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A

Allred, Alma. “Coin of the Realm: Beware of Specious Specie.” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 1 (2000): Article 12.

Review of “Scripture” (1988), by Norman L. Geisler

Andelin, Elaine A. “Sherrie Johnson, My First Scripture Stories.” FARMS Review of Books 8, no. 2 (1996): Article 16.

Review of My First Scripture Stories (1994), by Sherrie Johnson, illustrated by Tyler Lybbert

Anderson, Carli. “Eva Mroczek. The Literary Imagination in Jewish Antiquity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 8 no. 1 (2016).

Over the last several decades, scholarly discussion on the textual world of the Second Temple has been shifting. Ideas about texts and the development of the biblical canon began to be reshaped by the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which altered previously established ideas about the configuration of a prebiblical canon. Investigation of those and other texts made it apparent that the structure of the biblical canon was still fluid at a much later date than was originally thought. These new scholarly analyses are redefining the timelines and ideas about the early shape of the biblical text and its elasticity. Such developments have been particularly intriguing for Latter-day Saints because they have generated new ways of thinking about the historic limits of text and canon. In her new book, Eva Mroczek takes the discussion a step further and in a direction that will resonate well within the Mormon scholarly community. Her aim is to identify the “literary imagination” of Jewish antiquity or, in other words, the ways in which ancient writers and scribes conceived of their own textual world. Although she is not the first to point out the anachronistic difficulties that can plague modern scholars in their approach to texts from antiquity, she is one of the first to try to re-create a vision of an original literary mindset from the ancient texts themselves. Her study culls texts from antiquity for clues about the ways in which ancient communities thought about literature, text, authorship, and canon.

Keywords: Jewish Antiquity, Biblical studies, religious scholarship
Anderson, Carma deJong. “Sidney B. Sperry: Memories.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

Anderson, Richard Lloyd. “Attempts to Redefine the Experience of the Eight Witnesses.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 14 no. 1 (2005).

Skeptics have misused some historical sources as they attempt to reverse the Eight Witnesses’ statements about their physical contact with the Book of Mormon plates. The Eight Witnesses speak of viewing the plates themselves with unobstructed vision. They left 10 specific statements of handling the plates. This article provides an overview of the statements and experiences of the Eight Witnesses and the arguments of their critics, both then and now. Their unequivocal testimonies resist revisionists’ attempts to portray their experience as mere illusion or deception.

Anderson, Richard Lloyd. “Book of Mormon Witnesses.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1994. Transcript of a lecture presented as part of the FARMS Book of Mormon Lecture Series.

Richard Anderson gives an overview of the secular and divine functions of witnesses and refers to the anticipation surrounding the revelatory calling of witnesses to view the plates. He describes the circumstances of their calling, details aspects of their lives, comments on their character traits, and answers several typical questions of skeptics. Anderson emphasizes that these witnesses were true to their testimonies.

Keywords: Church History;Book of Mormon Witnesses
Anderson, Richard Lloyd. “Mark D. Thomas, ‘A Rhetorical Approach to the Book of Mormon: Rediscovering Nephite Sacramental Language,’ Pp. 53-80.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6, no. 1 (1994): Article 13.

Review of “A Rhetorical Approach to the Book of Mormon: Rediscovering Nephite Sacramental Language” (1993), by Mark D. Thomas.

Anderson, Richard Lloyd. “Oliver Cowdery’s Voice in Modem Scripture: Priesthood Restoration, Book of Mormon, and Articles of Faith.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, June 7, 1997. This is a transcript of an address given 7 June 1997 at the Ancient Scriptures and the Restoration conference cosponsored by FARMS and the Smith Institute for Latter-day Saint History.

Oliver Cowdery’s records border on scripture. His supplementary testimonies are of the same eyewitness quality as the Joseph Smith references that have entered the standard works. Much of Cowdery’s thinking and writing was modified and polished to a scriptural level by Joseph Smith.

Keywords: Church History;Book of Mormon Witnesses
Anderson, Richard Lloyd. “Probing the Lives of Christ and Joseph Smith.” The FARMS Review 21, no. 2 (2009): Article 3.

This Annual Neal A. Maxwell Lecture was given at Brigham Young University on 20 March 2009. Anderson respects both the Savior, Jesus Christ, and Joseph Smith, seer and revelator. He lays a foundation for the four Gospels and their historical authenticity. He notes the abundance of materials available about Joseph Smith and details his First Vision, the accounts of the Book of Mormon witnesses, sacred influences in Joseph’s life, and the significance of the events at Carthage.

Anderson, Richard Lloyd. “Rodger I. Anderson, Joseph Smith's New York Reputation Reexamined.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 3 (1991): Article 4.

Review of Joseph Smith's New York Reputation Reexamined (1990), by Rodger I. Anderson.

Anderson, Richard Lloyd. “Sidney B. Sperry: Steadfast Scholar.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

Anderson, Richard Lloyd, and Scott H. Faulring. “The Prophet Joseph Smith and His Plural Wives.” FARMS Review of Books 10, no. 2 (1998): Article 7.

Review of In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith (1997), by Todd M. Compton

Anonymous. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).
Anonymous. “Sidney B. Sperry: The Man, Scholar, and Teacher.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

Argetsinger, Gerald S. “The Hill Cumorah Pageant: A Historical Perspective.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 13 no. 1 (2004).

Almost every summer since 1935, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has staged a pageant at the Hill Cumorah. This article starts with the history of the pageant from its beginnings in the 1920s as a Cumorah Conference of the Eastern States Mission convened by mission president B. H. Roberts and held at the Smith Family Farm. Details about the pageant’s move to the Hill Cumorah as well as scripts, directors, music, costumes, props, set design, lighting, and choreography are included. The author concludes with the details of retiring the original script after 50 years of use and of the challenges of producing and revitalizing the new pageant while maintaining its purpose as a missionary tool.

Arts, Valentin. “A Third Jaredite Record: The Sealed Portion of the Gold Plates.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

In the Book of Mormon, two records (a large engraved stone and twenty-four gold plates) contain the story of an ancient civilization known as the Jaredites. There appears to be evidence of an unpublished third record that provides more information on this people and on the history of the world. When the brother of Jared received a vision of Jesus Christ, he was taught many things but was instructed not to share them with the world until the time of his death. The author proposes that the brother of Jared did, in fact, write those things down shortly before his death and then buried them, along with the interpreting stones, to be revealed to the world according to the timing of the Lord.

Ash, Michael R. “Lehi of Africa.” FARMS Review of Books 13, no. 2 (2001): Article 4.

Review of Manifestations Mysteries Revealed: An Account of Bible Truth and the Book of Mormon Prophecies (2000), by Embaya Melekin

Ashton, Alan C.Book of Mormon Reference Library (CD-ROM); Book of Mormon Studybase (CD-ROM); LDS Collectors Library 1995 Edition (CD-ROM).” FARMS Review of Books 8, no. 2 (1996): Article 17.

Review of Book of Mormon Reference Library (1995), by Deseret Book; Book of Mormon Studybase (1995), by Bookcraft; and LDS Collectors Library 1995 Edition (1995), by Infobases

Aston, Warren P., and Michaela J. Aston. “And We Called the Place Bountiful: The End of Lehi's Arabian Journey.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1991.

A summary of the scriptural and historical evidences concerning the Arabian Bountiful, with an evaluation of all possible coastal locations on the Arabian peninsula based upon exploratory fieldwork by the authors in the Sultanate of Oman and the Republic of Yemen from 1984 to 1990. The study concludes that an objective and precise identification of Bountiful with a present-day location is now feasible and introduces data on physical traces revealing very early human involvement at the site.

Aston, Warren P., and Michaela J. Aston. “The Place Which Was Called Nahom: The Validation of an Ancient Reference to Southern Arabia.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1991.

An early version of this paper was presented October 17, 1986, at the 35th Annual Symposium on the Archaeology of the Scriptures, sponsored by the Society of Early Historic Archaeology at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. Based upon field research by the authors in the Republic of Yemen 1984 - 1990, it was revised January 1991.

Aston, Warren P., and Michaela J. Aston. “The Search for Nahom and the End of Lehi's Trail in Southern Arabia.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1989.
Aston, Warren P. “Across Arabia with Lehi and Sariah: ‘Truth Shall Spring out of the Earth’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 15 no. 2 (2006).

Utilizing techniques adapted from literary criticism, this paper investigates the narrative structure of the Book of Mormon, particularly the relationship between Nephi’s first-person account and Mormon’s third-person abridgment. A comparison of the order and relative prominence of material from 1 Nephi 12 with the content of Mormon’s historical record reveals that Mormon may have intentionally patterned the structure of his narrative after Nephi’s prophetic vision—a conclusion hinted at by Mormon himself in his editorial comments. With this understanding, readers of the Book of Mormon can see how Mormon’s sometimes unusual editorial decisions are actually guided by an overarching desire to show that Nephi’s prophecies have been dramatically and literally fulfilled in the history of his people.

Aston, Warren P., and Michaela J. Aston. “And We Called the Place Bountiful: The End of Lehi's Arabian Journey.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1991.

A summary of the scriptural and historical evidences concerning the Arabian Bountiful, with an evaluation of all possible coastal locations on the Arabian peninsula based upon exploratory fieldwork by the authors in the Sultanate of Oman and the Republic of Yemen from 1984 to 1990. The study concludes that an objective and precise identification of Bountiful with a present-day location is now feasible and introduces data on physical traces revealing very early human involvement at the site.

Aston, Warren P. “Identifying Our Best Candidate for Nephi’s Bountiful.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 17 no. 1 (2008).

Scholars have presented and defended different viewpoints concerning the Lehite journey and the location of Nephi’s Bountiful. Aston explains that some of these arguments contain factual errors, such as claims regarding fertility and timber for Nephi’s ship and a lack of accounting for all possibilities. Discrepancies in theories and differences in opinion do not lessen the worth of all that has been found in Arabia and the supported theories, but acknowledging the sometimes contrary data will aid the search for the best candidate for Nephi’s Bountiful.

Aston, Warren P. “Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton. Discovering Lehi: New Evidence of Lehi and Nephi in Arabia.” FARMS Review of Books 9, no. 1 (1997): Article 6.

Review of Discovering Lehi: New Evidence of Lehi and Nephi in Arabia (1996), by Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton

Aston, Warren P. “Newly Found Altars from Nahom.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

Ancient altars in Yemen bear the inscription Nihm, a variant of the word Nahom. According to the Book of Mormon, one of the travelers in Lehi’s group, Ishmael, was buried at a place called Nahom. Because the altar has been dated to about the sixth or seventh century BC (the time of Lehi’s journey), it is plausible that the Nihm referred to on the altar could be the same place written about in the Book of Mormon. This article discusses the discovery site, the appearance of the altars, and the process of dating the altars, as well as the place-name Nahom in its Book of Mormon setting.

Aston, Warren P. “The Arabian Bountiful Discovered? Evidence for Nephi’s Bountiful.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

According to the Book of Mormon, a land named “Bountiful” was a fertile site on the Arabian Peninsula with timber, fresh water, and ore where Nephi built a ship to carry Lehi’s group to the New World. In the seemingly barren land of the southern Arabian peninsula, a site that appears to correspond to the description in Nephi’s record has been identified on the remote southern coast of the country of Oman. Kharfot may not be the exact location of Bountiful, but its discovery does show that a place matching the criteria for Bountiful does exist.

Aston, Warren P., and Michaela J. Aston. “The Place Which Was Called Nahom: The Validation of an Ancient Reference to Southern Arabia.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1991.

An early version of this paper was presented October 17, 1986, at the 35th Annual Symposium on the Archaeology of the Scriptures, sponsored by the Society of Early Historic Archaeology at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. Based upon field research by the authors in the Republic of Yemen 1984 - 1990, it was revised January 1991.

Aston, Warren P., and Michaela J. Aston. “The Search for Nahom and the End of Lehi's Trail in Southern Arabia.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1989.

B

Ball, Russell H. “An Hypothesis concerning the Three Days of Darkness among the Nephites.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Aspects of the three days of darkness following the three-hour period of intense destruction described principally in 3 Nephi include: (1) the strange absence of rain among the destructive mechanisms described; (2) the source of the intense lightning, which seems to be unaccompanied by rain; (3) a mechanism to account for the inundation of the cities of Onihah, Mocum, and Jerusalem, which were not among the cities which “sunk in the depths of the sea”; and (4) the absence in the histories of contemporary European and Asiatic civilizations of corresponding events, which are repeatedly characterized in 3 Nephi as affecting “the face of the whole earth.”

Ball, Terry B. “Letter to the Editor.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 18 no. 1 (2009).

A critique of Warren Aston’s “Identifying Our Best Candidate for Nephi’s Bountiful,” published in volume 17/1–2 of the Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture.

Ball, Terry B. “Nibley and the Environment.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 20, no. 2 (2011): 16–29.

Hugh Nibley cared deeply about creation and was passionate about our stewardship over the earth. His arguments in defense of the environment were informed by the disciplines he knew best: history, philosophy, and theology. From his study, research, and reasoning, Nibley drew several principles that seem to have directed his thoughts and crafted his sense of environmental stewardship. Four of these principles are discussed in this paper: (1) humankind has a divine mandate to properly care for creation; (2) humankind’s spiritual health and environmental heath are linked; (3) creation obeys, reverences, and provides for humankind, as humankind righteously cares for creation; and (4) humankind should not sacrifice environmental health for temporal wealth.

A review of Hugh Nibley’s thoughts and writings on the environment.

Ball, Terry B., S. Kent Brown, Arnold H. Green, David J. Johnson, and W. Revell Phillips. “Planning Research on Oman: The End of Lehi’s Trail.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

In February 1998, five Brigham Young University professors spent more than a week together in southern Oman to collect data for future research projects in the area, which seems to correspond to the end of Lehi’s trail in the Old World. Future research must be performed in a professional manner and seek to reconstruct that part of the world in 600 BC. Botanical, archaeological, chronological, mineralogical, geological, and inscriptional studies in the area would depend on acquiring sponsors in Oman and on the availability of resources.

Ball, Terry B. “Stephen D. Ricks and John W. Welch, eds., The Allegory of the Olive Tree: The Olive, the Bible, and Jacob 5.” FARMS Review of Books 8, no. 1 (1996): Article 6.

Review of The Allegory of the Olive Tree: The Olive, the Bible, and Jacob 5 (1994), edited by Stephen D. Ricks and John W. Welch.

Barlow, Philip L. “The BYU New Testament Commentary: \"It Doth Not Yet Appear What It Shall Be\".” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 6 no. 1 (2014).
Bastian, Lewis M. “Eldin Ricks, Book of Mormon: Wide-Margin Edition.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 26.

Review of Book of Mormon: Wide-Margin Edition (1987), by Eldin Ricks.

Beck, John M. “E. Douglas Clark, The Grand Design: America from Columbus to Zion.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 5 (1993): Article 30.

Review of The Grand Design: America from Columbus to Zion (1992), by E. Douglas Clark.

Beck, John M. “Robert E. Hales and Sandra L. Hales, A Standard unto My People.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 4 (1992): Article 47.

Review of A Standard unto My People (1990), by Robert E. Hales and Sandra L. Hales.

Bell, Elouise M. “Chris Heimerdinger, Tennis Shoes among the Nephites: A Novel.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 13.

Review of Tennis Shoes among the Nephites: A Novel (1989), by Chris Heimerdinger.

Bennett, Robert R. “Science vs. Mormonism: The Dangers of Dogmatism and Sloppy Reading.” The FARMS Review 18, no. 2 (2006): Article 3.

