
Nibley, Hugh. “The Early Christian Prayer Circle.” In Mormonism and Early Christianity, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 4, edited by Todd M. Compton and Stephen D. Ricks. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1987.

Originally published as an article in BYU Studies in 1978.

Draws upon a host of sources and shows certain parallels between an early Christian form of prayer and that of the Latter-day Saint prayer circle.

Nibley, Hugh. “The Early Christian Prayer Circle.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 19, no. 2, (2010): 64-95.

A practice that was eventually condemned by the church because of its Jewish affinities—being found, for example, in the Testaments of Abraham and Job and in the writings of Philo—the prayer circle has a long and complex history in Christian practice. This practice was considered one of the “ mysteries” and therefore was protected from all who weren’t initiated. For the initiated participants, this was a very sacred practice, which demanded unity between all those involved. The prayer circle, generally referred to as a “ dance,” often included hymns, prayers for the living and the dead, and gestures that would prepare the participants for heavenly visitations.

Boccaccini, Gabriele and John J. Collins, eds. The Early Enoch Literature. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2007.
Talmage, James E. “The Earth and Man.” In Science and Mormonism: Cosmos, Earth, and Man, edited by David H. Bailey, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, John H. Lewis, Gregory L. Smith and Michael L. Stark. Interpreter Science and Mormonism Symposia 1, 335–51. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016.

originally published in Deseret News, November 21, 1931, pp. 7-8

Buchanan, Bryan. “Enoch and Noah on Steroids.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 8 (2014): 81-85.

Review of Jeffrey M. Bradshaw and David J. Larsen, In God’s Image and Likeness 2: Enoch, Noah, and the Tower of Babel (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014), 590 pp. (full color interior includes footnotes; endnotes; three excursus sections; annotated bibliography on Enoch and the Flood; comprehensive reference list; thumbnail index of one hundred and eleven illustrations and photographs; and indexes of scriptures referenced, modern prophets quoted, and topics discussed). $49.99 (hardcover).

Reprinted with the kind permission of the Association for Mormon Letters.

Keywords: book review, David J. Larsen, Enoch, In God’s Image and Likeness, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Noah
Larsen, David J. “Enoch and the City of Zion: Can an Entire Community Ascend to Heaven?” BYU Studies 53, no. 1 (2014): 25–37.

In this article, I will explore the notion of communal ascent to heaven in ancient Jewish and Christian literature and seek to answer the questions, Can an entire community ascend to heaven? and Do we see this theme in ancient texts, or is this a complete innovation on the part of Joseph Smith as he sought to unite his followers around an inspiring and unifying goal? To arrive at the answers to these questions, I will analyze a number of ancient Jewish and Christian religious texts that feature the ascent to heaven motif and suggest that not only did their authors envision an individual ascent, but they also imagined groups or communities raised up to the celestial realm.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. Enoch and the Gathering of Zion: The Witness of Ancient Texts for Modern Scripture. Orem, Springville, and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Nibley, Hugh. “Enoch the Prophet.” Lecture given 22 November 1975 for the Pearl of Great Price Symposium, at Brigham Young University.

Reprinted in Enoch the Prophet, Collected Works of Hugh Nibley vol. 2.

Discusses the book of Enoch and its relationship with the Pearl of Great Price.

Keywords: angel(s) adversarial;apocalyptic writings;Apocryphon of John;Bible;Book of Enoch;corruption;cruelty;Daughters of Men;depravity;earth corruption of;earthquakes;Enoch;Enoch Son of Jared;evil;fallen angels;God;God charity of;God wisdom of;heavenly order exploitation of;Holy One;Joseph Smith Jr. and Enoch;mercy;Noah;oaths;ordinances changed;Pearl of Great Price;priestcraft(s);priesthood false;Satan and Enoch;Semiazas;Seth;shame;Sons of Heaven;Syriac Apocalypse of Paul;the Flood;The LORD;theodicy;violence;Watchers;Zohar;CWHN 2;Pearl of Great Price; Book of Moses; Enoch (Prophet)
Nibley, Hugh. “Enoch the Prophet.” In Pearl of Great Price Symposium: A Centennial Presentation, 76–85. Provo, UT: BYU Publications, 1976.

Reprinted in Enoch the Prophet, Collected Works of Hugh Nibley vol. 2.

Discusses the book of Enoch and its relationship with the Pearl of Great Price.

Keywords: angel(s) adversarial;apocalyptic writings;Apocryphon of John;Bible;Book of Enoch;corruption;cruelty;Daughters of Men;depravity;earth corruption of;earthquakes;Enoch;Enoch Son of Jared;evil;fallen angels;God;God charity of;God wisdom of;heavenly order exploitation of;Holy One;Joseph Smith Jr. and Enoch;mercy;Noah;oaths;ordinances changed;Pearl of Great Price;priestcraft(s);priesthood false;Satan and Enoch;Semiazas;Seth;shame;Sons of Heaven;Syriac Apocalypse of Paul;the Flood;The LORD;theodicy;violence;Watchers;Zohar;Pearl of Great Price;Book of Moses;Enoch (Prophet)
Nibley, Hugh. Enoch the Prophet. The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 2, edited by Stephen D. Ricks, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1986. viii + 309 pp.

In the Book of Moses, part of the Latter-day Saint scriptural canon known as the Pearl of Great Price, are what the Prophet Joseph Smith entitled “extracts from the prophecy of Enoch.” These scriptures, says the eminent Latter-day Saint scholar Hugh Nibley, “supply us with the most valuable control yet on the bona fides of the Prophet. . . . We are to test. . . . ‘How does it compare with records known to be authentic?’ The excerpts offer the nearest thing to a perfectly foolproof test—neat, clear-cut, and decisive—of Joseph Smith’s claim to inspiration.”

In Enoch the Prophet, Dr. Nibley examines and defends that claim by examining Joseph Smith’s translations in the context of recently discovered apocryphal sources.

This book contains a collection of various comparisons of the Enoch materials in the Book of Moses with the Slavonic and Ethiopic Enoch texts and other related materials and lore from antiquity, showing the possibility that Joseph Smith’s book of Enoch could be authentic ancient text.

Keywords: Joseph Smith;Enoch (Prophet);Pearl of Great Price;Book of Moses;Moses (Prophet)
Ludlow, Jared. “‘Enoch Walked with God, and He Was Not’: Where Did Enoch Go After Genesis?” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses’ (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Eames, Rulon D. “Enoch, LDS Sources.” In Encyclopedia of Mormonism, edited by Daniel H. Ludlow. 4 vols. 2:457–459. New York City, NY: Macmillan, 1992.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Enoch, Levi, and Peter: Recipients of Revelation in Upper Galilee.” Journal of Biblical Literature 100, no. 4 (December 1981): 575–600.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. “Enoch, Noah, and the Tower of Babel.” In In God’s Image and Likeness 2. Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.

One of the most prominent themes in the first eleven chapters of the Bible is a series of transgressions of boundaries that had been set up in the beginning to separate mankind from the dwelling place of God. This general thesis is useful as far as it goes. In the stories of the transgressions of Adam and Eve, of Cain, of Lamech, of the “sons of God” who married the “daughters of men,” and of the builders of the Tower of Babel, we cannot fail to observe the common thread of a God who places strict boundaries between the human and the divine. Surprisingly, however, a significant and opposite theme has been largely neglected by readers: namely, the fact that within some of these same chapters God is also portrayed as having sought to erase the divine-human boundary for a righteous few, drawing them into His very presence. The prime examples of this motif are, of course, Enoch and Noah, of whom it was explicitly said that they “walked with God.”