Review of Duwayne R. Anderson. Farewell to Eden: Coming to Terms with Mormonism and Science.

Berrett, LaMar C. “New Light: The So-Called Lehi Cave.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Berrett discusses point by point reasons why an ancient burial complex at Khirbet Beit Lei, sometimes called “Lehi’s cave,” is unlikely to have Book of Mormon connections. Brown describes a carved altar inscribed to the tribe Nihm discovered in the southwest Arabian peninsula (Yemen)—this location may be the place Nahom where Nephi’s father-in-law, Ishmael, was buried, according to the Book of Mormon record. The characters on the Anthon transcript reportedly taken by Martin Harris to New York to show to Professor Charles Anthon bear resemblance to characters on two Mexican seals made of baked clay. Szink identifies another possible Semitic source for the name Alma in the tablets of Ebla uncovered in Syria.

Berrett, LaMar C. “The So-Called Lehi Cave.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1982.

A cave southwest of Jerusalem caught the attention of several Latter-day Saint observers in the early 1960s. Graffiti in the cave seemed to portray themes or scenes related to the Book of Mormon, and some thought that the cave might have been the place described in the Book of Mormon as “the cavity of rock.” LaMar Berrett points out problems that weaken the likelihood that this is the case. Two scholarly articles on the cave are included.

Keywords: Book of Mormon; Archaeology
Bickmore, Barry R. “A Passion for Faultfinding: The Deconversion of a Former Catholic Priest.” FARMS Review of Books 13, no. 2 (2001): Article 17.

Review of When Mormons Call: Answering Mormon Missionaries at Your Door (1999), and Inside Mormonism: What Mormons Really Believe (1999), by Isaiah Bennett

Bickmore, Barry R. “Clearing up Misconceptions.” FARMS Review of Books 13, no. 2 (2001): Article 16.

Review of Pope Fictions: Answers to 30 Myths and Misconceptions about the Papacy (1999), by Patrick Madrid

Bickmore, Barry R. “Not Completely Worthless.” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 1 (2000): Article 15.

Review of “Christ” (1998), by Ron Rhodes

Bickmore, Barry R. “Of Simplicity, Oversimplification, and Monotheism.” The FARMS Review 15, no. 1 (2003): Article 14.

Review of Paul Owen. “Monotheism, Mormonism, and the New Testament Witness.” In The New Mormon Challenge: Responding to the Latest Defenses of a Fast-Growing Movement.

Bickmore, Barry R. “‘Them Sneaky Early Christians’” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 1 (2000): Article 7.

Review of Hidden Wisdom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996), by Guy G. Stroumsa

Bitton, Davis. “B. H. Roberts and Book of Mormon Scholarship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Brigham Henry Roberts, a Book of Mormon scholar in the early twentieth century, was a pioneer in his field. He conducted research regarding the culture and the geography of the Book of Mormon peoples in an attempt to determine the setting of the Book of Mormon. His extensive work in this area has significantly influenced the progress of Book of Mormon research. Roberts also enthusiastically defended the book when others criticized it. He was able to do so effectively because of his study of and familiarity with the Book of Mormon. Roberts did, however, have a few limitations, the most detrimental being his unfounded assumption that “the narrow neck of land” in the Book of Mormon is the Isthmus of Panama. Yet, Roberts’s pioneering efforts remain today a crucial catalyst to modern analytical studies of the Book of Mormon.

Bitton, Davis. “Brent Lee Metcalfe, ed., New Approaches to the Book of Mormon: Explorations in Critical Methodology.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6, no. 1 (1994): Article 3.

Review of New Approaches to the Book of Mormon: Explorations in Critical Methodology (1993), edited by Brent Lee Metcalfe.

Bitton, Davis. “George Q. Cannon and the Faithful Narrative of Mormon History.” FARMS Review of Books 14, no. 1 (2002): Article 15.

Review of Life of Joseph Smith the Prophet (1888; 1986), by George Q. Cannon

Bitton, Davis. “I Don’t Have a Testimony of the History of the Church.” The FARMS Review 16, no. 2 (2004): Article 18.

Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research (FAIR), Sandy, Utah, 5 August 2004 (see www.fair-lds.org). Used by permission. Also published in Meridian Magazine Online (see www.ldsmag.com). Used by permission. Copyright 2004 Davis Bitton.

Bitton, Davis. “Mormon Anti-Intellectualism: A Reply.” FARMS Review of Books 13, no. 2 (2001): Article 8.

Review of “Anti-Intellectualism in Mormon History” (1966), by Davis Bitton

Bitton, Davis. “Spotting an Anti-Mormon Book.” The FARMS Review 16, no. 1 (2004): Article 16.

Davis Bitton provides a few guidelines to help readers determine whether a given text is anti-Mormon and to explain how readers should approach such texts.

Bitton, Davis. “The Charge of a Man with a Broken Lance (But Look What He Doesn’t Tell Us).” The FARMS Review 15, no. 2 (2003): Article 14.

Review of Grant H. Palmer. An Insider’s View of Mormon Origins.

Black, Susan Easton. “Christ in the Book of Mormon.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1994. This transcript of a video lecture was prepared by the staff of the Portland Institute of Religion.

Susan Easton Black discusses insights into the nature and mission of Jesus Christ that can be gained by examining the 101 names the Book of Mormon uses to describe him, such as Lord, Messiah, and Eternal Judge. She describes the book’s focus on the atonement and bears powerful testimony of its effects in her life and in the lives of others.

Black, Susan Easton. “Eugene England, Converted to Christ through the Book of Mormon.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 10.

Review of Converted to Christ through the Book of Mormon (1989), edited by Eugene England.

Black, Susan Easton. Expressions of Faith: Testimonies of Latter-day Saint Scholars. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1996.

The news media often characterizes some detractors of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as “Mormon intellectuals” and presents them to the public as the thinking Mormons who know the inside story of the church. In this rush to produce controversial news, an obvious truth has been overlooked—that the LDS intellectual and academic communities are composed of strong believers in the Prophet Joseph Smith’s revelations and solid supporters of LDS Church leadership. Only at the fringes is there noticeable dissent.

Readers of Expressions of Faith will discover a marvelous, uncoached unity in these testimonies of LDS scholars. Although most of the 24 contributors are persons of substantial learning, none base their beliefs in scholarly insights. Rather, all point to an inner conviction that has come through life experience and God’s gift. As they explain, these testimonies enlighten their entire lives, including their scholarly endeavors. None feel conflict between the canons of scholarship and religious belief, but rather find the two mutually reinforcing and even necessary.

This unique book aims to strengthen people’s faith by precept and example as they pursue their own efforts to know the Lord and to understand his love and dealings with humankind.

Black, Susan Easton. “Father Lehi: A Visionary Man.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1995. This is a transcript of a presentation made as part of the FARMS Book of Mormon Lecture Series.

Lehi’s dream of the tree of life, recorded in 1 Nephi 8, was a familial dream as father Lehi was primarily concerned for the eternal salvation of his posterity. Susan Easton Black discusses Lehi’s role as patriarch in his family—his counsel and leadership, his love for his family, and his heartache for Laman and Lemuel who chose not to partake of the fruit—and compares his life with that of Joseph Smith Sr.

Keywords: Book of Mormon, Teachings
Black, Susan Easton. “The Tomb of Joseph.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1997.

This FARMS preliminary paper was presented at the symposium “Pioneers of the Restoration” on 8 March 1997.

Black, Susan Easton, and Larry C. Porter. “‘For the Sum of Three Thousand Dollars’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 14 no. 2 (2005).

The familiar narrative of how Martin Harris mortgaged his farm to pay the printing cost of the first five thousand copies of the Book of Mormon overlooks details that make possible a fuller appreciation of his key role in the restoration of the gospel. Financially and otherwise, Harris was uniquely situated to secure the publisher’s note and relieve the financial tension that imperiled the book’s publication. Details of his family background, land ownership, business enterprises, and generosity are reviewed. Despite his pattern of vacillating in his religious commitments, his loss of 116 pages of translated manuscript, his exposure to public ridicule, and his fracturing marriage, Harris proved willing and able to honor the mortgage agreement and the Lord’s directives to him in Doctrine and Covenants, section 19. He did so at great personal cost when all attempts to recoup the publication costs failed and the shared financial responsibility unexpectedly fell solely on him. The view is expressed that Harris was raised up by the Lord to assist the Prophet Joseph Smith by securing and then personally financing the first publication of the Restoration.

Black, Susan Easton, and Larry C. Porter. “‘Rest Assured, Martin Harris Will Be Here in Time’” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 20 no. 1 (2011).

Martin Harris, one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon, was the only witness to join the Saints in Utah. This journey was commenced only after missionaries passed through Kirtland for decades and attempted to convince Harris to make the journey to the Salt Lake Valley. Although each missionary over the course of decades was unsuccessful in his attempts to convince the impoverished, lonely Harris to go to Utah, each was spiritually renewed through the ever-present testimony of the witness of the Book of Mormon and “custodian” of the Kirtland Temple. This is the testimony Harris spread even as he traveled to Utah after a former acquaintance of his finally convinced him to make the trip at the age of eighty-seven. Finally in Utah, Harris enjoyed again the blessings of the church and continued to pronounce, even until he died, his powerful testimony of the Book of Mormon.

Blythe, Christopher J. “Dale E. Luffman, The Book of Mormon’s Witness to Its First Readers.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 24 no. 1 (2015).
Boegh, Ben, and Jonathan P. Benson. “Letters.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 20 no. 2 (2011).

Letters praising the Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture and responding to articles published therein.

Bokovoy, David E.The Bible vs. the Book of Mormon: Still Losing the Battle.” The FARMS Review 18, no. 1 (2006): Article 4.

Review of Joel P. Kramer and Scott R. Johnson. The Bible vs. the Book of Mormon.

Bokovoy, David E. “From Distance to Proximity: A Poetic Function of Enallage in the Hebrew Bible and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

This essay analyzes examples of poetry in the Hebrew Bible and the Book of Mormon that do not conform to the standards to which prose is typically confined. Each of these poems contains a syntactic device that scholars have come to identify by the term enallage (Greek for “interchange”). Rather than being a case of textual corruption or blatant error, the grammatical variance attested in these passages provides a poetic articulation of a progression from distance to proximity.

Bokovoy, David E. “From the Hand of Jacob: A Ritual Analysis of Genesis 27.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 1 no. 1 (2009).

Genesis 27 is a story that depicts a series of ancient ritual performances. The narrative recounts the time when Jacob, the son of Isaac, received his father’s blessing by means of an act of deception. As an account that contains explicit examples of performances designed to set the activities apart from other less sacred occurrences, the blessing story in Genesis 27 contains features of what scholars refer to as \"ritualization\" in narrative. Ritualization can be defined as actions designed to distinguish and privilege what is being done in comparison to other, usually more commonplace, activities. Ritualization can assist those of a lesser status in accomplishing their objectives that stand in opposition to the desires of the powerful. When read as ritualization in narrative, Genesis 27 can be interpreted as an account that portrays the use of ancient temple and sacrificial imagery in order to secure a sacred blessing.

Bokovoy, David E. “On Christ and Covenants: An LDS Reading of Isaiah’s Prophetic Call.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 3 no. 1 (2011).

This article illustrates that for Latter-day Saints, the Book of Mormon can function as an interpretive guide to Isaiah’s writings. The analysis explores some ways in which the Book of Mormon can aid in identifying textual meaning in the story of Isaiah’s prophetic commission, especially on the topic of Christ and covenants. Lehi’s call narrative in the Book of Mormon shares much in common with Isaiah 6. Based on analogy with Lehi’s comparable dream, LDS readers can connect the seraph that interacts personally with Isaiah to Jesus Christ—that is, the Being with great luster who descends out of heaven to meet with the Book of Mormon prophet.

Bokovoy, David E. “The Word and the Seed: The Theological Use of Biblical Creation in Alma 32.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 23 no. 1 (2014).
Bokovoy, David E. “Ye Really Are Gods': A Response to Michael Heiser concerning the LDS Use of Psalm 82 and the Gospel of John.” The FARMS Review 19, no. 1 (2007): Article 15.

Review of Michael S. Helser. “You've Seen One Elohim, You've Seen Them All? A Critique of Mormonism's Apologetic Use of Psalm 82.”

McKinlay, Daniel B., Hugh W. Nibley, and Steven W. Booras. “The Dead Sea Scrolls: Select Publications by Latter-day Saint Scholars.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 2 no. 1 (2010).

Select bibliography of LDS research on the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Boyce, Duane. “A Betrayal of Trust.” FARMS Review of Books 9, no. 2 (1997): Article 17.

Review of The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power (1997), by D. Michael Quinn.

Boyce, Duane. “Do Liberal Economic Policies Approximate the Law of Consecration?” The FARMS Review 21, no. 1 (2009): Article 15.

Also available for free at BYU ScholarsArchive.

A review of Approaching Zion, Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, vol. 9.

Boyce, Duane. “Of Science, Scripture, and Surprise.” The FARMS Review 20, no. 2 (2008): Article 9.

Review of Trent D. Stephens and D. Jeffrey Meldrum. Evolution and Mormonism: A Quest for Understanding.

Boyce, Duane. “Were the Ammonites Pacifists?” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 18 no. 1 (2009).

One of the most moving accounts in the Book of Mormon is of the people of Ammon, their covenant to bury and never use again their weapons of war, their faith to sacrifice themselves instead of fighting back against their Lamanite brethren, and their sacrifice to send their children to war to aid the Nephites. Some interpret the stance that the Ammonites took against war to be pacifist. Some indications point toward this conclusion: their burying their weapons, covenanting never to fight again, allowing themselves to be slaughtered twice, and being motivated in these actions out of love for their Lamanite kin. However, when the text is read more carefully, it can easily be seen that further actions would not necessarily have reflected a pacifist view toward war: not objecting to the Nephite war in their defense, providing Nephite soldiers with food and supplies, and sending their own sons into battle would surely indicate that their personal opposition to war stemmed from the covenants they made during repentance.

Briggs, Robert H. “A Scholarly Look at the Disastrous Mountain Meadows Massacre.” The FARMS Review 20, no. 2 (2008): Article 10.

Review of Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley Jr., and Glen M. Leonard. Massacre at Mountain Meadows: An American Tragedy.

Briggs, Robert H. “Sally Denton’s American Massacre: Authentic Mormon Past versus the Danite Interpretation of History.” The FARMS Review 16, no. 1 (2004): Article 9.

Review of Sally Denton. American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, September 1857.

Brown, Matthew B. “Girded about with a Lambskin.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The publication of the Book of Mormon brought forward the first of many comparisons between the restorational work of the Prophet Joseph Smith and his surrounding environment, including Freemasonry. One point of comparison has been the lambskin apparel mentioned in 3 Nephi 4:7. A possible connection exists between this item of apparel and ritual clothing that was worn in ancient Israel, Egypt, and Mesoamerica. I suggest a possible reason for the use of this item of clothing among the secret combinations in the Book of Mormon and discuss the lambskin apron used in Freemasonic ritual.

Brown, Matthew B. “Of Your Own Selves Shall Men Arise.” FARMS Review of Books 10, no. 1 (1998): Article 5.

Review of The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Tmeple Worship (1994), by David John Buerger

Brown, S. Kent. “A Case for Lehi’s Bondage in Arabia.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The lengthy sojourn of Lehi’s family in the Arabian desert invites the almost inevitable question whether circumstances forced family members to live in the service of tribesmen either for protection or for food. In my view, enough clues exist in the Book of Mormon—they have to be assembled—to bring one to conclude that the family lived for a time in a servile condition, a situation that apparently entailed suffering and conflict.

Brown, S. Kent. “Donald W. Parry and Dana M. Pike, eds., LDS Perspectives on the dead Sea Scrolls.” FARMS Review of Books 10, no. 2 (1998): Article 10.

Review of LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls (1997), edited by Donald W. Parry and Dana M. Pike

Brown, S. Kent. “New Light: Nahom and the Eastward Turn.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

The account of the journey of Lehi’s family through the wilderness mentions one local name, Nahom, where Ishmael was buried. The discovery of the tribal name NHM on three altars from the seventh and sixth centuries BC provides a likely location for that stopping point on their trip. This site is located at the bend of the incense trail that went in the opposite direction of Lehi’s group—westward to NHM and then turning northward.

Ball, Terry B., S. Kent Brown, Arnold H. Green, David J. Johnson, and W. Revell Phillips. “Planning Research on Oman: The End of Lehi’s Trail.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

In February 1998, five Brigham Young University professors spent more than a week together in southern Oman to collect data for future research projects in the area, which seems to correspond to the end of Lehi’s trail in the Old World. Future research must be performed in a professional manner and seek to reconstruct that part of the world in 600 BC. Botanical, archaeological, chronological, mineralogical, geological, and inscriptional studies in the area would depend on acquiring sponsors in Oman and on the availability of resources.

Brown, S. Kent. “Refining the Spotlight on Lehi and Sariah.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 15 no. 2 (2006).

Royal Skousen’s endeavor to recover the original text of the Book of Mormon is more complicated than it seems because it involves more than simply reproducing the original manuscript. Rather, what Skousen means by “original text” is the very language that appeared on the Urim and Thummim. Every subsequent step, such as Joseph’s reading, his scribes’ understanding and transcribing of that utterance, and Oliver Cowdery’s copying of the manuscript for the printer, exposed the text to the possibility of human subjectivity and error. This paper explains the nature and scope of Skousen’s monumental undertaking and presents some of the methods and reasoning he employs to resolve disputed textual variants in search the Book of Mormon’s original text.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Book of Mormon at the Bar of DNA Evidence.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

Editor’s introduction to a four-part series on the relationship of DNA studies to Book of Mormon origins.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Summary of current issue.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

Introduction to the current issue.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).

Introduction to the current issue.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 13 no. 1 (2004).

Introduction to the current issue.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 14 no. 1 (2005).
Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 14 no. 2 (2005).

Summary of current issue.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 15 no. 1 (2006).

Summary of current issue.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 1 (2007).
Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 2 (2007).

Summary of current issue.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Hunt for the Valley of Lemuel.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 1 (2007).

A canyon in northwestern Arabia, Wadi Tayyib al-Ism, appears to be a strong candidate for the Valley of Lemuel in the Book of Mormon. Although its rare year-round stream seems to confirm this site as the valley, other locations must be considered. Brown gives arguments both in favor of and against three other propositions, all of which are within a few dozen miles of Wadi Tayyib al-Ism. The aspects of the river and the Red Sea, the drainage areas of wadis, and the character of the valley are all evaluated. Despite his one serious objection to Wadi Tayyib al-Ism—the difficulty Lehi’s family would have experienced in reaching the site from the north end of the Gulf of Aqaba—Brown argues that it is the most viable candidate for the Valley of Lemuel.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Prophetic Laments of Samuel the Lamanite.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The wide-ranging sermon of Samuel the Lamanite, spoken from the top of the city wall of Zarahemla, exhibits poetic features in a censuring passage—features that bear similarities to laments found in the Bible, most notably in the Psalms. Like the laments in the Bible, those in Samuel’s speech show contacts with worship. In distinction to the biblical laments, but like the Thanksgiving Hymns of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the poetic pieces in Samuel’s sermon reveal a set of prophecies that find fulfillment in later periods, including the days of Mormon, the compiler and editor of the Book of Mormon.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Sesquicentennial of Four European Translations of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Introduction to the following four articles on early translations of the Book of Mormon into French, German, Italian, and French.

Ludlow, Daniel H., and S. Kent Brown. To All the World: The Book of Mormon Articles from the Encyclopedia of Mormonism. Provo, UT: FARMS, 2000.

This new selection of materials from the incomparable Encyclopedia of Mormonism includes 151 Book of Mormon articles by 115 scholars and articulate authors.

Within this compilation, readers will find: 45 illustrative photographs, maps, and charts, bibliographies, a unique list of entries by category, and a full index of passages.

Brown, S. Kent, and John A. Tvedtnes. “When Did Jesus Appear to the Nephites in Bountiful?” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1989.

Kent Brown and John Tvedtnes examine the question of when Christ appeared to the Nephites in Bountiful, offering different interpretations of 3 Nephi 10:18. Brown asserts that Jesus appeared near the end of the thirty-fourth year after Christ’s birth, almost a full year after the crucifixion. Tvedtnes proposes an earlier date, possibly as early as the same day of or the day following Jesus’ resurrection in Jerusalem.

Keywords: Book of Mormon, Jesus Christ
Bunker, Robert L. “The Design of the Liahona and the Purpose of the Second Spindle.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

The Liahona was given by the Lord as a communicationsdevice for Lehi to determine the appropriate direction of travel. This device contained two pointers, only one of which was necessary to provide directional information. But the Liahona was more than just a simple compass in function, for it additionally required faith for correct operation. Since a single pointer always "points" in some direction, the additional pointer was necessary to indicate whether or not the first pointer could be relied upon. This proposed purpose for the second pointer conforms to a well-established engineering principle used in modern fault-tolerant computer systems called "voting," in which two identical process states are compared and declared correct if they are the same, and incorrect if they are different. Hence the second pointer, when coincident with the first, would indicate proper operation, and when orthogonal, would indicate nonoperation.

Bushman, Richard L. “Hugh Nibley and Joseph Smith.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 19, no. 1, (2010): 4–13.

Reprinted in Hugh Nibley Observed.

Just as attorneys representing the church wouldn’t bear their testimonies in a courtroom, Hugh Nibley defended Joseph Smith through facts and scholarly dialogue, not testimony bearing. Although Nibley did, at times, discuss the Prophet specifically, his defense of Joseph came primarily through academic vindication of the Book of Mormon. When others made scholarly attacks against Joseph’s character, Nibley would move the debate to a discussion of the historicity of the book on its own terms. When Nibley did directly discuss the Prophet, he portrayed him as a humble, loving servant of God.

Bushman, Richard L. “Just the Facts Please.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6, no. 2 (1994): Article 9.

Review of Inventing Mormonism: Tradition and the Historical Record (1994), by H. Michael Marquardt and Wesley P. Walters.

Bushman, Richard L. “The Little, Narrow Prison of Language: The Rhetoric of Revelation.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, June 7, 1997. This is a transcript of an address given 7 June 1997 at the Ancient Scriptures and the Restoration conference cosponsored by FARMS and the Smith Institute for Latter-day Saint History.

Richard Bushman compares the limitation of Joseph Smith’s language with the striking linguistic features of the revelations he received that are now included in the Doctrine and Covenants. Of particular interest to Bushman are those sections in which the Lord is speaking directly to his people— revelations that mix sublime religious teachings with ordinary details of church business.

Buskirk, Allen R. “Science, Pseudoscience, and Religious Belief.” The FARMS Review 17, no. 1 (2005): Article 12.

Review of Carl Sagan. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark.

Butler, John M. “A Few Thoughts From a Believing DNA Scientist.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

The Book of Mormon does not give sufficient information about the background of Ishmael’s wife, the wives of Ishmael’s sons, and Nephi’s sisters to test the mitochondrial DNA of the group. Other problems for critics’ assertions include the uncertainty of Lehi’s possession of an Abrahamic Y chromosome and the complete disregard for the entire Jaredite population (remnants of which may have survived their final battle). Confident scientific conclusions are difficult to attain and cannot replace a spiritual witness of the truthfulness of the Book of Mormon.

Butler, John M. “Addressing Questions Surrounding the Book of Mormon and DNA Research.” The FARMS Review 18, no. 1 (2006): Article 7.

Butler discusses the premises of the DNA argument between supporters and critics of the Book of Mormon.

C

Campbell, Les. “E. L. Peay, The Lands of Zarahemla.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6, no. 2 (1994): Article 11.

Review of The Lands of Zarahemla (1993), by E. L. Peay.

Cannon, Donald Q. “In the Press: Early Newspaper Reports on the Initial Publication of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 2 (2007).

Cannon’s examination of news articles and stories concerning the publication of the Book of Mormon helps provide a greater understanding of its initial reception. Most news coverage first appeared in Palmyra and the surrounding areas, but articles on the Book of Mormon appeared as far west as Missouri and Arkansas and from Maine to Georgia. Even with this seemingly wide range of coverage, the overall quantity of news articles on the topic reveals how few people knew about the book and the early LDS Church as a whole. Although the majority of the news articles concerning the Book of Mormon were negative, some assumed a neutral stance and a relatively small number were positive about the book and its publication.

Cannon, Donald Q. “Words Of Comfort: Funeral Sermons of the Prophet Joseph Smith.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1997.
Carlton, JoAnn, and John W. Welch. “Possible Linguistic Roots of Certain Book of Mormon Proper Names.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1991.
Carr, Stephen L. “Birds Along Lehi’s Trail.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 15 no. 2 (2006).

Royal Skousen’s work on his Book of Mormon critical text project demonstrates that he is an able textual critic who employs sound judgment and proven methods to uncover the original text of the Book of Mormon. In many cases, these decisions seem counterintuitive to untrained readers, but Skousen correctly applies the principle that a more awkward reading is most likely original. He also shows his ability to make conjectural emendations for which no direct textual evidence is available. In every case, Skousen clearly lays out his reasoning so that readers who disagree with his inferences can examine the evidence for themselves to reach their own conclusions. This paper goes on to speculate that Skousen’s work may in time bring the LDS and RLDS editions of the Book of Mormon closer together textually. In the end, the critical text project is a superb work of scholarship on par with the standard works of biblical textual criticism.

Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “An Archaeologist’s View.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 15 no. 2 (2006).

Royal Skousen’s most significant contribution to Book of Mormon scholarship, this paper states, is in openly and systematically detailing the thousands of variants that occur across two manuscripts and twenty editions and showing that these variations do not affect the message or validity of the book as a witness of Jesus Christ. Skousen’s work also offers new insights into the process of translating and publishing the Book of Mormon. Though the work of translation appears to have involved a number of different methods, we can nevertheless be sure that the Book of Mormon was translated by the “gift and power of God.”

Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “Has the Seal of Mulek Been Found?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).

A small stamp seal bearing the inscription belonging to Malkiyahu, son of the king, arguably belonged to Mulek, son of Zedekiah, who accompanied one of the Israelite groups that settled in the New World. Jeremiah 38:6 mentions Malchiah the son of Hammelech, which could also be a reference to this same Mulek. Discussion centers on similar seals, the meaning of Ben Hamelek, the possible age of Malkiyahu, and Book of Mormon claims about Mulek. This seal could conceivably have been left behind in Jerusalem and found centuries later, thus representing an archaeological artifact of a Book of Mormon personality.

Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “Lehi in the Samaria Papyri and on an Ostracon from the Shore of the Red Sea.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 19 no. 1 (2010).

Until the discovery of Ostracon 2071, dating from the fifth century BC, in the 1930s on the shores of the Red Sea, the name Lehi (l?y in the discovered text) had been unattested in any extant document outside of the Book of Mormon. However, Nelson Gluek, along with many other scholars, including Hugh Nibley, vocalized l?y as “La?ai,” which pronunciation would have south Semitic roots. Chadwick argues, instead, that a Hebrew context for the ostracon would be more plausible and that therefore the more likely pronunciation would be “l??y.” He also argues for a Hebrew origin of the compound name ?bl?y, found in the fourth-century BC Samaria Papyri. Both of these names, given their strong Hebrew context, seem to confirm that Lehi was a name in use in ancient Israel and its surrounding areas.

Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “Out of the Dust: All That Glitters Is Not . . . Steel.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 15 no. 1 (2006).

A previous report characterized a metal blade discovered at the site of biblical Ekron in Israel as a steel short sword dating from the late seventh century BC, shortly before Lehi left Jerusalem, thus corroborating the much-criticized account of Laban’s steel sword in the Book of Mormon. Unfortunately, these assertions are incorrect. Jeffrey R. Chadwick, who is personally acquainted with the excavators who unearthed the blade, explains here that the blade is not a short sword but probably a ceremonial knife. Additionally, the knife is likely from the eleventh century BC and cannot properly be described as steel. Though this artifact does not support the Book of Mormon account of seventh-century steel swords, much better archaeological parallels do exist. Chadwick mentions a meter-long steel sword discovered in Jericho that dates to around 600 BC. This genuinely steel sword from the proper time period makes Nephi’s description of Laban’s sword entirely plausible.

Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “Sariah in the Elephantine Papyri.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The Book of Mormon name Sariah does not appear as a female name in the Bible but has now been identified in a reconstructed form in an Aramaic papyrus. A Jewish woman living at Elephantine in Upper Egypt during the fifth century BC was identified as Sariah daughter of Hoshea.

Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “The Names Lehi and Sariah—Language and Meaning.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

Unlike the Old and New Testaments, where a variety of Hebrew and Greek texts exist to aid us, for the Book of Mormon we have only the King James English translation produced by Joseph Smith. The languages of the Book of Mormon were hardly the same throughout the original composition. Chadwick continues the onomastic discussion of the names Lehi and Sariah by suggesting that the Book of Mormon name Lehi matches the spelling in the King James Bible in the place-name Ramath-lehi; therefore the two must necessarily represent the same Hebrew term. He agrees with one of Hoskisson’s meanings for Lehi’s name— “jaw”— and indicates this may be a nickname rather than a proper name. Sariah is attested as a female name in a Near Eastern document. Although not found as a female name in the Bible, it is well documented as a male name in ancient Israel. In this light, the name means “Jehovah is Prince,” meaning Jehovah is the son of a king.

Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “The Wrong Place for Lehi's Trail and the Valley of Lemuel.” The FARMS Review 17, no. 2 (2005): Article 7.

Review of George Potter and Richard Wellington. Lehi in the Wilderness.

Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “Three Books on Jewish and Mormon Themes.” The FARMS Review 15, no. 1 (2003): Article 19.

Review of Raphael Jospe, Truman G. Madsen, and Seth Ward, eds. Covenant and Chosenness in Judaism and Mormonism. Review of Frank J. Johnson and Rabbi William J. Leffler. Jews and Mormons: Two Houses of Israel. Review of Harris Lenowitz. The Jewish Messiahs: From the Galilee to Crown Heights.

Childs, Larry G. “Epanalepsis in the Book of Mormon.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1986.
Childs, Larry G. “Present Participle Adjuncts in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Participle adjuncts in the Book of Mormon are compared with those in the other writings of Joseph Smith and with English in general. Participle adjuncts include present participle phrases, e.g., “having gained the victory over death” (Mosiah 15:8); present participle clauses, e.g., “he having four sons” (Ether 6:20), and a double-subject adjunct construction, known as the coreferential subject construction, where both subjects refer to the same thing, as in “Alma, being the chief judge . . . of the people of Nephi, therefore he went up with the people” (Alma 2:16). The Book of Mormon is unique in the occurrences of extremely long compound adjunct phrases and coreferential subject constructions, indicating that Joseph Smith used a very literal translation style for the Book of Mormon.