Widtsoe, John A. “Enoch, Whom the Lord Took Unto Himself.” The Juvenile Instructor 36, no. 11 (1 June 1901): 342–346.
Orlov, Andrei A. The Enoch-Metatron Tradition. Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism 107. Tübingen, Germany Mohr Siebeck, 2005.
VanderKam, James C. Enoch: A Man for All Generations. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #10: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Enoch Reads from a Book of Remembrance (Moses 6:46–47).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 04, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #11: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Enoch’s Call Raises the Possibility of Repentance (Moses 6:47, 50–68).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 11, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #12: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — The Defeat of the Gibborim and the Roar of the Wild Beasts (Moses 7:13).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 18, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #13: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Imprisonment of the Gibborim (Moses 7:38).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 25, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #14: The Teachings of Enoch — Enoch as a Teacher (Moses 6:51–68).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 01, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #15: The Teachings of Enoch — “The Son of Man, Even Jesus Christ, a Righteous Judge” (Moses 6:57).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 08, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #16: The Teachings of Enoch — “By Water, and Blood, and the Spirit” (Moses 6:58–60).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 15, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #17: The Teachings of Enoch — “By the Water Ye Keep the Commandment” (Moses 6:60, 64).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 22, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #18: The Teachings of Enoch — “Out of the Waters of Judah” (1 Nephi 20:1; JST Genesis 17:3–7).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 29, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #19: The Teachings of Enoch — “By the Spirit Ye Are Justified” (Moses 6:60, 63, 65–66).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 05, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #1: Enoch’s Prophetic Commission (Moses 6:26–36) — Introduction.” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 02, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #20: The Teachings of Enoch — “By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified” (Moses 6:60).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 12, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #21: The Teachings of Enoch — “Thus May All Become My Sons” (Moses 6:59, 66–68).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 19, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #22: Enoch the Prophet and Seer — Enoch’s Transfiguration (Moses 7:1–3).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 26, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #23: Enoch the Prophet and Seer — Enoch’s Prophecy of the Tribes (Moses 7:5–11, 22).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 03, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #24: Enoch, the Prophet and Seer: The End of the Wicked and the Beginnings of Zion (Moses 7:12–18).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 10, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #25: Enoch’s Grand Vision: A Chorus of Weeping (Moses 7:18–49).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 17, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #26: Enoch’s Grand Vision: The Complaining Voice of the Earth (Moses 7:48–49, 54, 61, 64).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 24, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #27: Enoch’s Grand Vision: The Weeping Voice of the Heavens (Moses 7:28–29, 40, 42–43).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 31, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Jacob A. Rennaker, and David J. Larsen. “Essay #28: Enoch’s Grand Vision: The Weeping of Enoch (Moses 7:28–43).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. November 07, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #29: Enoch’s Grand Vision: The Earth Shall Rest (Moses 7:60–69).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. November 14, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #2: Enoch’s Prophetic Commission — The Opening of Enoch’s Mouth and Eyes (Moses 6:31–32, 35).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 09, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #30: Enoch’s Grand Vision: God Receives Zion unto Himself (Moses 7:18–19, 68–69).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. November 21, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #31: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Heavenly Ascent and Ritual Ascent (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. November 28, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #32: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: The Two-Part Pattern of Heavenly and Ritual Ascent (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. December 05, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #33: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses 1 as a “Missing” Prologue to Genesis (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. December 12, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #34: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses in the Spirit World (Moses 1:1–8).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. December 19, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #35: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses Falls to the Earth (Moses 1:9-11).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. December 26, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #36: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses Defeats Satan (Moses 1:12–23).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 02, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #37: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses Ascends to Heaven (Moses 1:24).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 09, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #38: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses Passes Through the Heavenly Veil (Moses 1:25–27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 16, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Matthew L. Bowen, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #39: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: The Names of Moses as “Keywords” (Moses 1:25).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 23, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #3: Enoch’s Prophetic Commission — Enoch As a Lad (Moses 6:31).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 16, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Matthew L. Bowen, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #40: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses’ Vision at the Veil (Moses 1:27–30).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 30, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Matthew L. Bowen, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #41: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses in the Presence of God (Moses 1:31, chapters 2-4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. February 06, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Matthew L. Bowen, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #42: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: “The Words of God” (Moses 1:1–7, 35, 40–42).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. February 13, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Matthew L. Bowen, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #43: Moses 1: A Literary Masterpiece. Many-Great Waters and Moses’ Mission to Baptize (Moses 1:25-26).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. February 20, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Mark J. Johnson. “Essay #44: Moses 1: A Literary Masterpiece. Hebrew Literary Features of Moses 1 (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. February 27, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Mark J. Johnson. “Essay #45: Moses 1: A Literary Masterpiece. Chiasmus in Moses 1 (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. March 06, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #46: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): The Days of Creation and Temple Architecture (Moses 2:1-27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. March 13, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #47: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): The Creation of Light and the Heavenly Host (Moses 2:3-5).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. March 20, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff, Matthew L. Bowen, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #48: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): “This I Did By the Word of My Power” (Moses 2:5).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. March 28, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #49: Let Us Make Man in Our Image, After Our Likeness (Moses 2:26).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. April 03, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #4: Enoch’s Prophetic Commission — Enoch’s Power Over the Elements and His Divine Protection (Moses 6:32, 34).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 23, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #50: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): “Male and Female Created I Them” (Moses 2:27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. April 10, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #51: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): Science and the Creation of Man (Moses 2:26–27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. April 17, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #52: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): The Seventh Day (Moses 3:1–3).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. April 24, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #53: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): Is the transition between Moses 2 and 3 a clumsy stitch or a skillful shift? (Moses 3:4–5).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 01, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #54: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): Spiritual Creation (Moses 3:5–7).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 08, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #55: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): The Garden of Eden as a Model for the Temple in Israel and Old Babylon (Moses 3:8–15).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 15, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #56: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): The Naming of Animals, Angels, Adam, and Eve (Moses 3:8–15).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 22, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #57: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): God Instructs Adam and Eve (Moses 3:15–17).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 29, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #58: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): The Symbolism of the Tree of Knowledge and the Tree of Life (Moses 3:9).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 05, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #59: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): Satan’s Original Glory and the Symbols of Kingship (Moses 4:1–4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 12, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #5: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Were Ancient Enoch Manuscripts the Inspiration for Moses 6–7? (Moses 6–7).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 30, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #60: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The Willing and Unwilling Sons in the Council in Heaven (Moses 4:1-4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 19, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #61: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The Tree in the Sacred Center of the Garden of Eden (Moses 3:9).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 26, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #62: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): What Was the Nature of Satan’s Premortal Proposal? (Moses 4:1–4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 03, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #63: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The False and the True “Keeper of the Gate” (Moses 4:5–12).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 10, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #64: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The False Apron and the Tree of Death and Rebirth (Moses 4:13).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 17, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #65: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): A Curse for the Serpent (Moses 4:14–21).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 24, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #66: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The Challenges and Blessings of Celestial Marriage (Moses 4:22–26).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 31, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #67: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): Was Eve Beguiled? (Moses 4:5–12).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 07, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #68: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The Nakedness and Clothing of Adam and Eve (Moses 3:25, 4:13–17, 27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 14, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #69: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): “Stand Ye in Holy Places, and Be Not Moved” (Moses 4:29–31).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 21, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #6: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Enoch and the Other “Wild Man” (Moses 6:38).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 06, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #70: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The “Temple Work” of Adam and Eve (Moses 4:23–25, 31).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 28, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #71: The Two Ways (Moses 5): The Prayer of Adam and Eve (Moses 5:4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 04, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #72: The Two Ways (Moses 5): Adam, Eve, and the New and Everlasting Covenant (Moses 5:4–6).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 11, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #73: The Two Ways (Moses 5): The Five Celestial Laws (Moses, chapters 5–8).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 18, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #74: The Family of Adam and Eve (Moses 6:1–12).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 25, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #75: Noah (Moses 8): The Sons of God and the Sons of Men (Moses 8:1-21).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 02, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #76: Noah (Moses 8): Was Noah’s Ark Designed as a Floating Temple? (Moses 8:22–30; Genesis 6:5–22; chapters 7–8).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 09, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #77: Noah (Moses 8): Was Noah Drunk or in a Vision? (Genesis 9).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 16, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #7: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Could Joseph Smith Have Borrowed “Mahijah/Mahujah” from the Book of Giants? (Moses 6:40).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 13, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #8: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Mahijah and Mahaway Interrogate Enoch (Moses 6:40).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 20, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #9: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Secret Works, Oaths, and Murders (Moses 6:15).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 27, 2020.
Parry, Donald W. “Eve’s Role as a ‘Help’ (‘ezer) Revisited.” In Seek Ye Words of Wisdom: Studies of the Book of Mormon, Bible, and Temple in Honor of Stephen D. Ricks, edited by Donald W. Parry, Gaye Strathearn and Shon D. Hopkin, 199–216. Orem and Provo, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Religious Education, Brigham Young University, 2020.
Whiting, Michael F. “Evolution and the Gospel: Seeking Grandeur in This View of Life.” In Converging Paths to Truth: The Summerhays Lectures on Science and Religion, edited by Michael D. Rhodes and J. Ward Moody, 151–68. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2011.
Peck, Steven L. Evolving Faith: Wanderings of a Mormon Biologist. Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, Brigham Young University, 2015.
Helyer, Larry R. Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period: A Guide for New Testament Students. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2002.
Woodworth, Jed L. “Extra-Biblical Enoch Texts in Early American Culture.” In Archive of Restoration Culture: Summer Fellows’ Papers 1997–1999, edited by Richard Lyman Bushman, 185–193. Provo, UT: Joseph Fielding Smith Institute for Latter-day Saint History, 2000.

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Eyring, Henry. The Faith of a Scientist. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1967.
Reed, Annette Yoshiko. Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. The First Days and the Last Days: A Verse-By-Verse Commentary on the Book of Moses and JS—Matthew in Light of the Temple. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2021.
Parry, Donald W. “The Flood and the Tower of Babel.” Ensign 28, January 1998, 35–41.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Foreword.” In Name as Key-Word: Collected Essays on Onomastic Wordplay and the Temple in Mormon Scripture, edited by Matthew L. Bowen, ix-xliv. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2018.
Carr, David M. The Formation of the Hebrew Bible: A New Reconstruction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2011.

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Nibley, Hugh. “G-2 Report, Enuma Elish, The Babylonian Poem of the Creation.” 4 pp. s.s., n.d.

A series of handouts prepared in the fifties and early sixties for distribution to various audiences.

“Years ago, it was my custom to communicate to the General Authorities in an occasional brash and self-appointed newsletter (called a ‘G-2 Report’) items of interest dealing with new discoveries which I considered significant. My boldness was not ill-received.” —Quoting a letter from Nibley to Elder Bruce R. McConkie, 2 October 1979.

Keywords: Enuma Elish;Babylonia
Parry, Donald W. “Garden of Eden: Prototype Sanctuary.” In Temples of the Ancient World, edited by Donald W. Parry, 126–151. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1994.

The Garden of Eden pericope (Genesis 2-3) contains a number of powerful symbols that are related to and represent archetypal depictions of subsequent Israelite temple systems. In a cogent manner, the Garden of Eden, as it is referred to throughout the Bible, Pseudepigrapha, and rabbinic writings, served as the prototype, pattern, and/ or originator of subsequent Israelite temples, “a type of archetypal sanctuary.” The garden was not a sanctuary built of cedar or marble, for it is not necessary for a temple to possess an edifice or structure; but rather it was an area of sacred space made holy because God’s presence was found there. Mircea Eliade has stated that the Garden of Eden was the heavenly prototype of the temple, and the Book of Jubilees 3:19 adds that “the garden of Eden is the Holy of Holies, and the dwelling of the Lord.” This essay will examine these claims.

Walton, John H. Genesis 1 as Ancient Cosmology. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011.
Bandstra, Barry L. Genesis 1–11: A Handbook on the Hebrew Text. Baylor Handbook on the Hebrew Bible, ed. W. Dennis Tucker, Jr. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2008.
Wenham, Gordon J., ed. Genesis 1–15. Word Biblical Commentary 1: Nelson Reference and Electronic, 1987.
Anderson, Gary A. The Genesis of Perfection: Adam and Eve in Jewish and Christian Imagination. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001.
Neusner, Jacob, ed. Genesis Rabbah: The Judaic Commentary to the Book of Genesis, A New American Translation. 3 vols. Brown Judaic Studies 104, ed. Jacob Neusner. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1985.
Bowen, Matthew L. “Getting Cain and Gain.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 15 (2015): 115-141.

Abstract: The biblical etiology (story of origin) for the name “Cain” associates his name with the Hebrew verb qny/qnh, “to get,” “gain,” “acquire,” “create,” or “procreate” in a positive sense. A fuller form of this etiology, known to us indirectly through the Book of Mormon text and directly through the restored text of the Joseph Smith Translation, creates additional wordplay on “Cain” that associates his name with murder to “get gain.” This fuller narrative is thus also an etiology for organized evil—secret combinations “built up to get power and gain” (Ether 8:22–23; 11:15). The original etiology exerted a tremendous influence on Book of Mormon writers (e.g., Nephi, Jacob, Alma, Mormon, and Moroni) who frequently used allusions to this narrative and sometimes replicated the wordplay on “Cain” and “getting gain.” The fuller narrative seems to have exerted its greatest influence on Mormon and Moroni, who witnessed the destruction of their nation firsthand — destruction catalyzed by Cainitic secret combinations. Moroni, in particular, invokes the Cain etiology in describing the destruction of the Jaredites by secret combinations. The destruction of two nations by Cainitic secret combinations stand as two witnesses and a warning to latter-day Gentiles (and Israel) against building up these societies and allowing them to flourish.