Christensen, Kevin. “A Response to David Wright on Historical Criticism.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

In an article criticizing the historicity of the Book of Mormon, David Wright described critical scholarship and traditionalist modes as contrasting paradigms used to approach the scriptures. This article explores the nature of paradigm debate in general, in that context points out weaknesses in Wright’s critical approach, and discerns crucial flaws in his definition of believing paradigms.

Christensen, Kevin. “A Response to Paul Owen's Comments on Margaret Barker.” FARMS Review of Books 14, no. 1 (2002): Article 12.

Review of “Monotheism, Mormonism, and the New Testament Witness” (2002), by Paul Owen

Christensen, Kevin. “Dan Vogel, Origins and the Book of Mormon.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 28.

Review of Origins and the Book of Mormon (1986), by Dan Vogel.

Christensen, Kevin. “Hindsight on a Book of Mormon Historicity Critique.” The FARMS Review 22, no. 2 (2010): Article 8.

Review of William D. Russell. “A Further Inquiriy into the Historicity of the Book of Mormon.” Sunstone, September-October 1982, 20-27.

Christensen, Kevin, and Shauna Christensen. “Nephite Feminism Revisited: Thoughts on Carol Lynn Pearson's View of Women in the Book of Mormon.” FARMS Review of Books 10, no. 2 (1998): Article 5.

Review of “Could Feminism Have Saved the Nephites?” (1996), by Carol Lynn Pearson

Christensen, Kevin. “Paradigms Crossed.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 7, no. 2 (1995): Article 9.

Review of New Approaches to the Book of Mormon: Explorations in Critical Methodology (1993), edited by Brent Lee Metcalfe.

Christensen, Kevin. Paradigms Regained: A Survey of Margaret Barker’s Scholarship and Its Significance for Mormon Studies. Vol. 2 of Occasional Papers, edited by William J. Hamblin. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 2001.

Some years ago I bought Margaret Barker\'s The Great Angel on the last day of an annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature. (On the last day of each conference, hundreds of booksellers—Cambridge and Brill being notable exceptions—sell their display copies at a fifty-percent discount, creating the Bookanalia, a book-buying frenzy among otherwise staid and boring academics that is a wonder to behold.)

As I began reading through the book on the flight home, I would come across passages that made me stop and ask, “Could Barker be a Mormon?” Reading further I would conclude she probably wasn’t. But a few pages later I would again be forced to wonder, “Well, maybe she really is a Mormon.” Every Latter-day Saint I’ve talked to about Barker’s research has had a similar reaction. The truth is, however, Barker is a Methodist preacher and a past president of the Society for Old Testament Study, who has had no extensive contact with Latter-day Saints.

I have long believed that Barker’s books deserved to be more widely known and read by Latter-day Saints. Kevin Christensen’s “Paradigms Regained,” the second in the ongoing series of FARMS Occasional Papers, is an excellent introduction to Barker’s works and their possible implications for Latter-day Saints.

Keywords: Deuteronomist Reforms; Isaiah (Book); Isaiah (Prophet); Josiah\'s Reforms; King Josiah; Messiah
Christensen, Kevin. “The Deuteronomist De-Christianizing of the Old Testament.” The FARMS Review 16, no. 2 (2004): Article 5.

Review of Melodie Moench Charles. “The Mormon Christianizing of the Old Testament.” In The Word of God: Essays on Mormon Scripture

Christensen, Kevin. “Truth and Method: Reflections on Dan Vogel’s Approach to the Book of Mormon.” The FARMS Review 16, no. 1 (2004): Article 15.

Kevin Christensen responds to Dan Vogel’s views against the authenticity of the Book of Mormon. Vogel claims that the Book of Mormon cannot be a translated text because there were numerous influences surrounding Joseph Smith that could have motivated him to write the book on his own. Christensen and Vogel have responded to each other’s claims previously; this article is a continuation of that debate.

Christensen, Kevin. “‘Nigh unto Death’: NDE Research and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

This article suggests that contemporary near-death research casts light on several episodes in the Book of Mormon. Alma’s conversion while “nigh unto death” fits a common pattern of experience. Modern researchers have noticed distinctive aftereffects among those who have experienced a near-death experience (NDE). In the Book of Mormon, both Alma and the resurrected Christ demonstrate these aftereffects. Lehi’s dream invites comparison with the otherworld journey literature of many nations. Nephi’s interpretation of Lehi’s dream casts light on the tension between the literal and the symbolic elements of visionary experience. Finally, just as accurate out-of-body observations made by NDErs argued for the reality of their experiences, so the testable aspects of the Book of Mormon give Joseph Smith a significance apart from others who may have experienced similar visions.

Christensen, Kevin, and Shauna Christensen. “Nephite Feminism Revisited: Thoughts on Carol Lynn Pearson's View of Women in the Book of Mormon.” FARMS Review of Books 10, no. 2 (1998): Article 5.

Review of “Could Feminism Have Saved the Nephites?” (1996), by Carol Lynn Pearson

Clark, Eugene E. “A Preliminary Study of the Geology and Mineral Resources of Dhofar, The Sultanate of Oman.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1995.

The efforts begun by Warren and Michaela Aston to identify important sites along the Lehi trail eventually evolved into a FARMS project and exploration to Southern Oman’s Dhofar region in 1992. The remote area of Wadi Sayq on the western extremity of that region has been identified as a location that appears to meet all of the criteria one can infer from the text of the Book of Mormon for the coastal site named Bountiful by Lehi and his family, where they lived while building a ship for their ocean crossing. The text also states that while they lived at Bountiful, the Lord showed Nephi where to go to locate ore with which to make tools for their boatbuilding project. While it is known that greater Oman was a famous source of abundant and high-quality copper during Lehi’s time, commercial mining near Wadi Sayq is not documented. The ancient copper mines of Oman are hundreds of miles farther north and unlikely candidates for Nephi’s ore. Graciously responding to a FARMS request, Eugene Clark, former geologist for ESSO in Oman, has prepared a preliminary report of geological possibilities of mineral deposits in the Dhofar region, where Wadi Sayq is located. The report identifies a number of geological possibilities for copper or iron ore accessible to Wadi Sayq, based on published geological studies and surveys. An on-site survey is projected for later this year to explore the possibilities documented in this report. Most promising among the published studies are reports of specular hematite found in small, random deposits on the Mirbat plain east of Salalah. Specular hematite is the most readily available form of high-quality iron and would have been most attractive as a low-tech smelting source for Nephi’s tools. The report also notes that Dhofar irons would usually occur in mixtures with manganese and carbon, yielding higher-quality steel that would be superior for tools. This preliminary report documents the plausibility of the Nephite account of ore being smelted for shipbuilding tools. It also defines a range of possible ore sources in the Dhofar area that can be verified through on-site exploration.

Cloward, Robert A. “The Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha and the Dead Sea Scrolls.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1988.

Serious study of extra-canonical Jewish writings from the four centuries between 200 B.c. and A.D. 200 is sometimes hampered by difficulty in locating texts, since editions and translations of these works are scattered through a wide range of books and journals. It is the purpose of this selected bibliography to guide the student to these texts.

Keywords: Apocrypha; Pseudepigrapha; Dead Sea Scrolls
Compton, Todd M. “Hugh Nibley, Lehi in the Desert, The World of the Jaredites, There Were Jaredites; An Approach to the Book of Mormon; and Since Cumorah.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 1 (1989): 114-118.

Since 1989, the Review of Books on the Book of Mormon has published review essays to help serious readers make informed choices and judgments about books and other publications on topics related to the Latter-day Saint religious tradition. It has also published substantial freestanding essays that made further contributions to the field of Mormon studies. In 1996, the journal changed its name to the FARMS Review with Volume 8, No 1. In 2011, the journal was renamed Mormon Studies Review.

A review of Lehi in the Desert, The World of the Jaredites, There Were Jaredites; An Approach to the Book of Mormon; and Since Cumorah, Collected Works of Hugh Nibley vols. 5, 6, and 7, respectively.

Compton, Todd M. “John W. Welch, The Sermon at the Temple and the Sermon on the Mount.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 3 (1991): Article 23.

Review of The Sermon at the Temple and the Sermon on the Mount (1990), by John W. Welch.

Compton, Todd M. “The Spirituality of the Outcast in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

In the Book of Mormon, despised outcasts, such as the Lamanites or the poor, often have a special aptitude for spirituality, and the richer, civilized, and more overtly religious Nephites are often declining in righteousness. This phenomenon, with some characteristic specific themes, such as being excluded from a religious edifice, is found in ancient and contemporary cultures and religions. This theme points up the complexity of the Book of Mormon, which is not simple cowboys-and-Indians melodrama.

Corless, Timothy, Richard Dilworth Rust, and S. Mahlon Edwards. “Letters.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 20 no. 1 (2011).

Letters praising the Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture and responses to articles published therein.

Cracroft, Richard H.Out of Darkness into Light: A Novel Approach.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 4 (1992): Article 62.

Review of Out of Darkness (1991), by Keith C. Terry (with Maurice R. Tanner).

Cracroft, Richard H. “A General Reader’s Library of Book of Mormon StudiesThe (Literary) Coming Forth of the Book of Mormon: Three Recent Milestones.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Cracroft reviews the following books that can deepen one’s understanding of the Book of Mormon: Richard Dilworth Rust’s Feasting on the Word: The Literary Testimony of the Book of Mormon; Marilyn Arnold’s Sweet Is the Word: Reflections on the Book of Mormon: Its Narrative, Teachings and People; and Elder Jeffrey R. Holland’s Christ and the New Covenant: The Messianic Message of the Book of Mormon.

Cracroft, Richard H. “Had for Good and Evil: 19th-Century Literary Treatments of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).

Moroni prophesied on 21 September 1823 that Joseph’s name, and by implication the book he would eventually translate and publish, should be had for good and evil among all nations, kindreds, and tongues. Many current criticisms of the Book of Mormon trace their roots to the antagonistic critiques by 19th-century authors, beginning with Abner Cole, Alexander Campbell, and E. D. Howe. Campbell in particular was responsible for introducing the environmental theory: that Joseph Smith introduced 19th-century elements into his story. Travelers to Salt Lake City published their exposés, which were mostly critical of the Latter-day Saints and their book of sacred scripture. Mark Twain’s dismissive treatment of the book forged lasting popular misconceptions of the book. Fiction writers of the 19th century contributed to suspicion of and ignorance about Mormonism and the Book of Mormon. In more recent times, Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas O’Dea, and Robert V. Remini perpetuated environmental claims about the book. Recent Latter-day Saint scholars— Hugh Nibley, Richard Bushman, and Terryl Givens— represent those who speak good of the book and try to correct misperceptions about it.

Cracroft, Richard H. “Terryl L. Givens. The Viper on the Hearth: Mormons, Myths, and the Construction of Heresy.” FARMS Review of Books 9, no. 2 (1997): Article 10.

Review of The Viper on the Hearth: Mormons, Myths, and the Construction of Heresy (1997), by Terryl L. Givens.

Cracroft, Richard H. “Through a Glass, Brightly: Happenings in Book of Mormon Fiction.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6, no. 2 (1994): Article 8.

Review of Daniel and Nephi (1993), by Chris Heimerdinger: and Samuel: Moroni's Young Warrior (1993), by Clair Poulson.

Cracroft, Richard H. “‘Polishing God's Altars’ Fictionally Wresting the Book of Mormon.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 16.

Review of the Nephite Chronicles (1984-1989), by Robert H. Moss.

Cranney, Carl J. “The Deliberate Use of Hebrew Parallelisms in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 23 no. 1 (2014).
Crawford, Cory. “Catherine L. McDowell. The Image of God in the Garden of Eden: The Creation of Humankind in Genesis 2:5–3:24 in Light of mīs pî pīt pî and wpt-r Rituals of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 8 no. 1 (2016).

The discovery of Babylonian, Assyrian, and Egyptian ritual prescriptions for creating and enlivening divine statues ranks among the more important in providing depth and context for reading biblical texts, and it is one that has only relatively recently begun to bear fruit. As the most recent and sustained study of these texts and their significance for understanding the Hebrew Bible, Catherine L. McDowell’s The Image of God in the Garden of Eden demonstrates the gains in understanding made possible, with all due caution, by bringing the mīs pî pīt pî (mouth-washing, mouth-opening) ritual instructions from Mesopotamia and the wpt-r (mouth-opening) texts from Egypt into conversation with the Genesis creation stories. The work under consideration is both an excellent distillation and critique of the relatively recent work done on the animation of divine statues in the ancient Near East as well as a compelling analysis of what it means for understanding the Garden of Eden narrative of Genesis 2–3.2 A revision of her 2009 Harvard dissertation directed by Peter Machinist and Irene Winter, McDowell’s work displays the comprehensiveness, attention to detail, and clarity of exposition that make this indispensable for understanding both the rituals involved and the conceptual context informing the Genesis account. Scholars will find reasons to dispute some of the claims and conclusions made in the volume, but McDowell has herewith advanced the conversation in a systematic and reasonable manner.

Keywords: Garden of Eden, Biblical studies, religious scholarship
Grey, Matthew J., and Cory Crawford. “Introduction.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 8 no. 1 (2016).

In the summer of 2016, the editors of Studies in the Bible and Antiquity (Brian Hauglid, Matthew Grey, and Cory Crawford) organized a one-day workshop sponsored by the Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship to consider the relationship between modern biblical studies and various faith communities who view the Bible as sacred scripture. This workshop, which was held on the campus of Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, included essays presented by six outstanding scholars who approached the topic from Jewish, Catholic, Protestant, and Latter-day Saint perspectives, and we are pleased to publish the revised versions of these essays in this roundtable forum.

Keywords: Biblical studies, religious scholarship, religious workshops
Crowe, Chris. “Chris Heimerdinger, Tennis Shoes and the Feathered Serpent.” FARMS Review of Books 8, no. 1 (1996): Article 17.

Review of Tennis Shoes and the Feathered Serpent (1995), by Chris Heimerdinger

Crowell, Angela M., and John A. Tvedtnes. “The Nephite and Jewish Practice of Blessing God after Eating One’s Fill.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

A Jewish custom of blessing God after eating one’s fill at a meal is reflected in passing in Amulek’s household and when the resurrected Christ blesses the sacrament for the Nephites and thereafter instructs them to pray. They “gave glory to Jesus” on this occasion.

Cumming, David Butler. “Three Days and Three Nights: Reassessing Jesus’s Entombment.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 1 (2007).

The Bible does not explicitly state on which day of the week the Savior was crucified, and the passages describing the length of time he spent in the tomb can be interpreted in multiple ways. Depending on how days were measured and on what Sabbath the day of preparation preceded—whether the weekly Sabbath or the Passover Sabbath—the crucifixion could plausibly have occurred on Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday. The Bible and history have not been able to determine on which day of the week the crucifixion occurred, but the Book of Mormon gives additional information to establish the day. Based on a comparison of the passages in the two texts and an examination of time differences between the two hemispheres, Thursday appears to be the most plausible solution.

Curci, Jonathan. “Liahona: ‘The Direction of the Lord’: An Etymological Explanation.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 2 (2007).

The etymological meaning of the name Liahona has been touched on before, but Curci seeks to deliver a more plausible etymology than has previously been given. By transliterating the word back into the Hebraic idioms of the time of Lehi and evaluating the grammatical elements to form the name, he has settled on the meaning of “ direction of the Lord.” The name is broken into three parts, and Curci argues that each part is Hebraic in origin, including the meaning and interpretation of each part. The etymological evidence regarding the name Liahona strengthens the claim that the book was written by a group of ancient Hebrews and not Joseph Smith.

D

Dahl, Larry E. “Faith, Hope, and Charity.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1994. Transcript of a lecture given at the FARMS Book of Mormon Lecture Series.

Larry Dahl explores some of the teachings of the Book of Mormon concerning faith, hope, and charity. He discusses the meanings of these words, their relationships to each other, how they are acquired, and what their fruits are. Faith, hope, and charity must be centered in Christ. The first principle of the gospel is not just faith, it is faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. We must obtain not just hope, but a hope in Christ. Likewise, charity is not just love, it is the pure love of Christ.

Keywords: Book of Mormon Teachings
Dahl, Larry E. “Fe, esperanza y caridad.” Spanish translation of “Faith, Hope, and Charity. ” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1994. A transcript of a lecture presented as part of the FARMS Book of Mormon Lecture Series.

Este texto de la presentation en video fue preparado por la facultad del Instituto de Religion de Portland.

Davis, D. Morgan. “Sidney H. Griffith, The Bible in Arabic: The Scriptures of the ‘People of the Book‘ in the Language of Islam.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 6 no. 1 (2014).
Davis, Garold N., and Mark J. Johnson. “H. Clay Gorton, The Legacy of the Brass Plates of Laban: A Comparison of Biblical and Book of Mormon Isaiah Texts.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 7, no. 1 (1995): Article 10.

Review of The Legacy of the Brass Plates of Laban: A Comparison of Biblical and Book of Mormon Isaiah Texts (1994), by H. Clay Gorton.

Davis, Mark, and Brent Israelson. “International Relations and Treaties in the Book of Mormon.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1982.

The Book of Mormon chronicles the wars and other relations between the two major nations of Ancient America. This paper identifies certain principles evident in the relations between these nations and compares the principles found in the Book of Mormon with international practice of Ancient Israel in the old world. This paper is not want to be a study of the law of nations of the ancient Near East; rather, our purpose is to identify, if possible, principles of the law of nations in the Book of Mormon. Ccmparisons to the culture of the ancient Near East are not meant to function as proof (or disproof) of the old-world origin of the Book of Mormon culture. They should be taken as interesting illuminations of the principles of international relations which appear in the history of the ancient American nations.

Davis, Ryan W. “For the Peace of the People: War and Democracy in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 1 (2007).

King Benjamin, in an attempt to establish and promote peace, created a form of government that may be understood as democratic. The political system is not a democracy in the way the term is understood today, but the democratic elements become especially clear when viewed next to its autocratic Lamanite counterpart. Davis demonstrates how a democratic system tends to bring more peace to a nation and, interestingly, also more victory when war does come upon them. The young Nephite state encountered the types of risks experienced in the modern progression to democracy, further illustrating how difficult a task it would have been for Joseph Smith to create this world. Although the democratic state played a role in the Nephite nation, the most important lesson in the Book of Mormon’s politics is that God makes all the difference.

Dennis, Ronald D.Llyfr Mormon: The Translation of the Book of Mormon into Welsh.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

In 1840, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints established its first branch in Wales. The branch had been organized and converts baptized without the help of Welsh translations of the Book of Mormon and other church materials. In this specific area in Wales, English was widely spoken; thus translating the Book of Mormon into Welsh had not been a priority. However, after being sent to a different area of Wales by Elder Lorenzo Snow of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, William Henshaw quickly realized that such a translation was imperative to the spreading of the gospel throughout the rest of Wales. In 1845, Captain Dan Jones arrived in Wales as a new missionary. Elder Jones used a press belonging to his brother, a Welsh clergyman, to print church pamphlets that he had translated into Welsh. One of the employees who worked at the press, John S. Davis, eventually was baptized. In 1850, Davis translated the Doctrine and Covenants into Welsh. The next year, he asked the Welsh Saints to subscribe to the official Mormon periodical, which would publish a part of the Book of Mormon each week. The subscriptions would provide the funds necessary to do so. The Saints responded enthusiastically, and as a result, the Welsh translation of the Book of Mormon was eventually all published.

Dorais, Michael J. “The Geologic History of Hill Cumorah.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 13 no. 1 (2004).

This article discusses the geologic processes that occurred to form the Hill Cumorah and surrounding lands that would have made that area attractive to the Smith family and other early settlers and also presents reasons the hill was a suitable location for storing the golden plates for hundreds of years. The causes of glaciation, the definitions and types of glaciers, and the origin and characteristics of drumlins are explored.

Douglas, Alex. “David E. Bokovoy. Authoring the Old Testament: Genesis–Deuteronomy. Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2014.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 8 no. 1 (2016).

David Bokovoy’s most recent book, Authoring the Old Testament: Genesis–Deuteronomy, represents a fresh and much-needed perspective on how Latter-day Saints can simultaneously embrace both scholarship and faith. This book is the first in what is anticipated to be a three-volume set exploring issues of authorship in the Old Testament published by Bokovoy with Greg Kofford Books. Bokovoy uses current scholarship on the Pentateuch as a springboard for discussing LDS perspectives on scripture, revelation, and cultural influence. To my knowledge, this is the first book-length attempt to popularize the classical Documentary Hypothesis among Latter-day Saints, and Bokovoy does an exemplary job of tackling this issue head-on and taking an unflinching view of its implications for how we understand Restoration scriptures such as the Book of Moses, the Book of Abraham, and the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Old Testament, Biblical studies, religious scholarship, Book of Mormon
Duffin, Stephen J. “Pressing Forward: A Real Feast.” FARMS Review of Books 14, no. 1 (2002): Article 7.

Review of Pressing Forward with the Book of Mormon: The FARMS Updates of the 1990s (1999), edited by John W. Welch and Melvin J. Thorne

Duke, James T. “The Literary Structure and Doctrinal Significance of Alma 13:1-9.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Alma’s sermon at Ammonihah includes a remarkable passage (Alma 13:1–9) that contains a main chiasm as well as four shorter chiasms and four alternates. It also uses synonymia, cycloides, repetition, and an important Nephite idiom (rest). In addition, this passage explains the doctrine of the priesthood and the eternal nature of Christ in conjunction with the priesthood, and introduces the doctrines of a preparatory redemption and the rest of God.

Duke, James T. “Word Pairs and Distinctive Combinations in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).

The literary richness of the Book of Mormon is attested by the appearance of word pairs, in both parallel and conjoined pairs. On occasion, combinations of three, four, or even more words appear together more than once. Possible reasons for the scriptural use of word pairs include literary functions, echoes of the law of Moses, theological terms, universals (or merisms), repetition, and mnemonic function. Duke builds on previous studies of word pairs in the Book of Mormon by Kevin Barney and John Tvedtnes. The frequency of word pairs and other combinations of words witnesses to the Hebrew roots of the language of the book.

Dundas, Gregory Steven. “John M. Lundquist and Stephen D. Ricks, eds., By Study and Also by Faith, vol. 2.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 4 (1992): Article 53.

Review of By Study and Also by Faith, vol. 2 (1990), edited by John M. Lundquist and Stephen D. Ricks.

E

Easton, Susan Ward. “The Book Of Mormon: A Witness for Christ.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1984.
Easton-Flake, Amy. “Beyond Understanding: Narrative Theory as Expansion in Book of Mormon Exegesis.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 25 no. 1 (2016).
Echohawk, Larry. “With Real Intent: An Unexpected Gift.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 1 (2007).

The Pawnee people endured many hardships through the years, but EchoHawk explains that out of that pain was born promise. During his childhood, EchoHawk and his family had no expectation of achieving a higher education, but he, along with all of his siblings, was able to attend college. Through a football accident in high school, he gained the personal testimony he hadn’t possessed when he was baptized at 14. His testimony and his football took him to Brigham Young University, where President Spencer W. Kimball influenced him to become a lawyer, and later the attorney general of Idaho, to help his people and to be an instrument in God’s hands.

Corless, Timothy, Richard Dilworth Rust, and S. Mahlon Edwards. “Letters.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 20 no. 1 (2011).

Letters praising the Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture and responses to articles published therein.

Eggington, William. “Our Weakness in Writing: Oral and Literature Culture in the Book of Mormon.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1992.

In this essay William Eggington suggests that Lehi and his descendants functioned in a society that exhibited strong characteristics of an oral society, one that had access to print but retained many features of a nonprint culture. He concludes that readers of the Book of Momon today need more effective study strategies. Readers who understand the different discourse structures, cohesive devices, rhetorical patterns, and world views used by the authors better understand the authors’ intent.

Keywords: Book of Mormon, Literature
Eliason, Eric A. “‘An Awful Tale of Blood’ Theocracy, Intervention, and the Forgotten Kingdom.” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 1 (2000): Article 10.

Review of Forgotten Kingdom: The Mormon Theocracy in the American West, 1875-1896 (1998), by David L. Bigler

Elliott, T. Lynn. “Discovering Mormon and Moroni.” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 2 (2000): Article 3.

Review of The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni (2000), by Jerry L. Ainsworth

Elliott, T. Lynn. “Modern-Day Lessons from the Book of Mormon.” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 2 (2000): Article 10.

Review of As One Crying from the Dust: Book of Mormon Messages for Today (1999), by Brent L. Top

Enders, Donald L., and Jennifer L. Lund. “Myths on Palmyra's Main Street.” The FARMS Review 21, no. 1 (2009): Article 9.

Review of Gordon L. Weight. Miracle on Palmyra's Main Street: An “Old-Time” Printer's Perspective on Printing the Original Copies of the Book of Mormon.

England, Eugene. “Orson Scott Card: How a Great Science Fictionist Uses the Book of Mormon.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 6.

Review of The Folk of the Fringe (1989); Seventh Son (1987); The Red Prophet (1988); and Prentice Alvin (1989), by Orson Scott Card.

England, Eugene. “Orson Scott Card: The Book of Mormon as History and Science Fiction.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6, no. 2 (1994): Article 5.

Review of Homecoming (5 vols., 1992-95); A Storyteller in Zion: Essays and Speeches (1993); and “An Open Letter to those who are concerned about 'plagiarism' in The Memory of Earth” (1993), by Orson Scott Card.

Enns, Peter. “Reflections (Personal and Otherwise) on Protestantism’s Uneasy and Diverse Response to Higher Criticism.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 8 no. 1 (2016).

Each of us has been asked to address some important questions about the intersection of our own faith traditions and higher criticism — an apt metaphor, since “intersections” are where collisions often happen. This brings me to my topic, Protestantism and higher criticism, a messy subject to be sure.

Keywords: Protestantism, Bible studies, religious scholarship
Espinosa, Robert J. “Fragments of the Original Manuscript.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).

Robert Espinosa was approached by Royal Skousen in 1991 with a request for him to join Skousen on the critical text project of the Book of Mormon. Espinosa shares his experience working with Skousen and the developments that they were able to make. After meeting with the owners of some fragments of the original manuscript of the Book of Mormon, Espinosa and Skousen were able to conserve, examine, and photograph the fragments. They also carefully analyzed the physical characteristics of the printer’s manuscript.

Essig, Fred, and Dan Fuller. “Nephi’s Slaying of Laban: A Legal Perspective.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1982.

Few passages in the Book of Mormon have inspired more criticism and moral outrage than the account of Nephi slaying the unconscious figure of Laban. Many point to this episode as evidence against the Book of Mormon being an inspired document. In this study we will attempt to examine the legal as well as the extra-legal ramifications of this incident. Since the law of ancient Israel was inexorably tied to the religious and moral code of the Israelites, any attempt to divorce the two would be patently artificial. Therefore, while this study will emphasize what we know about the operation of justice, that, by necessity implies a discussion of Israel’s relationship to her lawgiver, Yahweh. In analyzing this slaying, a determination must be made of which Hebrew law codes would most likely have applied during Nephi’s time. The Book of Mormon places the slaying between 592 and 598 B.C.1 The primary sources for Hebrew law of that time are the law codes of the Old Testament. They are three in number: the Code of the Covenant (Exodus 21-23:33), the Deuteronomic Code (which includes Deuteronomy 19), and the Priestly Code (which includes Numbers 35). Although there is some difference of opinion among scholars about the compilation dates of these various codes, the general consensus is that the Code of the Covenant was compiled before 800 B.C., the Deuteronomic Code around 700 B.C., and the Priestly Code in about 350 B.C.5 Comparing these dates to the date of slaying, it can be seen that the Code of the Covenant and the Deuteronomic Code were in existence before the time of the slaying and date in roughly the same time period as the slaying. The Priestly Code, however, was compiled after the exile in Babylon and almost 250 years after the slaying.

Eyring, Henry B. “The Marketplace of Ideas.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 2002. An address delivered at the annual FARMS banquet, 13 October 1994.

F

Flinders, Rebecca M., and Anne B. Fairchild. “Scriptures for Families.” The FARMS Review 15, no. 1 (2003): Article 21.

Review of Thomas R. Valletta, gen. ed. The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families. Review of Thomas R. Valletta, gen. ed. The New Testament for Latter-day Saint Families.

Farmer, Deborah. “Clair Poulson, Samuel, Moroni's Young Warrior (tapes) and Samuel, Gadianton's Foe (tapes).” FARMS Review of Books 8, no. 1 (1996): Article 18.

Samuel, Moroni's Young Warrier (1993), by Clair Poulson.

Faulconer, James E. “Comment Etudier le Livre de Mormon.” French translation of “How to Study the Book of Mormon. ” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1999. A transcript of a lecture presented as part of the FARMS Book of Mormon Lecture Series.
Faulconer, James E. “How to Study the Book of Mormon.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1999. Transcript of a lecture presented as part of the FARMS Book of Mormon Lecture Series.

In this essay James Faulconer, a BYU professor of philosophy and dean of honors, outlines some general suggestions for scripture study. He presents his extensive notes on Mosiah 4 to show the treasures that can be found by careful and thorough scripture study. His study methods include considering context, examining word meaning, and looking for patterns.

Keywords: Book of Mormon Teachings
Faulconer, James E. “Remembrance.” The FARMS Review 19, no. 2 (2007): Article 9.

This article studies human memory and discusses why remembering is integral aspect of making cov-enants with God.

Faulconer, James E. “Rethinking Theology: The Shadow of the Apocalypse.” The FARMS Review 19, no. 1 (2007): Article 12.

The New Testament repeatedly refers to the Apocalypse, insinuating that the end of the world is forthcoming. However, Faulconer suggests that the Apocalypse must begin with a restoration of gospel truths, and such a restoration can occur on an individual level. When Christ taught about an Apocalypse, he may have been referring to the conversion that each person experiences as he or she accepts these truths.

Faulconer, James E. Romans 1: Notes and Reflections. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1999.

The book of Romans can be difficult to understand, and it is used more than any other biblical book to challenge LDS doctrine. “When we understand Romans, it is obvious that not only need we not fear having others discuss Paul’s teachings, but we can use those very teachings to teach the truthfulness of the gospel understood through latter-day revelation.”

In commenting on Romans 1 verse by verse, author James E. Faulconer touches on such topics as faith, holiness, obedience, service to Christ, personal conversion and repentance, and becoming true saints. Romans 1: Notes and Reflections can be a valuable tool for those who are studying the book of Romans or looking for new ways to study other scripture.

Faulconer, James E. Scripture Study: Tools and Suggestions. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1999.

Cultivate your love for the scriptures and deepen your knowledge with the help of a scripture study process compiled by James E. Faulconer. Rich scripture study is facilitated by tools and techniques that help us focus on what the scriptures can teach us. This study aid offers pointers and suggestions that will familiarize beginning students of the scriptures with the many resources available to them, as well as help more experienced students improve the overall effectiveness of their scripture study.