Keywords: Cain
Givens, Terryl L., and Fiona Givens. The God Who Weeps: How Mormonism Makes Sense of Life. Salt Lake City, UT: Ensign Peak, 2012.
Barker, Margaret. The Great Angel: A Study of Israel’s Second God. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992.

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Orlov, Andrei A. Heavenly Priesthood in the Apocalypse of Abraham. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Reeves, John C. Heralds of that Good Realm: Syro-Mesopotamian Gnosis and Jewish Traditions. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 41, edited by James M. Robinson and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1996.
Nickelsburg, George W. E., ed. Hermeneia: 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1–36; 81–108. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2001.
Hoskisson, Paul Y., ed. Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures. Religious Studies Monograph Series 18. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2001.

Since the beginnings of the Church, those who participated in the Restoration were commanded to keep a history. Latter-day Saints have an abiding interest in the history of God’s dealings with this earth. Similarly, we reverence the history in scripture because our faith is grounded in events that have taken place in the time and space of this earth. Historicity is the study of the authenticity of recorded past events. This significant compilation addresses the issue of historicity as it relates to the scriptures that Latter-day Saints accept as the word of God. With articles from Elder Dallin H. Oaks, Robert J. Matthews, Robert L. Millet, and more, this book provides an inspiring and more complete picture of the necessity for the historical nature of the Latter-day Saint canon.

Matthews, Robert J. “Historicity and the Truthfulness of God.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 141–148. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center, 2001.

While some may argue that gospel truth is separate from historical truth, the gospel cannot be true unless it is also historical. This means that events such as the Creation, Fall, Atonement, and Restoration all truly took place in an identifiable time and place, even if that time and place are not known to us. If these or any gospel events were not historically true, God could not render a righteous judgment on any person.

Oaks, Dallin H. “The Historicity of the Book of Mormon.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 237–248. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2001.

The issue of the historicity of the Book of Mormon highlights the difference between those who rely solely on scholarship and those who rely on revelation, faith, and scholarship. Those who rely solely on scholarship reject revelation and focus on a limited number of issues. But they can neither prove nor disprove the authenticity of the Book of Mormon through their secular evidence and methods. On the other hand, those who rely on a combination of revelation, faith, and scholarship can see and understand all of the complex issues of the Book of Mormon record, and it is only through that combination that the question of the historicity of the Book of Mormon can be answered.

Rosenthal, Franz. The History of al-Ṭabarī. Volume 1: General Introduction and From the Creation to the Flood. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.
Stone, Michael E. A History of the Literature of Adam and Eve. Society of Biblical Literature: Early Judaism and its Literature, ed. William Adler. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1992.
Tomasino, Anthony J. “History Repeats Itself: The “Fall and Noah’s Drunkenness.” Vetus Testamentum 42, no. 1 (January 1992): 128-30.
Matthews, Robert J. “How Joseph Smith Translation Passages Were Selected for the LDS Bible.” In Selected Writings of Robert J. Matthews, edited by Robert J. Matthews. Gospel Scholars Series, 312–313. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1999.
Matthews, Robert J. “How We Got the Book of Moses.” Ensign. January, 1986.

The book of Moses is the first of several documents in the collection of sacred writings published as the Pearl of Great Price. Although this material is currently labeled “Selections from the Book of Moses,” it was not always specified by that name, nor has the content of the material always been exactly as it is today. A quick look at its origin, development, and content can help us more fully appreciate what the book of Moses is, how it came to be, and why it is a unique witness for Jesus Christ.

Angel, Joseph L. “The Humbling of the Arrogant and the “Wild Man” and “Tree Stump” Traditions in the Book of Giants and Daniel 4.” In Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences, edited by Matthew Goff, Loren T. Stuckenbruck and Enrico Morano. Wissenschlaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 360, ed. Jörg Frey, 61-80. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.

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Jackson, Kent P. “‘If And’: A Hebrew Construction in the Book of Moses.” in Bountiful Harvest: Essays in Honor of S. Kent Brown, edited by Andrew C. Skinner, D. Morgan Davis, and Carl Griffin, 205–210. Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, 2012.
Battista, Antonio, and Bellarmino Bagatti. Il Combattimento di Adamo: Testo arabo inedito con traduzione italiana e commento. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1982.
Bowen, Matthew L. ““In the Mount of the Lord It Shall Be Seen” and “Provided”: Theophany and Sacrifice as the Etiological Foundation of the Temple in Israelite and Latter-day Saint Tradition.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 5 (2013): 201-223.

Abstract: For ancient Israelites, the temple was a place where sacrifice and theophany (i.e., seeing God or other heavenly beings) converged. The account of Abraham’s “arrested” sacrifice of Isaac (Genesis 22) and the account of the arrested slaughter of Jerusalem following David’s unauthorized census of Israel (2 Samuel 24; 1 Chronicles 21) served as etiological narratives—explanations of “cause” or “origin”—for the location of the Jerusalem temple and its sacrifices. Wordplay on the verb rāʾâ (to “see”) in these narratives creates an etiological link between the place-names “Jehovah-jireh,” “Moriah” and the threshing floor of Araunah/Ornan, pointing to the future location of the Jerusalem temple as the place of theophany and sacrifice par excellence. Isaac’s arrested sacrifice and the vicarious animal sacrifices of the temple anticipated Jesus’s later “un-arrested” sacrifice since, as Jesus himself stated, “Abraham rejoiced to see my day” (John 8:56). Sacrifice itself was a kind of theophany in which one’s own redemption could be “seen” and the scriptures of the Restoration confirm that Abraham and many others, even “a great many thousand years before” the coming of Christ, “saw” Jesus’s sacrifice and “rejoiced.” Additionally, theophany and sacrifice converge in the canonized revelations regarding the building of the latter-day temple. These temple revelations begin with a promise of theophany, and mandate sacrifice from the Latter-day Saints. In essence, the temple itself was, and is, Christ’s atonement having its intended effect on humanity. .

Keywords: sacrifice, temple, theophany, wordplay
Berman, Joshua. Inconsistency in the Torah: Ancient Literary Convention and the Limits of Source Criticism.. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Horton, George A. Jr. “Insights into the Book of Genesis.” In The Joseph Smith Translation: The Restoration of Plain and Precious Things, edited by Monte S. Nyman and Robert L. Millet, 51–88. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1985.
Jackson, Kent P. “Inspired Additions to Genesis.” In Studies in Scripture, Vol. 3: The Old Testament— Genesis to 2 Samuel, edited by Kent P. Jackson and Robert L. Millet, 35–46. Salt Lake City, UT: Randall Book, 1985.
Van Wagoner, Merrill Y. The Inspired Revision of the Bible. Revised edition. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret News Press, 1963.
Martinez, Florentino Garcia, and Gerard P. Luttikhuizen, eds. Interpretations of the Flood. Themes in Biblical Narrative: Jewish and Christian Traditions 1, ed. Philip S. Alexander and Gerard P. Luttikhuizen. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1998.
Wayment, Thomas A. “Intertextuality and the Purpose of Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible.” In Foundational Texts of Mormonism: Examining Major Early Sources, edited by Mark Ashurst-McGee, Robin Scott Jensen and Sharalyn Howcroft, 74–100. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2018.
Book of Mormon Central Staff and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Introduction to the Book of Moses.” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 02, 2020.
Strack, H. L., and Günter Stemberger. Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash. 2nd ed. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1996.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Ronan J. Head. “The Investiture Panel at Mari and Rituals of Divine Kingship in the Ancient near East.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 4 (2012): 1–42.

This article explores the ancient Near Eastern ritu-als that endowed kings with this power, specifically the rites suggested by the Investiture Panel at the palace of Mari, with specific focus on the motifs of creation, sacred garden, and divine kingship. Because contemporary evidence at Mari relating to an interpretation of the panel and the functions of various rooms of the palace is limited, it will be necessary to rely in part on a careful comparative analysis of religious texts, images, and architecture throughout the ancient Near East, including the Old Testament. Comparative analysis not only has the benefit of increasing our understanding of ancient Mesopotamian religion but also can enrich our understanding of the Bible.

Tsedaka, Benyamim, and Sharon Sullivan, eds. The Israelite Samaritan Version of the Torah. Translated by Benyamim Tsedaka. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2013.

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Interpreter Foundation. “Jackson Article Preview — Did Joseph Smith Use Adam Clarke?” In The Interpreter Foundation. August 18, 2020.
Josephus, Flavius. Jewish Antiquities.. Vol. 5–13 of the Works of Josephus. Translated by Henry St. John Thackaray, Ralph Marcus, Allen Wikgren and Louis H. Feldman. Loeb Classical Library 242, 490, 281, 326, 365, 489, 410, 433, 456. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1930–1965.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah: A Historical and Literary Introduction. 2nd edition. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2005.
Reeves, John C. Jewish Lore in Manichaean Cosmogony: Studies in the Book of Giants Traditions. Monographs of the Hebrew Union College 14. Cincinnati, OH: Hebrew Union College Press, 1992.
deSilva, David A. The Jewish Teachers of Jesus, James and Jude: What Earliest Christianity Learned from the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).
Hamblin, William J. “Joseph or Jung?” In Hugh Nibley Observed, edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Shirley S. Ricks, and Stephen T. Whitlock. Orem, UT, and Salt Lake City: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2021.

This chapter is adapted from a review of Douglas F. Salmon, “Parallelomania and the Study of Latter-day Scripture: Confirmation, Coincidence, or the Collective Unconscious,“ Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 33, no. 2 (2000): 129–56. The article was originally published as William J. Hamblin and Gordon C. Thomasson, “Joseph or Jung? A Response to Douglas Salmon,“ FARMS Review of Books 13, no. 2 (2001): 87–107.

A review of an article written by Douglas F. Salmon.

Keywords: comparative analysis;William J. Hamblin;Douglas F. Salmon;parallelomania;Carl Gustav Jung;Mircea Eliade;archetype;collective unconscious
Calabro, David. “Joseph Smith and the Architecture of Genesis.” In The Temple: Ancient and Restored. Proceedings of the 2014 Temple on Mount Zion Symposium, edited by Stephen D. Ricks and Donald W. Parry. The Temple on Mount Zion Series. Volume 3. 165–181. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016.

During his lifetime, Joseph Smith revealed at least four versions of what I will refer to as the “Genesis account,” which consists of the creation of the world, the experiences of Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, and the events that befell them and their near posterity following the expulsion from the garden. These four versions each differ in important ways from the biblical text in Genesis, and they also differ one from another. The versions of the Genesis account include the following:

(1) scattered references found in the Book of Mormon;

(2) the biblical account as revised in the Book of Moses;

(3) the account in the Book of Abraham; and

(4) the version presented in the temple endowment.

I will focus on the second of these, the Book of Moses, especially chapters 1-7, which were revealed to Joseph Smith from June to December 1830. Many have already pointed out temple-related themes that abound in these chapters.

I will take these discoveries a step further, arguing that Moses 1-7 is fundamentally a ritual text whose elements are adapted to the physical features of the temple of Solomon. I will then discuss how this reading of the Book of Moses might interact with modern scholarship on the biblical book of Genesis, and finally how this reading of Moses can provide insight into ritual performances both ancient and modern

Jackson, Kent P. “Joseph Smith Translating Genesis.” BYU Studies Quarterly 56, no. 4 (2017): 7–28.
Barney, Kevin L. “The Joseph Smith Translation and Ancient Texts of the Bible.” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 19, no. 3 (Fall 1986): 85-102.
Ashurst-McGee, Mark, and Michael Hubbard MacKay. “Joseph Smith Translation Q&A with Mark Ashurst-McGee and Michael Hubbard MacKay.” In From the Desk of Kurt Manwaring. August 4, 2020.
Marsh, W. Jeffrey. The Joseph Smith Translation: Precious Truths Restored. American Fork, UT: Covenant Communications, 2002.
Nyman, Monte S., and Robert L. Millet, eds. The Joseph Smith Translation: The Restoration of Plain and Precious Things. Religious Studies Center Monograph Series 12. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1985.

Ten prominent Church scholars presented at the symposium on the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. Their in-depth study of the Joseph Smith Translation and related scriptures clarifies the Bible from Genesis to Revelation and show how Joseph Smith restored many plain and precious truths to that holy book. This volume brings together those addresses, illuminating this inspired translation as perhaps no other book had done.

Skinner, Andrew C. “Joseph Smith Vindicated Again: Enoch, Moses 7:48, and Apocryphal Sources.” In Reason, Revelation, and Faith: Essays in Honor of Truman G. Madsen, edited by Donald W. Parry, Daniel C. Peterson and Stephen D. Ricks, 365–381. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), 2002.
Wayment, Thomas A. “Joseph Smith, Adam Clarke, and the Making of a Bible Revision.” Journal of Mormon History 46, no. 3 (July 2020): 1–22.
Cirillo, Salvatore. “Joseph Smith, Mormonism, and Enochic Tradition.” Master’s Thesis, Durham University, 2010.
Jackson, Kent P. “Joseph Smith’s Cooperstown Bible: The Historical Context of the Bible Used in the Joseph Smith Translation.” BYU Studies 40, no. 1 (2001): 41–70.

In 1828, the H. and E. Phinney Company in Cooperstown, New York, published a quarto-size edition of the King James Bible. This is the version that Joseph Smith, founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, used in his work when he created a new translation of the Bible. Here the author examines Joseph Smith’€™s marked-up copy of the Phinney Bible as an artifact important to Mormonism’€”some of Smith’€™s corrections and additions appear in footnotes of the Bible that Mormons use today. The author notes that the Phinney Bible’s updated language is more modern than the version of the Bible Latter-day Saints officially use (the King James), and the modernization may or may not have influenced Joseph Smith’€™s word choice in creating his translation. The author also gives biographical information on the Phinneys, describes how their Bible may have made its way into Joseph Smith’€™s hands, briefly traces the history of the English Bible in America, and describes the printing process employed by the Phinneys.

Wayment, Thomas A. “Joseph Smith’s Developing Relationship with the Apocrypha.” In Approaching Antiquity: Joseph Smith and the Ancient World, edited by Lincoln H. Blumell, Matthew J. Grey and Andrew H. Hedges. Brigham Young University Church History Symposium, 331–355. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2015.

Several approaches to interpreting Joseph Smith’s use of the so-called Jewish and Christian apocryphal literature have been employed both by critics of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (hereafter LDS), and by those professing faith in the Church and whose interests may be classified as apologetic. These approaches span the range of being probative of Joseph Smith’s restoration of lost texts and scripture and being dismissive of Mormonism generally, because its sacred religious texts are founded on flagrant plagiarism of apocryphal literature.[1] Before one can answer the most important historical question at hand, how Joseph Smith used the Apocrypha and what relationship that body of literature had to early Mormon writings, it seems prudent to first of all establish some controls on the discussion. This is necessary because previous discussions have largely contented themselves with drawing out parallels between apocryphal writings and early Mormon publications without any discussion of whether or not Joseph Smith had access to the texts under discussion. Moreover, a wide variety of modern translations of ancient apocryphal texts are often employed when there is no possible way that someone living in the early nineteenth century could have known them. This is particularly important when citing phrases or words that Joseph Smith might have incorporated into the language of his revelations.

Jackson, Kent P. “Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 1830.” In Joseph Smith, the Prophet and Seer, edited by Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and Kent P. Jackson, 51–76. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2010.
Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible: Original Manuscripts. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2004.

The latter-day restoration of the gospel included the restoration of much significant truth to the Bible. It brought about the restoration of biblical history that had been lost and the restoration of biblical texts that had been changed or omitted or were in need of clarification. More important, it included the restoration of biblical doctrine that had been either removed, distorted, or simply misinterpreted by a world that did not enjoy the fulness of the gospel.

Shortly after the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint was organized, the Prophet Joseph Smith was instructed by the Lord to undertake a careful reading of the Bible to revise and make corrections in accordance with the inspiration that he would receive. The result was a work of profound significance for the Church that included the revelation of many important truths and the restoration of many of the “precious things” that the Book of Mormon prophet Nephi had foretold would be taken from the Bible (1 Ne. 13:23–29). In June 1830 the first revealed addition to the Bible was set to writing. Over the next three years, the Prophet made changes, additions, and corrections as were given him by divine inspiration while he filled his calling to provide a more correct translation for the Church. Collectively, these are called the Joseph Smith Translation (JST), a name first applied in the 1970s, or the New Translation, as Joseph Smith and others in his day referred to it.

Matthews, Robert J. Joseph Smith’s Revision of the Bible. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1969.
Faulring, Scott H., and Kent P. Jackson, eds. Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible Electronic Library. CD-ROM. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 2011.
Jackson, Kent P. “Joseph Smith’s Translation of the New Testament.” In New Testament History, Culture, and Society, edited by Lincoln H. Blumell, 707–718. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2019.
Brown, Samuel Morris. Joseph Smith’s Translation: The Words and Worlds of Early Mormonism. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2020.
Wayment, Thomas A. “Joseph Smith’s Use of Adam Clarke’s Commentary in the JST.” Interview by Laura Harris Hales. LDS Perspectives Podcast, Episode 55, September 26, 2017. Accessed September 1, 2020.

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Gardner, Iain, ed. The Kephalaia of the Teacher: The Edited Coptic Manichaean Texts in Translation with Commentary. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 37, ed. James M. Robinson and H. J. Klimkeit. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1995.
Jackson, Kent P. “The King James Bible and the Joseph Smith Translation.” In The King James Bible and the Restoration, edited by Kent P. Jackson, 197–211. Provo, UT and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011.
Townsend, Colby (under the pseudonym of Hans Rosekat). “The King James Bible in the Book of Moses, Part 1.” Rational Faiths. April, 12, 2014.

With the recent publication of David Bokovoy’s Authoring the Old Testament: Genesis-Deuteronomy, many have wondered to what extent the Bible has had influence on the Book of Moses. The discussion has mainly revolved around the parts of the text that are obvious revisions of the Genesis creation chapters (Genesis 1, 2-3) that originate from different Israelite sources written centuries after the time of Moses. In response to and in order to make a contribution toward further understanding this topic I will look closely at the full text of the Book of Moses in the original manuscripts (as presented in BYU’s RSC publications) and locate the places of intertextuality. I will present the Book of Moses on a chapter by chapter basis until I arrive at the end, and after this is complete I will offer some thoughts on to what extent the KJV influenced the composition of the Book of Moses. This will take time for each of these posts to come out, and I hope that in the meantime others will utilize the work here to discuss the topic. My approach in these posts is based on my much larger project of locating textual dependence throughout the Book of Mormon on the King James Bible, a manuscript that will be published by Greg Kofford Books.

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Ri, Andreas Su-Min, ed. La Caverne des Trésors: Les deux recensions syriaques. 2 vols. Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 486–487 (Scriptores Syri 207–208). Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 1987.
Morrison, Alexander B. “The Latter-day Saint Concept of Canon.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 1–16. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2001.

Traditional Christianity struggled for many years to define its canon, to determine which of its writings were sacred, inspired, and authoritative. The Latter-day Saint concept of canon differs from that of other Christians. In addition to the Bible, the Latter-day Saint canon includes the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. These “standard works” provide a measuring rod by which we can judge other texts and statements. But while we have a canon, we nevertheless believe that God continues to make known His will through the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles—men we sustain as prophets, seers, and revelators. Inspired by the Holy Ghost, their decisions are to be made in unity (D&C 107:27). We as Church members also need the Holy Ghost in order to recognize scriptural power in their words, and we can be comforted in the Lord’s promise that the President of the Church will never lead us astray.

Woods, Fred E. “The Latter-day Saint Edition of the King James Bible.” In The King James Bible and the Restoration, edited by Kent P. Jackson, 260–280. Provo, UT and Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book and BYU Religious Studies Center, 2011.

During the early 1970s, a practical need arose for a Latter-day Saint edition of the King James Bible. As explained by George A. Horton Jr., director of curriculum production and distribution for the Church Educational System, three different Bibles were in circulation among Church members—one for adults, one for seminary students, and one for Primary children. Not only did this system create an element of chaos, but it also increased costs. [1] About this time, the Spirit of the Lord seemed to be hovering over several people in various organizations within the Church. Two of these people were Horton and his colleague Grant E. Barton, who was then serving as a member of the newly formed Meetinghouse Library Committee. [2] Horton and Barton were neighbors who carpooled together to the Church Office Building, using the occasion to discuss a desire to have one Bible as well as teaching aids for an LDS edition. [3] Barton, Horton, and another colleague decided to survey various organizations of the Church to help them decide “what the ideal characteristics/features would be of the ideal Bible that would be used by all.”

Hauglid, Brian M., and Carl Grifin, eds. Latter-day Saint Scholarship on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Special issue of Studies in the Bible and Antiquity (Volume 2). Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, 2010.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “The LDS Book of Enoch as the Culminating Story of a Temple Text.” BYU Studies 53, no. 1 (2014): 39–73.

In this article, I will suggest how the LDS story of Enoch might be understood as the culminating episode in a temple text cycle woven through the book of Moses. I will begin by giving a brief summary of “temple theology” and what is meant by the term “temple text.” Distinctive aspects of LDS temple teachings will be outlined. I will then outline how the book of Moses reflects elements of temple architecture, furnishings, and ritual in the story of the Creation and the Fall. Like other scripture-based temple texts, the general structure of the second half of the book of Moses follows a pattern exemplifying faithfulness and unfaithfulness to a specific sequence of covenants that is familiar to members of the LDS Church who have received the temple endowment. I argue that the story of Enoch and his people provides a vivid demonstration of the final steps on the path that leads back to God and up to exaltation.