In this fascinating book, Faulconer discusses a helpful method and the purpose of outlining, an in-depth method of cross-referencing, how to ask cogent and thought-provoking questions about the scriptures, the benefits of using dictionaries and concordances, the relation between words and ideas apparent through rhetorical studies, and using the valuable reference tools in the LDS edition of the scriptures. He then provides sample notes developed using the study tools he describes to show how research and pondering can make scripture study even more meaningful.

Faulconer, James E. “Sealings and Mercies: Moroni’s Final Exhortations in Moroni 10.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 22 no. 1 (2013).

This is not an essay in the usual sense. Instead, it is a close reading of Moroni 10, looking verse by verse at what Mornoi might be teaching us. The overarching question is, to what does Moroni exhort us as he seals his book and writes his final words? Examining each of Morni’s eight exhortations, Faulconer shows one way to study scriptures and perhaps to think about them afresh. In addition to the importantadmonition to pray about the truth of the Book of Mormon, he sees in this chapter a message of God’s mercy and of our need for charity.

Faulconer, James E. “Setting a New Standard.” The FARMS Review 21, no. 1 (2009): Article 10.

Brant A. Gardner, Second Witness: Analytical and Contextual Commentary on the Book of Mormon, etc.

Faulconer, James E. “Takayama: Restoration Revelation as Poetry Rather than Fraud.” FARMS Review of Books 13, no. 1 (2001): Article 9.

Review of “Poetic Language in Nineteenth Century Mormonism: A Study of Semiotic Phenomenology in Communication and Culture” (1990), by Michiko Takayama

Faulconer, James E. “The Myth of the Modern; the Anti-myth of the Postmodern.” The FARMS Review 20, no. 1 (2008): Article 1.

Faulconer, though not a postmodernist himself, argues that postmodernism is misunderstood and should be evaluated more thoroughly. Accordingly, he com-pares postmodernism with modernism in an effort to provide a more complete view of the two schools of thought.

Faulconer, James E. “With Real Intent.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Faulconer discusses the evolution of his testimony of the Book of Mormon; years passed before he recognized the importance of that book to his life as a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. After reading an article explaining the tree of life that is written about in 1 Nephi, he gained a deeper understanding of the purpose of the Book of Mormon—that the book prepares members of the church to enter into covenants with God in the temple and explains what those covenants are. In addition to that objective, the book testifies of and brings people to Jesus Christ.

Paulsen, David L., and Matthew G. Fisher. “A New Evangelical Vision of God: Openness and Mormon Thought.” The FARMS Review 15, no. 2 (2003): Article 19.

Review of Clark H. Pinnock. Most Moved Mover: A Theology of God’s Openness.

Folsom, Marvin. “Lynn Matthews Anderson, The Easy-to-Read Book of Mormon: A Learning Companion.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 7, no. 1 (1995): Article 5.

Review of The Easy-to-Read Book of Mormon: A Learning Companion (1995), by Lynn Matthews Anderson.

Folsom, Marvin. “Philip L. Barlow, Mormons and the Bible: The Place of the Latter-day Saints in American Religion.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 4 (1992): Article 38.

Review of Mormons and the Bible: The Place of Latter-day Saints in American Religion (1991), by Philip L. Barlow.

Foster, Craig L. “Doing Violence to Journalistic Integrity.” The FARMS Review 16, no. 1 (2004): Article 11.

Review of Jon Krakauer. Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of a Violent Faith.

Foster, Craig L. “John R. Farkas and David A. Reed. Mormonism: Changes, Contradictions, and Errors.” FARMS Review of Books 9, no. 1 (1997): Article 12.

Review of Mormonism: Changes, Contradictions, and Errors (1995), by John R. Farkas and David A. Reed

Foster, Craig L. “Massacring the Truth.” The FARMS Review 19, no. 2 (2007): Article 14.

Review of Christopher Cain (producer). September Dawn and Review of Carole Whang Schutter. September Dawn.

Essig, Fred, and Dan Fuller. “Nephi’s Slaying of Laban: A Legal Perspective.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1982.

Few passages in the Book of Mormon have inspired more criticism and moral outrage than the account of Nephi slaying the unconscious figure of Laban. Many point to this episode as evidence against the Book of Mormon being an inspired document. In this study we will attempt to examine the legal as well as the extra-legal ramifications of this incident. Since the law of ancient Israel was inexorably tied to the religious and moral code of the Israelites, any attempt to divorce the two would be patently artificial. Therefore, while this study will emphasize what we know about the operation of justice, that, by necessity implies a discussion of Israel’s relationship to her lawgiver, Yahweh. In analyzing this slaying, a determination must be made of which Hebrew law codes would most likely have applied during Nephi’s time. The Book of Mormon places the slaying between 592 and 598 B.C.1 The primary sources for Hebrew law of that time are the law codes of the Old Testament. They are three in number: the Code of the Covenant (Exodus 21-23:33), the Deuteronomic Code (which includes Deuteronomy 19), and the Priestly Code (which includes Numbers 35). Although there is some difference of opinion among scholars about the compilation dates of these various codes, the general consensus is that the Code of the Covenant was compiled before 800 B.C., the Deuteronomic Code around 700 B.C., and the Priestly Code in about 350 B.C.5 Comparing these dates to the date of slaying, it can be seen that the Code of the Covenant and the Deuteronomic Code were in existence before the time of the slaying and date in roughly the same time period as the slaying. The Priestly Code, however, was compiled after the exile in Babylon and almost 250 years after the slaying.

Fullmer, Robert. “Paul Henning: The First Mormon Archaeologist.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

Paul Henning was born in Germany in 1872 and passed away in 1923. He was the first Latter-day Saint to become a professional archaeologist and Mesoamerican scholar. He was also the first to bring his professional knowledge to bear on how to correlate the Book of Mormon record with the physical remains and history of the area now widely considered among church members as the core Book of Mormon location. While his ideas on these matters were never published, he deserves to be saluted as a pioneer of Book of Mormon studies. This biographical article includes information about his association with Benjamin C. Cluff Jr., president of Brigham Young University, and his contribution to the university.

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Gaskill, Alonzo L.Maximus Nothus Decretum: A Look at the Recent Catholic Declaration regarding Latter-day Saint Baptisms.” FARMS Review of Books 13, no. 2 (2001): Article 15.

Review of “The Question of the Validity of Baptism Conferred in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints” (unpublished), by Luis Ladaria

Gee, James. “The Nahom Maps.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 17 no. 1 (2008).

Several maps from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries support details of Lehi’s journey as recorded in the Book of Mormon. In 1751, the renowned cartographer Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D’Anville became the first to include Nahom (or Nehem), Ishmael’s burial place in the Book of Mormon, in his map of Asia. This map and a 1771 map of Yemen are the basis for most accurate maps of Arabia from 1751 to 1814. The spelling varies among the subsequent maps, with most using either D’Anville’s Nehem or Niebuhr’s Nehhm, but the location of Nahom does not differ between those maps that include Nahom. The mention of Nahom on the finest maps by the greatest cartographers of the times, in a location that corresponds to Lehi’s account, gives credence to Lehi’s travels.

Gee, John. “A Book of Mormon Christology at Last.” FARMS Review of Books 10, no. 2 (1998): Article 4.

Review of Christ and the New Covenant: The Messianic Message of the Book of Mormon (1997), by Jeffrey R. Holland

Gee, John. A Guide to the Joseph Smith Papyri. Provo, UT: FARMS, 2000.

Since the rediscovery of the Joseph Smith Papyri in 1967, the papyri have been the center of conflicting, and often confusing, claims. This full-color, reader-friendly guide contains an overview of the basic facts and major theories about the papyri, along with helpful maps, illustrations, charts, and glossaries of terms and names.

Written by Egyptologist John Gee, this guide reflects not only the latest Egyptological research but also the most recent Latter-day Saint thought about the papyri. It deals with the nature of the papyri, their contents, their provenance, their relationship to the Book of Abraham and the Book of Breathings, current views of believers and detractors, and more.

Gee, John. “A History of the Joseph Smith Papyri and Book of Abraham.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1999. Transcript of a lecture presented on 3 March 1999 as part of the FARMS Book of Abraham Lecture Series.

John Gee recounts the history of the Joseph Smith papyri, their discovery, travels, and eventual translation. Particular attention is devoted to the reconstruction of the papyri and their relationship to the Book of Abraham. The origin and contents of the Book of Abraham and the Kirtland Egyptian Papers are also discussed.

Gee, John. “A Method for Studying the Facsimiles.” The FARMS Review 19, no. 1 (2007): Article 20.

Review of Allen J. Fletcher. A Study Guide to the Facsimiles of the Book of Abraham.

Gee, John. “A Note on the Name Nephi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The name Nephi is attested as a Syro-Palestinian Semitic form of an Egyptian man’s name dating from the Late Period in Egypt.

Gee, John. “A Tragedy of Errors.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 4 (1992): Article 51.

Review of . . . By His Own Hand upon Papyrus: A New Look at the Joseph Smith Papyri (1992), by Charles M. Larson.

Gee, John. “Abracadabra, Isaac and Jacob.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 7, no. 1 (1995): Article 6.

Review of The Use of Egyptian Magical Papyri to Authenticate the Book of Abraham: A Critical Review? (1993), by Edward H. Ashment.

Gee, John. “Abraham and Idrimi.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 22 no. 1 (2013).

Idrimi of Alalakh lived in Syria about a century after Abraham and left an autobiographical inscription that is the only such item uncovered archaeologically from Middle Bronze Age Syro-Palestine. The inscription of Idrimi and the Book of Abraham share a number of parallel features and motifs. Some of the parallels are a result of similar experiences in their lives and some are a result of coming from a similar culture and time.

Gee, John, and Kerry Muhlestein. “An Egyptian Context for the Sacrifice of Abraham.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 20 no. 2 (2011).

The plausibility of the attempted offering of Abraham by a priest of pharaoh and the existence of human sacrifice in ancient Egypt have been questioned and debated. This paper presents strong evidence that ritual slaying did exist among ancient Egyptians, with a particular focus on its existence in the Middle Kingdom. It details three individual evidences of human sacrifice found in ancient Egypt. Four different aspects of the attempted offering of Abraham are compared to these Egyptian evidences to illustrate how the story of Abraham fits with the picture of ritual slaying in Middle Kingdom Egypt.

Gee, John. “Another Note on the Three Days of Darkness.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The fragmentary text on a stele erected at Karnak seems to be connected with the volcanic eruption on Thera. The phraseology in many instances bears uncanny resemblance to the Book of Mormon account of the destruction in the Americas at the time of the crucifixion.

Tvedtnes, John A., John Gee, and Matthew Roper. “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

In recent years, a large number of ancient writings have been found in and around Israel. While many of these include names found in the Bible and other ancient texts, others were previously unattested in written sources. Some of these previously unattested names, though unknown in the Bible, are found in the Book of Mormon. The discovery of these Hebrew names in ancient inscriptions provides remarkable evidence for the authenticity of the Book of Mormon and provides clear refutation of those critics who would place its origin in nineteenth-century America. This article explores several Book of Mormon proper names that are attested from Hebrew inscriptions. Names included are Sariah, Alma, Abish, Aha, Ammonihah, Chemish, Hagoth, Himni, Isabel, Jarom, Josh, Luram, Mathoni, Mathonihah, Muloki, and Sam—none of which appear in English Bibles.

Gee, John. “Daniel H. Ludlow, ed., The Encyclopedia of Mormonism.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 5 (1993): Article 33.

Review of The Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992), edited by Daniel H. Ludlow

Wayment, Thomas A., and John Gee. “Did Paul Address His Wife in Philippi?” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 4 no. 1 (2012).

Using different methodological approaches and considerations, Thomas Wayment and John Gee each approach the question of whether Paul was speaking to his spouse in Philippians 4:3; their intent is to determine if the question can be answered with any degree of confidence. The related question of whether Paul was ever married is not addressed here, although that issue has been of interest since at least the second century AD and perhaps earlier. Instead, these authors consider only the question of whether a specific noun that is sometimes used to refer to a wife was intentionally used that way by Paul.

Peterson, Daniel C., and John Gee. “Editor's Introduction: Through a Glass, Darkly.” FARMS Review of Books 9, no. 2 (1997): Article 2.

Introduction to the current issue, including editor?s picks. So-called biblical scholarship is supposed to be able to differentiate between authors of various texts. A test devised by students for their professor showed some of the flaws of those methods. Though critics complain about the lack of archaeological evidence supporting the Book of Mormon, even the Bible has few archaeological supports.

Gee, John. “Epigraphic Considerations on Janne Sjodahl’s Experiment with Nephite Writing.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

Having studied Janne Sjodahl’s work on the number of plates required for the original Book of Mormon text, John Gee examines the potential drawbacks of Sjodahl’s experiment. He concludes that the size of Miller’s script suffices for Sjodahl’s test.

Gee, John. “Formulas and Faith.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 21 no. 1 (2012).

The question of where Joseph Smith received the text of the Book of Abraham has elicited three main theories, one of which, held by a minority of church members, is that Joseph translated it from papyri that we no longer have. It is conjectured that if this were the case, then the contents of the Book of Abraham must have been on what nineteenth-century witnesses described as the “long roll.” Two sets of scholars developed mathematical formulas to discover, from the remains of what they believe to be the long roll, what the length of the long roll would have been. However, when these formulas are applied on scrolls of known length, they produce erratic or inconclusive results, thus casting doubt on their ability to accurately conclude how long the long roll would have been.

Gee, John. “Has Olishem Been Discovered?” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 22 no. 2 (2013).

News reports from 2013 identify the site of Oylum Höyük with both the city of Abraham and the ancient city of Ulišum. The latter has been identified with the Olishem of Abraham 1:10. While the preliminary reports are encouraging, the evidence upon which the archaeologists base their identifications has not yet been published. So while there is nothing against the proposed identifications, they are not proven either.

Gee, John. “I Figli di Horus.” Italian translation of “Notes on the Sons of Horus.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1991.
Gee, John. “La Trahison des Clercs: On the Language and Translation of the Book of Mormon.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6, no. 1 (1994): Article 5.

Review of New Approaches to the Book of Mormon: Explorations in Critical Methodology (1993), edited by Brent Lee Metcalfe.

Gee, John. “Limhi in the Library.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

Analysis of comparative data and historical background indicates that the quotations in Mosiah 7–22 are historically accurate. Further examination of the quotations of Limhi shows that they depend heavily on other sources. This implies some things about the character of Limhi and provides as well attendant lessons for our own day.

Gee, John. “New and Old Light on Shawabtis from Mesoamerica.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Two Egyptian shawabti-figurines, reputedly discovered in Acajutla, El Salvador, in 1914, are likely forgeries. Had they been authentic, they might have helped to establish cultural contact between Egypt and Mesoameria.

Gee, John. “New Light on the Joseph Smith Papyri.” The FARMS Review 19, no. 2 (2007): Article 20.

Gee shares the results of his twenty-year studies of the Joseph Smith Papyri, discussing matters that are not widely known.

Gee, John. “Notes on the Sons of Horus.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1991.
Gee, John. “On Corrupting the Youth.” The FARMS Review 22, no. 2 (2010): Article 9.

Review of Chrsitian Smith. Souls in Transition: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of Emerging Adults. and Review of Mark D. Regenerus. Forbidden Fruit: Sex and Religion in the Lives of American Teenagers.

Gee, John. “One Side of a Nonexistent Conversation.” The FARMS Review 15, no. 1 (2003): Article 8.

Review of Thomas D. Cottle. The Papyri of Abraham: Facsimiles of the Everlasting Covenant.