Parry, Donald W., and Dana M. Pike, eds. LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), 1997.
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 10—The Babylon Creation Myth.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 121–132.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Enuma Elish;Creation;Moses 2;Genesis 1;Ancient Near East; Babylon; Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 11—The Human Condition.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 133–44.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Moses 4;Genesis;Fall;mortal life;human condition;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 12—The Plurality of Worlds.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 145–156.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Moses 1;plurality of worlds;worlds without end;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 13—The Pearl of Great Price on the Plurality of Worlds.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 157–170.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Moses 1;plurality of worlds;worlds without end;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 14—Treasures in Heaven.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 171–182.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Moses 1;plurality of worlds;worlds without end;treasures in heaven;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 15—The Geological Problem.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 183–196.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Moses 4;Genesis;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 17—The Heavenly Prologue.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 209–220.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Book of Abraham;Abraham 3;Moses 4;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 18—The Combat.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 221–234.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Moses 1;Satan;devil;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 19—Adam and Eve.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Provo, UT: Maxwell Institute, 1986.
Keywords: Adam;Eve;Book of Moses;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 1—Restoring What Was Lost.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), 1986. 1–14.
Keywords: Pearl of Great Price;Joseph Smith Translation;Book of Moses;Book of Abraham;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 20—The Heritage of Cain.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 247–258.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Moses 5;Cain;Abel;Mahan Principle;curse;mark;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 21—The Eve Theme; The Book of Enoch.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 259–272.
Keywords: Moses 4;Eve;Enoch;Book of Moses;Moses 6;Genesis;Pearl of Great Price; Book of Moses; Enoch (Prophet)
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 22—Enoch.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 273–288.
Keywords: Enoch;Book of Moses;Pearl of Great Price; Book of Moses; Enoch (Prophet)
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 24—The Destruction.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 303–316.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Noah;Flood;Moses 8;Genesis;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 3—Literalism.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 29–42.
Keywords: literalism;symbolism;historicity;Book of Moses;Book of Abraham;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 6—The Creation.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 71–82.
Keywords: Creation;Book of Moses;Book of Abraham;Abraham 4;Moses 2;genesis;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 7—The Council.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 83–94.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Book of Abraham;Moses 4;Abraham 3;Council in Heaven;Premortal Life;Preexistence;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 8—The Council According to the Shabako Stone.” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 95–108.
Keywords: Book of Moses;Book of Abraham;Moses 4;Abraham 3;Council in Heaven;Premortal Life;Preexistence;Shabako Stone;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Lecture 9—The Council According to the Shabako Stone (Continued).” In “Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price.” Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS). 109–120.
Keywords: Pearl of Great Price
Reed, Annette Yoshiko. “The Legacy of Enoch from the Middle Ages.” Paper prepared for pre-circulation for the Tenth Enoch Seminar, June 2019 (DRAFT). In Semantic Scholar.
Calabro, David. “Lehi’s Dream and the Garden of Eden.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 26 (2017): 269–296.
Johnson, M. D. “Life of Adam and Eve.” In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, edited by James H. Charlesworth, Volume 2, 249–295. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1983.
De Jonge, Marinus, and Johannes Tromp. The Life of Adam and Eve and Related Literature. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997.
Tromp, Johannes. The Life of Adam and Eve in Greek: A Critical Edition. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
Mopsik, Charles, ed. Le Livre Hébreu d’Hénoch ou Livre des Palais. Les Dix Paroles, ed. Charles Mopsik. Lagrasse, France: Éditions Verdier, 1989.
Johnson, Mark J. “The Lost Prologue: Reading Moses Chapter One as an Ancient Text.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 36 (2020): 145–186.

Abstract: The character and complexion of the Prophet Joseph Smith’s translation of the Bible (JST) is often a puzzle to students and scholars. One text in particular, the first chapter of the Book of Moses, claims that its very words would be lost and later restored to the believing. As this bold claim has not yet been verified by the discovery of an ancient copy of this text, clues to the antiquity of this document will need to be discovered within the text itself. This study investigates Moses 1 with the tools of biblical and literary criticism to discover if the text has the characteristics and content of an ancient religious document.

Barker, Margaret. The Lost Prophet: The Book of Enoch and its influence on Christianity. London: SPCK, 1988.
Walton, John H. The Lost World of Adam and Eve: Genesis 2–3 and the Human Origins Debate. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2015.
Walton, John H. The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2009.
Robinson, Stephen E. “Lying for God: The Uses of the Apocrypha.” In Apocryphal Writings and the Latter-day Saints, edited by C. Wilfred Griggs, 133–154. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1986.

In this paper I intend to deal primarily with the element of deception in the production and employment of apocryphal literature, particularly as it is revealed by the devices of pseudonymity and pseudepigraphy. I am defining pseudonymity here as an author’s intentional adoption of another persona, not merely as a pen name but as an assumed identity. Thus the Testament of Solomon is pseudonymous because the author has clearly adopted the persona of Solomon and speaks, as Solomon, in the first person. On the other hand, Huckleberry Finn would not be pseudonymous by my definition even though Samuel Clemens used the nom de plume Mark Twain, because Clemens did not adopt a persona other than his own; that is, we may assume that Clemens did not return royalty checks made out to Mark Twain, but rather cashed them unashamedly. Sam Clemens was Mark Twain, and there was no real possibility of confusing one person for the other.

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Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. and Matthew L. Bowen. “‘Made Stronger Than Many Waters’: The Names of Moses as Keywords in the Heavenly Ascent of Moses.” In The Temple: Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the Fifth Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 7 November 2020, edited by Stephen D. Ricks and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. The Temple on Mount Zion Series. Vol. 6, in preparation. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2021.

The idea of names as “keywords” has been associated with temples since very early times. In a temple context, the meaning of the term “keyword” can be taken quite literally: the use of the appropriate keyword or keywords by a qualified worshipper “unlocks” each one of a successive series of gates, thus providing access to specific, secured areas of the sacred space. In this presentation, we will explore how a series of names and titles purportedly given to Moses at various points in his life might relate to accounts of his ascents to heaven.

Brown, S. Kent. “Man and Son of Man: Issues of Theology and Christology.” In The Pearl of Great Price: Revelations from God, edited by H. Donl Peterson and Charles D. Tate, Jr., 57–72. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1989.

First, I want to deal with the figure of the Son of Man in ancient literature, reviewing along the way what current biblical scholarship says about this personality, especially since he is mentioned prominently in nonscriptural sources. Second, I intend to treat the question of the anthropomorphic view of God in scripture, specifically in the Old Testament. Third, I wish to touch on the issue of the nature of the titles used for deity throughout scripture, for we all have the impression that a great many are applied to God, especially within the pages of the Old Testament. Fourth and last, I want to single out the parallels in ancient Christian and Jewish literature to the remarkable, almost singular theological position to which we Latter-day Saints are committed when we call deity a Man, whether Man of Holiness, Man of Counsel (Moses 7:35), or some similar title.

Nibley, Hugh. “Man's Dominion.” New Era.

Pointed social commentary concerning the state of the natural environment.

Keywords: stewardship for creation;environment;man’s dominion;Adam and Eve
Gulácsi, Zsuzsanna. Mani’s Pictures: The Didactic Images of the Manichaeans from Sasanian Mesopotamia to Uygur Central Asia and Tang-Ming China. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 90. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2015.
Sundermann, Werner. Mittelpersische und parthische kosmogonische und Parabeltexte der Manichäer. Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients 8. Berlin, Germany: Akademie-Verlag, 1973.
Ash, Michael R. “The Mormon Myth of Evil Evolution.” Dialogue 35, no. 4 (2002): 19-59.
Bushman, Richard L. “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 46 (2021): 291-312.

Abstract: In this essay, Richard Bushman borrows a critical perspective from Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. He analyzes the representation of antiquity in two of Joseph Smith’s striking translations, the Book of Mormon and the Book of Moses. The two texts, produced within a few years of one another, created distinctive stages on which to dramatize the human-God relationship. The question is: What can we learn from this comparison about God, prophets, and human destiny?

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the Latter-day Saint community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See Richard L. Bushman, “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality,” in Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Springville, UT: Book of Mormon Central; Redding, CA: FAIR; Tooele, UT: Eborn Books, 2021), 51–74. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/ancient-threads-in-the-book-of-moses/.].

Keywords: Book of Mormon, Book of Moses, deity, prophets
Evenson, William E., and Duane E. Jeffery, eds. Mormonism and Evolution: The Authoritative LDS Statements. Draper, UT: Greg Kofford Books, 2005.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Ronan J. Head. “Mormonism’s Satan and the Tree of Life.” Element: A Journal of Mormon Philosophy and Theology 4, no. 2 (2010): 1-54.

Longer version of an invited presentation originally given at the 2009 Conference of the European Mormon Studies Association, Turin, Italy, July 30-31, 2009

Shannon, Avram. “Mormons and Midrash: On the Composition of Expansive Interpretation in Genesis Rabbah and the Book of Moses.” BYU Studies Quarterly 54, no. 2 (2015): 15–34.

One of the intriguing things about religious texts is how long of a life and how long of an afterlife they have. Once a text becomes a part of a “canon,” once it becomes in a way fixed, it becomes open to further discussion and elaboration. Different groups and religious traditions create different genres of interpretation to work with and understand their scriptures according to the needs of their traditions. One form of interpretation involves reopening the Bible and expanding on the narrative of the already canonized text, such as is found in the rabbinic genre of midrash and in Joseph Smith’s New Translation (JST) of the Bible.

Barlow, Philip L. Mormons and the Bible: The Place of the Latter-day Saints in American Religion. Updated ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Philip L. Barlow offers an in-depth analysis of the approaches taken to the Bible by major Mormon leaders, from its beginnings to the present. He shows that Mormon attitudes toward the Bible comprise an extraordinary mix of conservative, liberal, and radical ingredients: an almost fundamentalist adherence to the King James Version co-exists with belief in the possibility of new revelation and surprising ideas about the limits of human language. Barlow’s exploration takes important steps toward unraveling the mystery of this quintessential American religious phenomenon. This updated edition of Mormons and the Bible includes an extended bibliography and a new preface, casting Joseph Smith’s mission into a new frame and treating evolutions in Mormonism’s biblical usage in recent decades.

Givens, Terryl L. “Mortality Reconsidered: The Book of Moses as a Pre-Augustinian Text.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses’ (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Moses 1 and the Apocalypse of Abraham: Twin Sons of Different Mothers?” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 38 (2020): 179–290.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., David J. Larsen and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Moses 1 and the Apocalypse of Abraham: Twin Sons of Different Mothers?” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 38 (2020): 179-290.