Gee, John. “Robert L. Millet, By Grace Are We Saved.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 15.

Review of By Grace Are We Saved (1989), by Robert L. Millet.

Gee, John. “Some Notes on the Anthon Transcript.” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 1 (2000): Article 4.

Review of Translating the Anthon Transcript (1999), by Stan and Polly Johnson

Gee, John. “Some Puzzles from the Joseph Smith Papyri.” The FARMS Review 20, no. 1 (2008): Article 1.

This article explores what we know about the Joseph Smith Papyri, whether they are connected to the Book of Abraham, and the approaches that Latter-day Saints and non-LDS scholars take when trying to understand such a connection.

Gee, John. “Telling the Story of the Joseph Smith Papyri.” FARMS Review of Books 8, no. 2 (1996): Article 8.

Review of The Facsimiles of the Book of Abraham: A Study of the Joseph Smith Egyptian Papyri (1990), by James R. Harris; For His Ka: Essays Offered in Memory of Klaus Baer (1994), edited by David P. Silverman; and The Story of the Book of Abraham: Mummies, Manuscripts, and Mormonism (1995), by H. Donl Peterson.

Gee, John. “The Ancient Owners of the Joseph Smith Papyri.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1999. Transcript of a lecture presented on 17 March 1999 as part of the FARMS Book of Abraham Lecture Series.

Although much attention has been paid to those who have possessed the Joseph Smith Papyri in modern times, relatively little attention has been paid to the ancient owners of the papyri. This lecture examines the ancient owners, the world in which they lived, and their contact with the Book of Abraham.

Gee, John. “The Grace of Christ.” The FARMS Review 22, no. 1 (2010): Article 11.

The role of grace in salvation has been a recurring discussion. A few basics about grace tend to be overlooked in such discussions. The first of these is what is meant by “grace.” The second is what Jesus said about the topic.

Gee, John. “The Hagiography of Doubting Thomas.” FARMS Review of Books 10, no. 2 (1998): Article 13.

Review of Quest for the Gold Plates: Thomas Stuart Ferguson's Archaeological Search for the Book of Mormon (1996), by Stan Larson

Gee, John. “The Old Testament as Reliable History.” The FARMS Review 18, no. 1 (2006): Article 21.

Review of Kenneth A. Kitchen. On the Reliability of the Old Testament.

Gee, John. “The Role of the Book of Abraham in the Restoration.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1997.

John Gee provides an overview of how the Book of Abraham came to be in the possession of Joseph Smith, and how it was translated by the Prophet. Gee also discusses three aspects of the book that had doctrinal impact on the restoration, particularly in relation to doctrines of premortal existence.

Gee, John. “Two Notes on Egyptian Script.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Possible scripts for the “reformed Egyptian” referred to in the Book of Mormon include abnormal hieratic and carved hieratic.

Hoskisson, Paul Y., Brian M. Hauglid, and John Gee. “What’s in a Name? Irreantum.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

The Book of Mormon was written in a language that was grounded in Hebrew and Egyptian; the people of the Book of Mormon most likely spoke this same language. It is interesting, then, that the Book of Mormon authors periodically included definitions for certain terms that they used in their writing, as if their audience did not understand them. This technique, known as a gloss, suggests that those terms may not have been a part of that ancient language. In an attempt to uncover the true origin of such words, this article dissects the Book of Mormon term Irreantum and delves into its linguistic characteristics to determine whether the term could have originated from Hebrew, Egyptian, ancient South Semitic, or another language.

Gee, John. “Who Was Not the Pharaoh of the Exodus.” FARMS Review of Books 9, no. 1 (1997): Article 11.

Review of Who Was the Pharaoh of the Exodus? (1994), by Jeff Williams

Gee, John. “Wilford A. Fischer and Norma J. Fischer, A Book of Mormon Guide: A Simple Way to Teach a Friend.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 11.

Review of A Book of Mormon Guide: A Simple Way to Teach a Friend (1988), by Wilford A. Fischer and Norma J. Fischer.

Gee, John. “‘An Obstacle to Deeper Understanding’” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 2 (2000): Article 16.

Review of Early Mormonism and the Magic World View (1998), by D. Michael Quinn

Gee, John. “‘Bird Island’ Revisited, or the Book of Mormon through Pyramidal Kabbalistic Glasses.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 7, no. 1 (1995): Article 16.

Review of Written by the Finger of God: A Testimony of Joseph Smith's Translations (1993), by Joe Sampson.

Gibbons, Ted L. “Pat Bagley, Norman the Nephite's and Larry the Lamanite's Book of Mormon Time Line.” FARMS Review of Books 8, no. 2 (1996): Article 15.

Review of Norman the Nephite's and Larry the Lamanite's Book of Mormon Time Line (1995), by Pat Bagley

Gillum, Gary P. “A Sure Foundation: Answers to Difficult Gospel Questions.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 4.

Review of A Sure Foundation: Answers to Difficult Gospel Questions.

Gillum, Gary P. “Book of Mormon Book Reviews (to Spring, 1988).” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1988.
Gillum, Gary P. “Complete Annotated Bibliography of Hugh Nibley’s Works.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1982.
Gillum, Gary P. “Eldin Ricks, Eldin Ricks's Thorough Concordance of the LDS Standard Works.” FARMS Review of Books 8, no. 1 (1996): Article 16.

Review of Eldin Ricks's Thorough Concordance of LDS Standard Works (1995), by Eldin Ricks.

Gillum, Gary P. “Hugh Nibley Quotes: Of the Book of Mormon.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1981. Reprinted by permission from Gary P. Gillum, Of All Things: A Nibley Quote Book. Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1981.
Gillum, Gary P. “Hugh Nibley: A Subject Index to His Works.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1983.
Givens, Terryl L. “Joseph Smith’s American Bible: Radicalizing the Familiar.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 18 no. 2 (2009).

The Book of Mormon treats many topics that most nineteenth-century Christians would have been thoroughly familiar with: the fall, atonement, and resurrection, just to name a few. However, the Book of Mormon treats these subjects in a way that would have required such readers to rethink their relationship with the divine, their place in Christian history, and God’s relationship to history. Christ’s visit to the New World, the continuance of the scriptural canon, and abundant personalized revelation all create a text that is both familiar and radical.

Givens, Terryl L. “New Religious Movements and Orthodoxy: The Challenge to the Religious Mainstream.” The FARMS Review 19, no. 1 (2007): Article 13.

Because of the religious diversity in the United States, the different religions have struggled to be tolerant of each other, especially at the time when Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Givens examines this situation and suggests five factors that contribute to the success of new religious movements such as Mormonism.

Givens, Terryl L. “The Book of Mormon and Dialogic Revelation.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

This article has been adapted from the author’s book By the Hand of Mormon: The American Scripture That Launched a New World Religion. The author discusses three common understandings of the term revelation: (1) revelation as doctrine, (2) revelation as history, and (3) revelation as inner experience. He suggests that the Book of Mormon introduces a fourth type: revelation as dialogue. This form of revelation allows individuals to have direct contact with God, rather than only through the scriptures, and can be applied to our lives just as it was to the lives of those living in Book of Mormon times.

Givens, Terryl L. “The Book of Mormon Critical Text Project.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 15 no. 1 (2006).

Royal Skousen’s endeavor to recover the original text of the Book of Mormon is more complicated than it seems because it involves more than simply reproducing the original manuscript. Rather, what Skousen means by “original text” is the very language that appeared on the Urim and Thummim. Every subsequent step, such as Joseph’s reading, his scribes’ understanding and transcribing of that utterance, and Oliver Cowdery’s copying of the manuscript for the printer, exposed the text to the possibility of human subjectivity and error. This paper explains the nature and scope of Skousen’s monumental undertaking and presents some of the methods and reasoning he employs to resolve disputed textual variants in search the Book of Mormon’s original text.

Givens, Terryl L. “Themes.” The FARMS Review 21, no. 1 (2009): Article 12.

Givens first recounts the six visions that Nephi records in the Book of Mormon. He then suggests five themes from these visions: personal revelation, focus on Jesus Christ, wilderness and varieties of Zion, new configurations of scripture, and the centrality of family. Finally, he expands on each of these themes individually, explaining how they are illustrated through-out the Book of Mormon.

Givens, Terryl L. “‘Common-Sense’ Meets the Book of Mormon: Source, Substance, and Prophetic Disruption.” The FARMS Review 20, no. 1 (2008): Article 1.

This essay challenges criticism of the alleged origins of the Book of Mormon and argues a common-sense approach to support the authenticity of the Book of Mormon.

Goff, Alan. “Boats, Beginnings, and Repetitions.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

Ancient texts are too often approached using modern assumptions. Among those assumptions obstructing an understanding of ancient texts is the modern emphasis on originality and on writing as intellectual property. Ancient writers relished repetition—stories that were repeated in succeeding generations—over originality. The Bible is full of repeated or allusive stories, and the Book of Mormon often reinscribes this biblical emphasis on repetition. One such biblical reverberation in the Book of Mormon is Nephi’s ocean voyage, which evokes biblical stories of origination: creation, deluge, and exodus. These three stories of beginnings are carefully alluded to in Nephi’s own foundational story, exactly as we would expect to find in an ancient Hebraic text.

Goff, Alan. “Brent Lee Metcalf, ‘Apologetic and Critical Assumptions about Book of Mormon Historicity’” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 7, no. 1 (1995): Article 14.

Review of ?Apologetic and Critical Assumptions about Book of Mormon Historicity? (1993), by Brent Lee Metcalfe.

Goff, Alan. “Dan Vogel's Family Romance and the Book of Mormon as Smith Family Allegory.” The FARMS Review 17, no. 2 (2005): Article 10.

Review of Dan Vogel. Joseph Smith: The Making of a Prophet.

Goff, Alan. “Historical Narrative, Literary Narrative—Expelling Poetics from the Republic of History.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Positivist historiography has always maintained an impermeable boundary between history and literature. But positivism is itself a historical sediment whose time is now past. Recent literary theory and historiography emphasize the continuities between history and literature. Under the domination of historiography by a positivist epistemology (from about 1880 to 1960), history attempted to free itself from its literary heritage. More recently theorists from a number of disciplines have recognized that history, both ancient and modern, has been informed by literary motifs, themes, and strategies. The repetition of the exodus literary pattern, for example, through the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and Christian history does nothing to bring into question the historical status of the events. The exodus patterns evident in Mosiah do not force the Book of Mormon to surrender historical claims just because they also happen to be literary.

Goff, Alan. “How Should We Then Read? Reading Mormon Scripture after the Fall.” The FARMS Review 21, no. 1 (2009): Article 13.

Review of Dan Vogel. Joseph Smith: The Making of a Prophet.

Goff, Alan. “Positivism and the Priority of Ideology in Mosiah-First Theories of Book of Mormon Production.” The FARMS Review 16, no. 1 (2004): Article 4.

Review of Brent Lee Metcalfe. “The Priority of Mosiah: A Prelude to Book of Mormon Exegesis.” In New Approaches to the Book of Mormon: Explorations in Critical Methodology, and Review of Edwin Firmage Jr. “Historical Criticism and the Book of Mormon: A Personal Encounter.” In American Apocrypha: Essays on the Book of Mormon, and Review of Susan Staker. “Secret Things, Hidden Things: The Seer Story in the Imaginative Economy of Joseph Smith.” In American Apocrypha: Essays on the Book of Mormon

Goff, Alan. “Reduction and Enlargement: Harold Bloom's Mormons.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 5 (1993): Article 29.

Review of The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation (1992), by Harold Bloom.

Goff, Alan. “Scratching the Surface of Book of Mormon Narratives.” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 2 (2000): Article 8.

Review of Digging in Cumorah: Reclaiming Book of Mormon Narratives (1999), by Mark D. Thomas

Graham, Daniel W. “David H. Mulholland, A Reading Guide to the Book of Mormon.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 2 (1990): Article 17.

Review of A Reading Guide to the Book of Mormon (1989), by David H. Mulholland.

Graham, Daniel W., and James L. Siebach. “Philosophy and Early Christianity.” FARMS Review of Books 11, no. 2 (1999): Article 6.

The early church was unable to continue once the apostles had departed. Bishops were only local officials and could not speak for the entire church. Beginning with the later second century, philosophy plays an increasingly important role in the church—this appears to be an effect rather than a cause of the apostasy.

Ball, Terry B., S. Kent Brown, Arnold H. Green, David J. Johnson, and W. Revell Phillips. “Planning Research on Oman: The End of Lehi’s Trail.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

In February 1998, five Brigham Young University professors spent more than a week together in southern Oman to collect data for future research projects in the area, which seems to correspond to the end of Lehi’s trail in the Old World. Future research must be performed in a professional manner and seek to reconstruct that part of the world in 600 BC. Botanical, archaeological, chronological, mineralogical, geological, and inscriptional studies in the area would depend on acquiring sponsors in Oman and on the availability of resources.

Hauglid, Brian M., and Carl W. Griffin. “Editors’ Introduction.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 3 no. 1 (2011).

Introduction to the current issue.

Hauglid, Brian M., and Carl W. Griffin. “Editor’s Introduction.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 1 no. 1 (2009).

Introduction to the current issue.

Hauglid, Brian M., and Carl W. Griffin. “Editor’s Introduction.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 2 no. 1 (2010).

Introduction to the current issue.

Griffin, Carl W. “Frans van Liere, An Introduction to the Medieval Bible.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 6 no. 1 (2014).
Griffin, Carl W. “Introduction.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 5 no. 1 (2013).
Griffin, Carl W. “Looking Down a Dark Well: An Editorial Introduction.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 7 no. 1 (2015).
Grow, Matthew J. “Revealing the Joseph Smith Papers.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 18 no. 2 (2009).

Revelations and Translations, Volume 1: Manuscript Revelation Books, the second out of thirty expected volumes of the Joseph Smith Papers, reproduces in textual and photographic format two books used between 1831 and 1835 to record revelations given through Joseph Smith. This volume marks the first time that scholars and other interested readers will have broad access to these books of revelations. The text includes color-coded transcriptions of the various redactions made by Smith, Cowdery, Williams, and others. The revelations included in the volume consist of both canonical and noncanonical revelations; some of the noncanonical revelations give an intriguing glimpse into the early LDS Church. While this volume will be a great asset to any reader, its full potential may not be realized until the publication of later volumes, which will include a general index, contextual footnotes, and historical introductions to the revelations.

H, I

Hallen, Cynthia L. “Beauty on the Mountains: Inspiration from the Book of Mormon for LDS Writers.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 14 no. 1 (2005).

The Book of Mormon provides many good examples to Latter-day Saint writers of how to magnify their work. By following the patterns of the Book of Mormon, writers can understand what to emphasize and how to include the Spirit in their writing.

Hallen, Cynthia L. “Feasting upon the Works: A Tribute to John L. Sorenson.” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 2 (2000): Article 15.

Review of Mormons, Scriptures, and the Ancient World: Studies in Honor of John L. Sorenson (1998), edited by Davis Bitton

Hallen, Cynthia L. “Redeeming the Desolate Woman: The Message of Isaiah 54 and 3 Nephi 22.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Third Nephi 22 (quoting Isaiah 54) addresses a desolate woman who will be redeemed in the latter days. The desolate woman represents Zion, which itself signifies the city of Enoch in ancient times, the hill where the temple was built in Jerusalem, the celestial city of God, the kingdom of God on earth, and a covenant community of temple-worthy Saints. The Lord promises to relieve the desolation of Zion felt through barrenness, lack of a permanent home, and being forsaken and persecuted. The destiny of Zion parallels the pattern of Noah—both remain faithful to their covenants and witness a cleansing of the earth. The Savior serves as Zion’s husband. The servants of the Lord are equated with Zion—the Lord will not allow oppressors to be successful against Zion. The Lord promises to redeem Zion as he sings a song of redeeming love.