Abstract: This article highlights the striking resemblances between Moses 1 and a corresponding account from the Apocalypse of Abraham (ApAb), one of the earliest and most important Jewish texts describing heavenly ascent. Careful comparative analysis demonstrates a sustained sequence of detailed affinities in narrative structure that go beyond what Joseph Smith could have created out of whole cloth from his environment and his imagination. The article also highlights important implications for the study of the Book of Moses as a temple text. Previous studies have suggested that the story of Enoch found in the Pearl of Great Price might be understood as the culminating episode of a temple text woven throughout chapters 2–8 of the Book of Moses. The current article is a conceptual bookend to these earlier studies, demonstrating that the account of heavenly ascent in Moses 1 provides a compelling prelude to a narrative outlining laws and liturgy akin to what could have been used anciently as part of ritual ascent within earthly temples.

Keywords: Apocalypse of Abraham, Book of Moses, Pearl of Great Price, temple text
Holland, Jeffrey R. “My Words … Never Cease.” Ensign 38, no. 5, May 2008, 91–94.

We invite all to inquire into the wonder of what God has said since biblical times and is saying even now.

Stuckenbruck, Loren T. The Myth of Rebellious Angels. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2017.

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Embry, Brad. “The ‘Naked Narrative’ from Noah to Leviticus: Reassessing Voyeurism in the Account of Noah’s Nakedness in Genesis 9:22-24.” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 35, no. 4 (2011): 417-33.
Ricks, Stephen D. “The Narrative Call Pattern in the Prophetic Commission of Enoch.” BYU Studies 26, no. 4 (1986): 97–105.

There is a striking example of a “narrative” type call in the prophetic commission of Enoch in Moses 6:23–36. This study considers the elements of the narrative call pattern; those elements of this form found in the prophetic commission of Enoch are examined and compared with the biblical narrative call passages.

Hoskisson, Paul Y. “The Need for Historicity: Why Banishing God from History Removes Historical Obligation.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 99–121. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2001.

Key historical events in the scriptures require historicity to give substance to our faith. Since the Enlightenment, however, some scholars have proclaimed that the scriptures lack historicity. In the face of these doubts, some have argued that historicity is not necessary for belief. Latter-day Saints should be wary of the misleading arguments of critics and of simplistic solutions to those arguments.

Jackson, Kent P. “New Discoveries in the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible.” In By Study and by Faith: Selections from the Religious Educator, revised edition, edited by Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and Kent P. Jackson, 169–181. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2009.

In November 2004 the Religious Studies Center at Brigham Young University published a facsimile transcription of all the original manuscripts of the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. [1] I was privileged to be one of the editors of the project and worked with those manuscripts in preparing the publication. A facsimile transcription seeks to reproduce in print—as much as is humanly and typographically possible—the writing found on a handwritten document. Thus the transcription includes the writers’ original spelling, grammar, punctuation, line endings, omissions, errors, insertions, and deletions. The purpose of the publication is to provide scholars and lay readers with an accurate reproduction of the text as found on Joseph Smith’s original manuscripts. Its importance is in the fact that those documents had never been made public before but were stored in archives that were only available for study to a limited number of researchers.

Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. “New Testament Revision 1.” The Joseph Smith Papers.
Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. “New Testament Revision 2.” The Joseph Smith Papers.
Freedman, David Noel. The Nine Commandments. Des Moines, IA: Anchor Bible, 2000.
Freedman, David Noel. “The Nine Commandments.” Presented at the Proceedings of the 36th Annual Convention of the Association of Jewish Libraries, La Jolla, CA, June 24-27, 2001.
Stone, Michael E., Aryeh Amihay, and Vered Hillel, eds. Noah and His Book(s). Early Judaism and Its Literature 28, ed. Judith H. Newman. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2010.
Dimant, Devorah. “Noah in Early Jewish Literature.” In Biblical Figures Outside the Bible, edited by Michael E. Stone and Theodore A. Bergren, 123-50. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1998.
Cohn, Norman. Noah’s Flood: The Genesis Story in Western Thought. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.
Bergsma, John Sietze, and Scott Walker Hahn. “Noah’s Nakedness and the Curse on Canaan (Genesis 9:20-27).” Journal of Biblical Literature 124, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 25-40.
Peterson, Daniel C. “Notes on Historicity and Inerrancy.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 197–215. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center, 2001.

Some believe that historicity and inerrancy in scripture are the same. By this argument, when a portion of scripture is found to have errors, the entire record is considered neither historical nor accurate. However, nothing in this imperfect world is inerrant, and although the authors of the scriptural records were prophets and called of God to write their portion of the scriptures, they were not perfect—no one is. So although the authors were not inerrant, their writings are nonetheless historical. By academic standards the scriptures fulfill all the criteria for historically accurate records. With the human errors accounted for, the scriptures are reliable historically and accurate in their testimony of the doctrines of the gospel and the mission of Jesus Christ.

Wevers, John William. Notes on the Greek Text of Genesis. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1993.

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Clark, David L. Of Heaven and Earth: Reconciling Scientific Thought with LDS Theology. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1998.
Maxwell, Neal A. Of One Heart: The Glory of the City of Enoch. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1980.
Jackson, Kent P., and Scott H. Faulring. “Old Testament Manuscript 3: An Early Transcript of the Book of Moses.” Mormon Historical Studies 5, no. 2 (Fall 2004): 113–144.
Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 2 vols. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1983.
Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. “Old Testament Revision 1.” The Joseph Smith Papers.
Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. “Old Testament Revision 2.” The Joseph Smith Papers.
Peterson, Daniel C. “On the Motif of the Weeping God in Moses 7.” In Revelation, Reason, and Faith: Essays in Honor of Truman G. Madsen, edited by Donald W. Parry, Daniel C. Peterson and Stephen D. Ricks, 285–317. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), 2002.
Silverman, Jason M., ed. Opening Heaven’s Floodgates: The Genesis Flood Narrative, Its Context and Reception. Bible Intersections 12. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias, 2013.
Young, Brigham. “The Order of Enoch.” Remarks delivered in the Bowery, Logan City, Sunday Morning, 29 June 1873. In Journal of Discourses 16, 122–123. Liverpool and London, England: Latter-day Saints Book Depot, 1853–1886. Reprint, Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1966.
Sorenson, John L. “Origin of Man.” In Encyclopedia of Mormonism, edited by Daniel H. Ludlow. 4 vols. Vol. 3, 1053-54. New York City, NY: Macmillan, 1992.
Paulsen-Reed, Amy Elizabeth. The Origins of the Apocalypse of Abraham. Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Theology in the subject of the Hebrew Bible. Harvard Divinity School. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2016.

The Apocalypse of Abraham, a pseudepigraphon only extant in a fourteenth century Old Church Slavonic manuscript, has not received much attention from scholars of Ancient Judaism, due in part to a lack of readily available information regarding the history and transmission of the Slavonic Pseudepigrapha. This dissertation examines the historical context of these works with the aim of assessing the probability that they contain ancient Jewish material. The rest of the dissertation is focused on the Apocalypse of Abraham specifically, discussing its date and provenance, original language, probability that it comes from Essene circles, textual unity, and Christian interpolations. This includes treatments of the issue of free will, determinism, and predestination in the Apocalypse of Abraham as well as the methodological complexities in trying to distinguish between early Jewish and Christian works. It also provides an in-depth comparison of the Apocalypse of Abraham with 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch and takes up the question of the social setting for these texts based on relevant precedents set by recent scholars of midrash who seek to probe the “socio-cultural and historical situatedness” of midrashic texts. This discussion includes a survey of parallels between the content of the Apocalypse of Abraham and rabbinic literature to support the argument that a sharp distinction between apocalyptic ideas and what later became rabbinic tradition did not exist in the time between 70 and 135 C.E. Overall, this dissertation argues that the Apocalypse of Abraham is an early Jewish document written during the decades following the destruction of the Second Temple. While seeking to warn its readers of the dangers of idolatry in light of the apocalyptic judgment still to come, it also provides sustained exegesis of Genesis 15, which gives cohesion to the entire document.

Feldman, Louis H., James L. Kugel, and Lawrence H. Schiffman, eds. Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture. 3 vols. Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Publication Society, 2013.

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Cox, Paul Alan. “Paley’s Stone, Creationism, Eschatology, and Conservation.” In Stewardship and the Creation: LDS Perspectives on the Environment, edited by George B. Handley, Terry B. Ball, and Stephen L. Peck, 33–42. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2006.
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 1.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, October 1975, 78–84.

A discussion of the Book of Enoch as extracts of “The Writings of Moses.”

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses;Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 10.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, March 1977, 86–90.

This exciting and penetrating comparison of the Joseph Smith book of Enoch, with four known variant manuscripts of that ancient work, provides yet another evidence of the Prophet’s inspiration and the scope of his vision in the great work of the Restoration.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 11.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, April 1977, 78–89.

This follows the idea that Enoch had great cosmological visions.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 12.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, June 1977, 78–90.

The deliberate wickedness of the people at Enoch’s time created a moral turbulence that was reflected in chaotic nature, such as earthquakes.

In this installment, Brother Nibley first concludes his discussion of the veil, then uses scriptural sources from the book of Moses and nonscriptural accounts by apochryphal writers of texts not available to Joseph Smith to give us an intriguing image of Enoch’s holy city.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 13.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, August 1977, 64–65.

A discussion of the translation of the Dead Sea Scroll book of Enoch.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 2.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, December 1975, 72–76.

With the October 1975 issue, the Ensign began a series on the book of Enoch authored by Hugh Nibley. As Part 1 recounts, early Christian writers knew and respected the book of Enoch, but biblical scholars neglected it in scorn after the excitement of the Reformation was over. However, James Bruce, exploring the sources of the Nile in 1773, brought back three copies. Part 2 describes the critical response—or lack of it—to these documents and then turns to examining the four versions of the book of Enoch against which Joseph Smith’s writing must be judged.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 3.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, February 1976, 64–68.

This section of the examination of Enoch compared Joseph Smith’s book of Enoch step-by-step with four main classes of documents, commonly designated as the following: I Enoch (the Ethiopic texts, beginning with the three brought to England by Bruce in 1773), II Enoch (also called the Secrets of Enoch in Old Slavonic), III Enoch (Enoch texts in Greek), and scattered Hebrew and Aramaic Enoch fragments. Since these are to serve as checks on the reliability of the Prophet Joseph, the qualifications of each should be briefly considered.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 4.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, March 1976, 62–66.

Discusses how Christian Enoch’s writings are.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 5.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, April 1976, 60–64.