Hallen, Cynthia L. “What’s in a Word?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

This article explains the benefits of studying specific words in the context of the Book of Mormon. Focusing on the origin of a word provides additional meaning and insight to a particular verse of scripture and helps the reader better understand the intended meaning of the author.

Hallen, Cynthia L. “What’s in a Word?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

The use of the word judge in the scriptures can cause confusion. By researching the etymologies and scriptural uses of the words judge and righteous, Cynthia Hallen observes that there is a difference between judging and judging righteously.

Hallen, Cynthia L. “What’s in a Word? Etymology!” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

Scriptural records are important in preserving the words of prophets as well as the language of our ancestors. An etymological study of the important words in scriptures can link us to the thoughts and feelings of people who lived in the past. An example is the word heart, which has meaning both as an essential body part and as a metaphor for one’s thoughts and feelings.

Hallen, Cynthia L. “What’s in a Word? Tender and Chaste and Delicate Feelings Are Pleasing to the Lord.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

The word tender is used repeatedly throughout the Book of Mormon, but the modern connotations of the term may skew readers’ understanding of what Book of Mormon authors intended to convey when employing it in their writing. By examining the etymology of tender and the etymologies of similar words, readers can better comprehend the intended meaning of the ancient Book of Mormon authors.

Hallen, Cynthia L., and Josh Sorenson. “What’s in a Word?: Pairs and Merisms in 3 Nephi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 13 no. 1 (2004).

Cynthia Hallen invited students in her History of the English Language course to search for conjoined word pairs in the scriptures as a term project. They searched for pairs of words linked with conjunctions in order to better understand the meaning of selected set expressions in the King James Bible and the Book of Mormon. Hallen summarizes and comments on their research.

Hallen, Cynthia L. “What’s in a Word?: The Language of Scriptures.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).

A two-pronged approach to studying the scriptures emphasizes language as well as doctrine. Some typical syntactic structures that appear in 19th-century Book of Mormon English include word-order variation, interruption, parenthesis, ellipsis, fragment, conjunctions, and parallel structure.

Harper, Steven C. “Trustworthy History?” The FARMS Review 15, no. 2 (2003): Article 15.

Review of Grant H. Palmer. An Insider’s View of Mormon Origins.

Harper, Howard K., Steven C. Harper, and David P. Harper. “Van Wagoner's Sidney Rigdon: A Portrait of Biographical Excess.” FARMS Review of Books 14, no. 1 (2002): Article 14.

Review of Sidney Rigdon: A Portrait of Religious Excess (1994), by Richard S. Van Wagoner

Harris, Tod R. “The Journey of the Hero: Archetypes of Earthly Adventure and Spiritual Passage in 1 Nephi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Study of the varied metaphorical levels of the Book of Mormon continues to yield new insights into the message and meaning of that book. Several prominent typological readings of aspects of the Book of Mormon have been published, but despite calls for such an effort, little inquiry into its possible archetypal levels, or what has been called “the mythic dimension” of the book, has yet been undertaken. As an initial attempt at such an endeavor, I compare certain events described in 1 Nephi with the elements of one prominent mythic archetype, the hero’s journey, as elucidated by Joseph Campbell in his famous The Hero with a Thousand Faces. A strong correlation between the hero’s journey archetype and the events from 1 Nephi is intriguing and seems to demonstrate at least the presence of mythic patterns in the Book of Mormon. This leads to some preliminary conclusions about what the apparent presence of such patterns might signify.

Haubrock, Ken. “Sam: A Just and Holy Man.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

Nephi’s older brother Sam was a holy and just man who experienced and witnessed many events in early Nephite history.

Hauglid, Brian M.Muhammad, Judah, and Joseph Smith: A Sharp Stick in the Eye.” The FARMS Review 15, no. 1 (2003): Article 20.

Review of C. Reynolds Mackay. Muhammad, Judah, and Joseph Smith.

Hauglid, Brian M., Mark Alan Wright, Joseph M. Spencer, and Janiece L. Johnson. “A Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Retrospective: Twenty-Five Years of Scholarship.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 25 no. 1 (2016).
Hauglid, Brian M. “A New Approach to the Book of Mormon: The Restored Covenant Edition.” FARMS Review of Books 12, no. 2 (2000): Article 4.

Review of The Book of Mormon: Restored Covenant Edition (1999), by Zarahemla Research Foundation

Hauglid, Brian M. “A New Resource on the Book of Moses.” Mormon Studies Review 23, no. 1 (2011): Article 6.

Review of Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. In God's Image and Likeness: Ancient and Modern Perspectives on the Book of Moses.

Hauglid, Brian M., and Carl W. Griffin. “Editors’ Introduction.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 3 no. 1 (2011).

Introduction to the current issue.

Hauglid, Brian M., and Carl W. Griffin. “Editor’s Introduction.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 1 no. 1 (2009).

Introduction to the current issue.

Hauglid, Brian M., and Carl W. Griffin. “Editor’s Introduction.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 2 no. 1 (2010).

Introduction to the current issue.

Hauglid, Brian M. “Margaret and Paul Toscano, Strnagers in Paradox: Exploration in Mormon Theology.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6, no. 2 (1994): Article 16.

Review of Strangers in Paradox: Explorations in Mormon Theology (1990), by Margaret and Paul Toscano.

Hauglid, Brian M. “Monte S. Nyman and Charles D. Tate, Jr., eds., The Book of Mormon: Alma, The Testimony of the Word.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 5 (1993): Article 36.

Review of The Book of Mormon: Alma, The Testimony of the Word (1992), edited by Monte S. Numan and Charles D. Tate Jr.

Hauglid, Brian M. “Monte S. Nyman, The Most Correct Book: Why the Book of Mormon Is the Keystone Scripture.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 4 (1992): Article 57.

Review of The Most Correct Book: Why the Book of Mormon Is the Keystone Scripture (1991), by Monte S. Nyman.

Hauglid, Brian M. “Nibley’s Abraham in Egypt: Laying the Foundation for Abraham Research.” The FARMS Review 15, no. 1 (2003): Article 9.

Since 1989, the Review of Books on the Book of Mormon has published review essays to help serious readers make informed choices and judgments about books and other publications on topics related to the Latter-day Saint religious tradition. It has also published substantial freestanding essays that made further contributions to the field of Mormon studies. In 1996, the journal changed its name to the FARMS Review with Volume 8, No 1. In 2011, the journal was renamed Mormon Studies Review.

Review of Hugh Nibley. Abraham in Egypt.

Hoskisson, Paul Y., Brian M. Hauglid, and John Gee. “What’s in a Name? Irreantum.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

The Book of Mormon was written in a language that was grounded in Hebrew and Egyptian; the people of the Book of Mormon most likely spoke this same language. It is interesting, then, that the Book of Mormon authors periodically included definitions for certain terms that they used in their writing, as if their audience did not understand them. This technique, known as a gloss, suggests that those terms may not have been a part of that ancient language. In an attempt to uncover the true origin of such words, this article dissects the Book of Mormon term Irreantum and delves into its linguistic characteristics to determine whether the term could have originated from Hebrew, Egyptian, ancient South Semitic, or another language.

Ludlow, Jared W., Brian M. Hauglid, and Fred E. Woods. Who Controls the Water? Yahweh vs. Baal/Justice and Mercy in the Book of Deuteronomy (Is There Mercy in the Old Testament?)/Garment of Joseph: An Update. Vol. 4 of Occasional Papers, edited by William J. Hamblin. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 2003.

Includes three papers: \"Who Controls the Water? Yahweh vs. Baal\" (Fred E. Woods), \"Justice and Mercy in the Book of Deuteronomy (Is There Mercy in the Old Testament?)\" (Jared W. Ludlow) and \"Garment of Joseph: An Update\" (Brian M. Hauglid).

Hauglid, Brian M. “‘Look unto Abraham Your Father’” The FARMS Review 18, no. 1 (2006): Article 20.

Review of E. Douglas Clark. The Blessing of Abraham: Becoming a Zion People.

Hawkins, Lisa Bolin, and Gordon C. Thomasson. “I Only Am Escaped Alone to Tell Thee: Survivor-Witnesses in the Book of Mormon.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1984.
Haws, J.B. “Why the Book of Mormon Deserves More Twenty-First-Century Readers: A Question of Complexity.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 24 no. 1 (2015).
Head, Ronan James. “A Brief Survey of Ancient Near Eastern Beekeeping.” The FARMS Review 20, no. 1 (2008): Article 1.

The Book of Mormon includes a narration of the Jaredites and records that this people brought honey-bees with them from the Old World to the New World. A study of the history of beekeeping in the ancient Near East supports the plausibility of the Jaredites’ story.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Ronan James Head. “The Investiture Panel at Mari and Rituals of Divine Kingship in the Ancient Near East.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 4 no. 1 (2012).

This article explores the ancient Near Eastern rituals that endowed kings with this power, specifically the rites suggested by the Investiture Panel at the palace of Mari, with specific focus on the motifs of creation, sacred garden, and divine kingship. Because contemporary evidence at Mari relating to an interpretation of the panel and the functions of various rooms of the palace is limited, it will be necessary to rely in part on a careful comparative analysis of religious texts, images, and architecture throughout the ancient Near East, including the Old Testament. Comparative analysis not only has the benefit of increasing our understanding of ancient Mesopotamian religion but also can enrich our understanding of the Bible.

Hedges, Andrew H. “All My Endeavors to Preserve Them: Protecting the Plates in Palmyra, 22 September-December 1827.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

After Joseph Smith received the gold plates from the angel Moroni, he had to take great measures to protect them from people who wanted to steal them for their monetary value. Although Joseph did not leave much documentation of such experiences, the people who were closely associated with him at the time did. Using what records still exist, Hedges pieces together some of the stories of Joseph’s challenges in obtaining and protecting the gold plates.

Hedges, Andrew H. “Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 17 no. 1 (2008).

The editor gives a brief history of the Journal and gives his vision for the future of the publication.

Hedges, Andrew H. “Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 18 no. 2 (2009).

Summary of current issue.

Hedges, Andrew H. “Ethan Smith. View of the Hebrews.” FARMS Review of Books 9, no. 1 (1997): Article 13.

Review of View of the Hebrews (2nd ed., 1996), by Ethan Smith

Hedges, Andrew H., and Dawson W. Hedges. “No, Dan, That’s Still Not History.” The FARMS Review 17, no. 1 (2005): Article 9.

Review of Dan Vogel. Joseph Smith: The Making of a Prophet.

Hedges, Andrew H. “Pleasing the Eye and Gladdening the Heart: Joseph Smith and the Fulness of the Earth.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, April 2, 1997.
Hedges, Andrew H., and Dawson W. Hedges. “No, Dan, That’s Still Not History.” The FARMS Review 17, no. 1 (2005): Article 9.

Review of Dan Vogel. Joseph Smith: The Making of a Prophet.

Helps, Louise. “Look Once Again at Cumorah’s Hill: The Poets’ View.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 13 no. 1 (2004).

Robert Hughes collected eighteen poems about the Hill Cumorah from 170 years of church magazines and periodicals. Author Louise Helps presents these poems in their entirety in this article and discusses the themes, images, and techniques of the poets. The poems give insight into the feelings and attitudes of the poets as well as the then-current fashions in poetry.

Henrichsen, Kirk B. “How Witnesses Described the Gold Plates.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

This article contains descriptions of the gold plates quoted directly from individuals who were closely associated with Joseph Smith Jr. Among those quoted are Martin Harris, Orson Pratt, and Emma Smith. The compiler also comments on the material of the plates.

Hicken, Paula W. “Mormon's Spiritual Treasure, ‘Dazzling’ or Otherwise.” The FARMS Review 19, no. 2 (2007): Article 3.

Review of Keith Bailey Schofield. How to Increase Your Enjoyment of the Book of Mormon: Striking New Insights Into the Life of Mormon and His Work.

Hill, Richard L. “C. Douglas Beardall and Jewel N. Beardall, About the Three Nephites.” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 5 (1993): Article 28.

Review of About the Three Nephites (1992), by C. Douglas Beardall and Jewel N. Beardall.

Hilton, Janet F., and John L. Hilton. “A Correlation of the Sidon River and the Lands of Manti and Zarahemla with the Southern End of the Rio Grijalva (San Miguel).” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

We construct a detailed geographical model of the Nephite homeland areas of Manti, Zarahemla, and the river Sidon using the Book of Mormon text of around 80 BC. This model assumes that these areas are located in Mesoamerica, that the names of their surrounding seas do not necessarily correspond to local compass directions, and that the directions stated in the text are to be understood in the nontechnical normal English sense. We then describe the southern end of the Grijalva river basin, located across the southern part of the Mexico–Guatemala border. We nominate this area as a possible candidate for the ancient Nephite homeland because it corresponds to the text’s topography from the most general to the most detailed parts of the description. Furthermore, significant geographical and climatic changes in this area over the last 2,000 years are unlikely. The number and detail of the topological matches encourage further careful study.

Hilton, John L., and Ken Jenkins. “All Book of Mormon References by Author and Literary Form: A Full Listing of Book of Mormon References by Author and Literary Form.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1983.
Archer, John B., John L. Hilton, and G. Bruce Schaalje. “Comparative Power of Three Author-Attribution Techniques for Differentiating Authors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Over the last twenty years, various objective author-attribution techniques have been applied to the English Book of Mormon in order to shed light on the question of multiple authorship of Book of Mormon texts. Two methods, one based on rates of use of noncontextual words and one based on word-pattern ratios, measure patterns consistent with multiple authorship in the Book of Mormon. Another method, based on vocabulary-richness measures, suggests that only one author is involved. These apparently contradictory results are reconciled by showing that for texts of known authorship, the method based on vocabulary-richness measures is not as powerful in discerning differences among authors as are the other methods, especially for works translated into English by a single translator.

Hilton, John L. “On Verifying Book of Mormon Wordprints/Authors.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1989.
Hilton, John L. “Review of Ernest Taves’ Book of Mormon Stylometry.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1986.

Editor’s Introductory Note: The following letter and accompanying critique of the stylometric studies of Ernest Taves have been sent to F.A.R.M.S. by John L. Hilton. Hilton and his colleagues, who have been actively involved in stylometric analyses of the Book of Mormon for several years, plan in the near future to complete their own extensive and thorough stylometric study of Book of Mormon texts. The following general review of Taves’ book serves to introduce John Hilton’s more detailed remarks.

Hilton, John L. “Some Book of Mormon ‘Wordprint’ Measurements Using ‘Wraparound’ Block Counting.” Preliminary Report. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1988.
Hilton, John, III. “Jacob’s Textual Legacy.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 22 no. 2 (2013).

While Jacob records 15,000 words in the Book of Mormon, he is often underappreciated, perhaps living in the shadow of his older brother Nephi. This study illustrates how Nephi, King Benjamin, and Moroni used Jacob’s words and expanded the influence of his literary legacy.

Hilton, John, III, and Jana Johnson. “Who Uses the Word Resurrection in the Book of Mormon and How Is It Used?” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 21 no. 2 (2012).

The word resurrection is employed at varying frequencies in specific books and by individual writers in the Book of Mormon. Although Alma uses resurrection most often overall, Abinadi uses it more often per thousand words spoken. Some phrases in which resurrection is used in unique patterns by different speakers include power of the resurrecti