Suggests that what is written on earth is written in heaven and discusses how that comes into play with writing spiritual matters that the Lord has commanded be written.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 6.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, July 1976, 64–68.

The Improvement Era was an official magazine of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints between 1897 and 1970.

A study of the book of Enoch as a recording of sacred matters.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 7.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, October 1976, 76–81.

Suggests parallels to Moses 1, which lie far beyond the reach of coincidence or daydreaming. The number of details and the order in which they occur make it perfectly clear that we are dealing with specific works of great antiquity which come from a common source. To show what they mean, they compare Moses’s, Abraham’s, and Adam’s confrontations with Satan.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 8.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, December 1976, 73–78.

The purpose of these articles is to (1) call attention to some of the long-ignored aspects of the Joseph Smith account of Enoch in the book of Moses and in the Inspired Version of Genesis and (2) provide at the same time some of the evidence that establishes the authenticity of that remarkable text. Contemporary learning offered few checks to the imagination of Joseph Smith; the enthusiasm of his followers presented none.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Part 9.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, February 1977, 66–75.

Addresses the dangers of oversimplifying the scriptures and attempts to look at the Book of Mormon without such oversimplification.

Keywords: Book of Enoch;Pearl of Great Price;Enoch;Book of Moses
Nibley, Hugh. “Patriarchy and Matriarchy.” In Blueprints for Living: Perspectives for Latter-day Saint Women 1, edited by Maren M. Mouritsen, 44–61. Provo, UT: BYU Press, 1980.

Reprinted in Old Testament and Related Studies, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 1. 87–114.

An address given at the BYU Women’s Conference, 1 February 1980.

Keywords: Abraham;Adam;Agamemnon;Akish;angel(s);apostasy;archetypal;ashamed;bridal chamber;Cain;careerism;celestial order;Christian(s) literature;corruption;creation(s) drama(s);daughter of Jared;different natures;disobedience;Egypt;Egyptian;enmity;Enoch;envy;Eve;family;Iliad;Jared;jealousy;Jesus Christ;knowledge;labor;Lamech;light;Maat;Macbeth;marriage;matriarchy;Moses;Mother Earth;Mother of the Living;Nimrod;Odysseus;patriarchal;patriarchy;Penelope;Pharaoh;power(s);Prometheus;Sarah;Satan;Shakespeare;sorrow;temptation(s);the Bridegroom;the Flood;the Gospel;The LORD;The Pearl;Troy;Watchers;Zeus
Millet, Robert L., and Kent P. Jackson, eds. The Pearl of Great Price. Studies in Scripture: Volume 2. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1989.
Brigham Young University. Pearl of Great Price Symposium: A Centennial Presentation, November 22, 1975. Robert J. Matthews, Chairman. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University [The Department of Ancient Scripture], 1976.
Hunsaker, O. Glade. “Pearl of Great Price, Literature.” In Encyclopedia of Mormonism, edited by Daniel H. Ludlow. 4 vols. 3:1072. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1992.
Peterson, H. Donl. The Pearl of Great Price: A History and Commentary. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1987.
Draper, Richard D., S. Kent Brown, and Michael D. Rhodes. The Pearl of Great Price: A Verse-by-Verse Commentary. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2005.
Peterson, H. Donl and Charles D. Tate Jr., eds. The Pearl of Great Price: Revelations from God. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 1989.

“For behold, this is my work and my glory—to bring to pas the immortality and eternal life of man.” This profound doctrinal statement is one of many contained in the Pearl of Great Price, the smallest of the standard works and the last to be canonized. Studying that scripture in depth adds immensely to our understanding of the Lord’s eternal plan. Comprising addresses delivered at a symposium on the Pearl of Great Price, this book combines the insights and testimonies of thirteen gospel scholars. All things were created to bear witness of God. As here shown, the Pearl of Great Price does that in many ways.

Givens, Terryl L., and Brian M. Hauglid. The Pearl of Greatest Price: Mormonism’s Most Controversial Scripture. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2019.
Philo. Philo. 12 vols. The Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939–1953.
Kraft, Robert A. “Philo (Josephus, Sirach and Wisdom of Solomon) on Enoch.” Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers 13 (1978): 253–257.
Millet, Robert L., and Robert J. Matthews, eds. Plain and Precious Truths Restored: The Doctrinal and Historical Significance of the Joseph Smith Translation. Papers presented at the BYU Symposium ‘As Translated Correctly’: Joseph Smith’s Translations of the Bible, January 13–14, 1995. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1995.
Matthews, Robert J. “A Plainer Translation”: Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible—A History and Commentary. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1975.
Marsh, W. Jeffrey, and Thomas E. Sherry. “Precious Truths Restored: Joseph Smith Translation Changes Not Included in Our Bible.” Religious Educator 5, no. 2 (2004): 56–74.
Sherry, Thomas E., and W. Jeffrey Marsh. “Precious Truths Restored: Joseph Smith Translation Changes Not Included in Our Bible.” The Religious Educator: Perspectives on the Restored Gospel 5, no. 2 (2004): 57–74.

The more we are acquainted with the life and ministry of the Prophet Joseph Smith, the more evident it becomes that Elder John Taylor did not overstate reality when he said that “Joseph Smith, the Prophet and Seer of the Lord, has done more, save Jesus only, for the salvation of men in this world, than any other man that ever lived in it” (D&C 135:3). This passage goes on to specify that it was the abun­dance of revelation and scripture given Joseph Smith that particularly qualified him for such a lofty epithet.

Parry, Donald W. Preserved in Translation: Hebrew and Other Ancient Literary Forms in the Book of Mormon. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2020.
Welch, John W., and Jackson Abhau. “The Priestly Interests of Moses the Levite.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses’ (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Elieson, Marc S. Principles of the Pearl of Great Price: A Topical Commentary. Lubbock, TX: Enterprise Books, 2001.

An essay published posthumously in which England wrestles with what he believed to be a disturbing trend in Mormonism away from what he saw as Joseph Smith’s and Brigham Young’s doctrine of God as a personal being engaged with us in a tragic universe not of his own making and toward a more absolutistic God similar to the teachings about deity held by Evangelical Christianity.

Welch, John W., and Donald W. Parry, eds. Proceedings of the Chiasmus Jubilee Conference at BYU, August 15–16, 2017, sponsored by Book of Mormon Central and BYU Studies. BYU Studies Quarterly 59 - Special Supplement, 2020.

This book comprises fourteen of the papers presented at “Chiasmus: An Open Conference on the State of the Art,” held at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, on August 15–16, 2017. That date marked the fiftieth anniversary of events in Germany and Austria which soon grew into the publication of Chiasmus in Antiquity: Structures, Analyses, Exegesis (Hildesheim: Gerstenberg, 1981), edited by John W. Welch. Generated forty years ago, that widely-cited volume with a preface by David Noel Freedman featured contributions by authors including Yehuda T. Radday, Jonah Frankel, Bezael Porten, Wilford G. E. Watson, John W. Welch, and Robert F. Smith, about chiasmus in Ugaritic, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and other literatures.

Jackson, Kent P., and Peter M. Jasinski. “The Process of Inspired Translation: Two Passages Translated Twice in the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible.” BYU Studies 42, no. 2 (2003): 35–64.

Since 1996, researchers from Brigham Young University—with the assistance of new photographs, scanned images, and much hands-on examination of the documents—have been engaged in a careful study of the text written on the original manuscripts of the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. The work has yielded the publication of a large facsimile transcription of all the original manuscript pages and much new information about how Joseph Smith prepared the text. Among the many new discoveries resulting from this research is an enhanced understanding of the sequence and chronology of the Prophet’s work.

Clark, E. Douglas. “A Prologue to Genesis: Moses 1 in Light of Jewish Traditions.” BYU Studies 45, no. 1 (2006): 129–142.

Referring to ancient and long-lost scripture that Joseph Smith restored, Wilford Woodruff declared it to be part of “the rich treasures that are revealed unto us in the last days.” One such treasure is Moses chapter 1, a scriptural jewel we have hardly begun to appreciate but whose luster has become more apparent in light of various ancient texts and traditions that have emerged since Joseph Smith’s day. So striking are the parallels as to recall Joseph’s own prophecy that “the world will prove Joseph Smith a true prophet by circumstantial evidence.”

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Wayment, Thomas A., and Haley Wilson-Lemmon. “A Recovered Resource: The Use of Adam Clarke’s Bible Commentary in Joseph Smith’s Bible Translation.” In Producing Ancient Scripture: Joseph Smith’s Translation Projects and the Making of Mormon Christianity, edited by Mark Ashurst-McGee, Michael Hubbard MacKay and Brian M. Hauglid, 262–284. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 2020.
Eyring, Henry. Reflections of a Scientist. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1983.
Church Educational System. Religion 327: The Pearl of Great Price Student Manual. Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2017.

The Pearl of Great Price is a book of scripture, and the Lord will bless you as you carefully read and ponder the sacred words found therein. This student manual provides statements and commentary to support and enhance your study of the Pearl of Great Price.

Church Educational System. Religion 327: The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual. Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2017.
Wilkens, Jens. “Remarks on the Manichaean Book of Giants: Once Again on Mahaway’s Mission to Enoch.” In Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences, edited by Matthew Goff, Loren T. Stuckenbruck and Enrico Morano. Wissenschlaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 360, ed. Jörg Frey, 213-29. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.
Howard, Richard P. Restoration Scriptures. 2nd ed. Independence, MO: Herald House, 1995.
Jackson, Kent P. The Restored Gospel and the Book of Genesis. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2001.
Kulik, Alexander. Retroverting Slavonic Pseudepigrapha: Toward the Original of the Apocalypse of Abraham. Text-Critical Studies 3, edited by James R. Adair, Jr. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2004.
Townsend, Colby. “Returning to the Sources: Integrating Textual Criticism in the Study of Early Mormon Texts and History.” Intermountain West Journal of Religious Studies 10, no. 1 (2019): 55–85.

As historians engage with literary texts, they should ask a few important questions. What is the text that I am using in my research? What is the manuscript tradition from which the manuscript or text evolved? How does that evolution inform the specific period I am studying? Did it evolve orally or in written form? And are there variations that have been handed down through time and through tradition that may provide greater context or clarity to my research? Implicit in these questions is an interest in authenticity and accuracy. As literary texts evolve and are shared over time, there are multiple factors that may lead a text away from its earliest forms, such as when a narrative is orally transmitted over multiple generations and then recorded in writing or when a manuscript is repeatedly copied by hand and errors are introduced into the text. The attempt to ascertain the earliest forms of a text is known as textual criticism. This branch of scholarship started in earnest at the beginning of the European Renaissance from the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, and led to the European Enlightenment of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In this article I will argue that scholars of Mormon history have not yet taken advantage of the historical insights that textual criticism has to offer, as a means of persuading the academic community to embrace this important methodology.

Barney, Kevin L. “Review of David Bokovoy Authoring the Old Testament.” By Common Consent, February 23, 2014.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Review of ‘The Older Testament, by Margaret Barker’” Journal of Biblical Literature 109, no. 2 (Summer 1990): 335–337.
Townsend, Colby. “Revisiting Joseph Smith and the Availability of the Book of Enoch.” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 53, no. 3 (Fall 2020): 41–71.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., Jacob A. Rennaker and David J. Larsen. “Revisiting the Forgotten Voices of Weeping in Moses 7: A Comparison with Ancient Texts.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 2 (2012): 41-71.

Abstract: The LDS Book of Moses is remarkable in its depiction of the suffering of the wicked at the time of the Flood. According to this text, there are three parties directly involved in the weeping: God (Moses 7:28; cf. v. 29), the heavens (Moses 7:28, 37), and Enoch (Moses 7:41, 49). In addition, a fourth party, the earth, mourns—though does not weep—for her children (Moses 7:48–49). The passages that speak of the weeping God and the mourning earth have received the greatest share of attention by scholars. The purpose of this article is to round out the previous discussion so as to include new insights and ancient parallels to the two voices of weeping that have been largely forgotten—that of Enoch and that of the heavens. ((An expanded and revised version of material contained in this study will appear as part of Jeffrey M. Bradshaw and David J. Larsen, Enoch, Noah, and the Tower of Babel (Salt Lake City, UT: Eborn Publishing, forthcoming, 2014). All translations from non-English sources are by the first author unless otherwise specifically noted.)) .

Keywords: Enoch, Moses, weeping
Townsend, Colby. “Rewriting Eden with the Book of Mormon: Joseph Smith and the Reception of Genesis 1-6 in Early America.” Master of Arts Thesis. Utah State University, 2019.

The colonists living in the new United States after the American War for Independence were faced with the problem of forming new identities once they could no longer recognize themselves, collectively or individually, as subjects of Great Britain. After the French Revolution American politicians began to weed out the more radical political elements of the newly formed United States, particularly by painting one of the revolution’s biggest defenders, Thomas Paine, as unworthy of the attention he received during the American War for Independence, and fear ran throughout the states that an anarchic revolution like the French Revolution could bring the downfall of the nation. State, local, and regional organizations sprang up to fight Jacobinism, the legendary secret group of murderers and anarchists that fought against the French government.

This distressing situation gave rise to new literature that sought to describe the “real” origins and background of Jacobinism in the War in Heaven and in Eden, and a new movement against Jacobinism was established. Fears about the organization of secret societies did not wane in the decades after the French Revolution, but worsened in the last half of the 1820s when a Freemason, William Morgan, disappeared under mysterious circumstances in connection to an exposé of Masonry he had written. Most Americans assumed that Freemasons had abducted and murdered Morgan in order to keep their oaths and rites secret.

One influential early American who was influenced by this socio-historical was Joseph Smith, Jr., the founding prophet of Mormonism. Smith interpreted the Eden narrative in light of the movement against secret societies, and literary motifs common to anti-Jacobin literature during the period provided language and interpretive strategies for understanding the Eden narrative that would influence how Smith produced his new scripture. Only a few months after the publication of the Book of Mormon Smith edited the version of Eden found there into the text of the Bible itself and made the biblical narrative conform to the version found in the Book of Mormon through his own revisions and additions.

Huntington, Ray L., and Brian M. Hauglid. “Robert J. Matthews and His Work with the Joseph Smith Translation.” The Religious Educator: Perspectives on the Restored Gospel 5, no. 2 (2004): 23–47.

In 1979, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints published its edition of the King James Version of the Bible. The Scriptures Publication Committee decided to include portions of the Joseph Smith Translation in the new edition. For the first time, Latter-day Saints had access to Joseph’s inspired work in their own personal scriptures. Many Latter-day Saints may be unaware that the efforts to include the JST material in the new edition of the Bible were pioneered by Robert J. Matthews, former dean of Religious Education at Brigham Young University. Beginning in 1953, Brother Matthews began a letter-writing campaign to the RLDS Church (now called the Community of Christ), requesting permission to study the original JST manuscripts. Through his sustained efforts, the RLDS Church gave Brother Matthews permission to examine the manuscripts.

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Holland, David F. Sacred Borders: Continuing Revelation and Canonical Restraint in Early America. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Nibley, Hugh. “Sacred Vestments.” In Temple and Cosmos: Beyond This Ignorant Present, Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, vol. 12. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1992.

In Temple and Cosmos, Brother Nibley explains the relationship of the House of the Lord to the cosmos. In Temple, the first part of the volume, he focuses on the nature, meaning, and history of the temple, discussing such topics as sacred vestments, the circle and the square, and the symbolism of the temple and its ordinances. In the second part, Cosmos, he discusses the cosmic context of the temple-the expanding gospel, apocryphal writings, religion and history, the genesis of the written word, cultural diversity in the universal church, and the terrible questions: Where did we come from? Why are we here? and Where are we going?

This lecture was originally accompanied by slides. It was circulated in two different editions in 1986 and 1987 and was available in a much expanded version, including illustrations, in 1988.

See also: “Sacred Vestments” (1975)
Wenham, Gordon J. “Sanctuary Symbolism in the Garden of Eden Story.” In I Studied Inscriptions Before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1–11, Sources for Biblical and Theological Study, Volume 4, edited by Richard S. Hess and David Toshio Tsumura, 399–404. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1994.
Lewis, John S. “The Scale of Creation in Space and Time.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 8 (2014): 71-80.

Abstract: The accounts of creation in Genesis, Moses, and Abraham as well as in higher endowments of knowledge given to the faithful are based on visions in which the seer lacked the vocabulary to describe and the knowledge to interpret what he saw and hence was obliged to record his experiences in the imprecise language available to him. Modern attempts to explain accounts of these visions frequently make use of concepts and terminology that are completely at odds with the understanding of ancient peoples: they project anachronistic concepts that the original seer would not have recognized. This article reviews several aspects of the creation stories in scripture for the purpose of distinguishing anachronistic modern reinterpretations from the content of the original vision.

This essay derives from a presentation made at the 2013 Interpreter Symposium on Science and Religion: Cosmos, Earth, and Man on November 9, 2013. Details on the event, including links to videos, are available at journal.interpreterfoundation.org. An expanded version of the symposium proceedings will be published in hardcopy and digital formats.

Keywords: Abraham, age of the earth, cosmos, creation, Genesis, Moses, science, universe
Bailey, David H., Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, John H. Lewis, Gregory L. Smith, and Michael L. Stark, eds. Science and Mormonism: Cosmos, Earth, and Man. Interpreter Science and Mormonism Symposia 1. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016.

This book features the personal perspectives of prominent LDS scientists addressing the theme of “Cosmos, Earth, and Man.” Many of these were drawn from the first Interpreter Symposium on Science and Mormonism, held in Provo, Utah on 9 November 2013. In the pages of this book, readers will appreciate the concise and colorful summaries of the state-of-the-art in scientific research relating to these topics and will gain a deeper appreciation of the unique contributions of LDS doctrine to the ongoing conversation.

Hess, Wilford M., Raymond T. Matheny, and Donlu D. Thayer. Science and Religion: Toward a More Useful Dialogue. 2 vols. Geneva, IL: Paladin House, 1979.
Faulconer, James E. “Scripture as Incarnation.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 17–61. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center, 2001. Reprint, in Faulconer, J. E. Faith, Philosophy, Scripture. Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute, Brigham Young University, 2010, 151–202.

Today the modernist view of history in which texts only represent events is so predominant that most Latter-day Saints automatically apply it to the question of scriptural historicity. Unfortunately, historical scholarship rarely lines up with our understanding of scripture as well as we would like. Problems arise when we use modernist tools to examine scripture written by premoderns, who considered their writing not as mere representation but as incarnation—an embodiment of the symbolic ordering of the world. The premodernist reading of the scriptures more accurately reflects Latter-day Saint beliefs: whereas modernism would use reason to understand history (and thus the Divine in history, i.e., scripture), premodernism uses divinely revealed scripture as well as ritual, ritual objects, and ritual language to give order to history. Instead of examining scripture as just another element of history, premoderns consider scripture to be the defining element in history.

The historicity of scripture is important to most Christians and especially to Latter-day Saints. [1] Christians disagree among themselves about how to understand scriptural history, but few deny that, in some important sense, Christian scripture is historical. However, given the challenges to scriptural history, challenges that are especially strong for Latter-day Saints who take the Book of Mormon to be historical, what are we to make of the claim that scriptures are history? Given those challenges, is it possible to understand scripture as literal history? The answer to that question—positive, I will argue—lies in answering the question of what we mean by history.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “ScripturePlus Commentary Minutes on Genesis and the Book of Moses.” In ScripturePlus from Book of Mormon Central.

English and Spanish

Johnson, Mark J. “Scriptures through the Jeweler’s Lens.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 36 (2020): 85-108.

Review of Terryl Givens with Brian Hauglid, The Pearl of Greatest Price: Mormonism’s Most Controversial Scripture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2019). 285 pages. $34.95 (hardback).

Abstract: Among the many revelatory works of Joseph Smith, members and scholars alike seem to give lesser attention to what is found in the Pearl of Great Price. In The Pearl of Greatest Price, Terryl Givens and Brian Hauglid attempt to provide some of the attention that has been lacking. The result is a book that, while spotty in places, provides a good resource that should receive wide exposure in academic circles. Believing members, on the other hand, may find the book lacking or downright questionable because of the secular approach it takes to dealing with scripture understood to have a divine provenance.

Keywords: book review, Pearl of Great Price, Terryl Givens
Orlov, Andrei A. Selected Studies in the Slavonic Pseudepigrapha. Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha 23. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2009.
Brayford, Susan, ed. Septuagint Genesis: A Commentary Based on the Greek Text of Codex Alexandrinus. Septuagint Commentary. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2007.
Welch, John W. The Sermon on the Mount in the Light of the Temple. London: Ashgate, 2018.
Gardner, Brant A. “Silk or Sow’s Ear? The Apologetic Use of the If>and Construction.” Interpreter Foundation, 13 October 2013.
Gardner, Brant A. “Silk or Sow’s Ear? The Apologetic Use of the If>And Construction.” In Interpreter Foundation. October 13, 2013.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Since Hugh Nibley: Remarkable New Findings on Enoch and the Gathering of Zion.” Presented at the 2021 FAIR Conference, Provo, UT, August 4, 2021.
Jackson, Kent P. “Some notes on Joseph Smith and Adam Clarke.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 40 (2020): 15-60.