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FARMS Journal of Book of Mormon Studies
(1992 — 2016)

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Full Issues

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 1 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 2 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 2 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 3 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 3 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 4 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 4 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 5 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 5 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 6 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 6 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 7 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 8 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1999).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 8 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1999).

Bell reviews the following books about Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon: Susan Easton Black and Charles D. Tate Jr.’s edited volume Joseph Smith: The Prophet, the Man; Scot Facer Proctor and Maurine Jensen Proctor’s edition of The Revised and Enhanced History of Joseph Smith by His Mother; John W. Welch and Stephen D. Ricks’s edited volume King Benjamin’s Speech: “That Ye May Learn Wisdom”; and Donald W. Parry and John W. Welch’s edited volume Isaiah in the Book of Mormon.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 9 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 9 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 10 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 10 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 11 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 11 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 12 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 12 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 13 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 13 no. 1 (2004).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 14 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 14 no. 1 (2005).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 14 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 14 no. 2 (2005).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 15 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 15 no. 1 (2006).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 15 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 15 no. 2 (2006).
Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 16 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 1 (2007).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 16 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16 no. 2 (2007).
Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 17 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 17 no. 1 (2008).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 18 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 18 no. 1 (2009).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 18 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 18 no. 2 (2009).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 19 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 19 no. 1 (2010).

The Journal of The Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 19 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 19 no. 2 (2010).

The Journal of The Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 20 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 20 no. 1 (2011).

The Journal of The Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 20 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 20 no. 2 (2011).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 21 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 21 no. 1 (2012).

The Journal of The Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 21 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 21 no. 2 (2012).

The Journal of The Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 22 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 22 no. 1 (2013).
Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 22 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 22 no. 2 (2013).
Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 23 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 23 no. 1 (2014).
Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 24 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 24 no. 1 (2015).
Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture Volume 25 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 25 no. 1 (2016).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 1 (1992)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

Introduction to the first issue of the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 1 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Sorenson, John L. “When Lehi’s Party Arrived in the Land, Did They Find Others There?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

A number of statements in the Book of Mormon text indicate the presence in Lehi’s promised land of peoples other than those descended from Lehi’s party. Reasons the topic is not addressed more explicitly in the record include a focus on the Nephites (and not on other people), a generic treatment of Lamanites, an a desire not to waste space on something obvious or insignificant. Clear evidence for the presence of others in substantial populations is present in the Book of Mormon. The demographic or cultural history of Lehi’s literal descendants must take into account these other groups.

Robison, Lindon J. “Economic Insights from the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

Economic systems are distinguished by their emphasis on equity and efficiency. Market controls are justified because of the need for equity. Free markets are justified because of the need for private incentives and efficiency. Most countries of the world today have adopted a combination of controls and free-market incentives. The Book of Mormon teaches that only through caring can equity and efficiency be simultaneously achieved.

Gee, John. “Limhi in the Library.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

Analysis of comparative data and historical background indicates that the quotations in Mosiah 7–22 are historically accurate. Further examination of the quotations of Limhi shows that they depend heavily on other sources. This implies some things about the character of Limhi and provides as well attendant lessons for our own day.

Goff, Alan. “Boats, Beginnings, and Repetitions.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

Ancient texts are too often approached using modern assumptions. Among those assumptions obstructing an understanding of ancient texts is the modern emphasis on originality and on writing as intellectual property. Ancient writers relished repetition—stories that were repeated in succeeding generations—over originality. The Bible is full of repeated or allusive stories, and the Book of Mormon often reinscribes this biblical emphasis on repetition. One such biblical reverberation in the Book of Mormon is Nephi’s ocean voyage, which evokes biblical stories of origination: creation, deluge, and exodus. These three stories of beginnings are carefully alluded to in Nephi’s own foundational story, exactly as we would expect to find in an ancient Hebraic text.

Kerr, Todd R. “Ancient Aspects of Nephite Kingship in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

Nephite kings were expected to fulfill the same roles that kings played in other ancient civilizations— commander of the military forces, chief judicial official, and leader of the national religion. A king’s success depended not only on the extent to which he performed each role, but also on the motives behind his service. Selfless rule by Benjamin-type kings commanded the respect and praise of the people, while King Noah’s quest for personal gain roused Old World disdain for the monarch. The Nephite experiment with kingship confirms that between “kings and tyrants there’s this difference known; kings seek their subject’s good; tyrants their own” (Robert Herrick, 1591–1674).

Welch, John W. “Legal Perspectives on the Slaying of Laban.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

This article marshals ancient legal evidence to show that Nephi’s slaying of Laban should be understood as a protected manslaughter rather than a criminal homicide. The biblical law of murder demanded a higher level of premeditation and hostility than Nephi exhibited or modern law requires. The terms of Exodus 21:13, it is argued, protected more than accidental slayings or unconscious acts, particularly where God was seen as having delivered the victim into the slayer’s hand. Various rationales for Nephi’s killing of Laban include ancient views on surrendering one person for the benefit of a whole community. Other factors within the Book of Mormon as well as in Moses’ killing of the Egyptian in Exodus 2 corroborate the conclusion that Nephi did not commit the equivalent of a first-degree murder under the laws of his day.

Hilton, Janet F., and John L. Hilton. “A Correlation of the Sidon River and the Lands of Manti and Zarahemla with the Southern End of the Rio Grijalva (San Miguel).” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

We construct a detailed geographical model of the Nephite homeland areas of Manti, Zarahemla, and the river Sidon using the Book of Mormon text of around 80 BC. This model assumes that these areas are located in Mesoamerica, that the names of their surrounding seas do not necessarily correspond to local compass directions, and that the directions stated in the text are to be understood in the nontechnical normal English sense. We then describe the southern end of the Grijalva river basin, located across the southern part of the Mexico–Guatemala border. We nominate this area as a possible candidate for the ancient Nephite homeland because it corresponds to the text’s topography from the most general to the most detailed parts of the description. Furthermore, significant geographical and climatic changes in this area over the last 2,000 years are unlikely. The number and detail of the topological matches encourage further careful study.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Prophetic Laments of Samuel the Lamanite.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The wide-ranging sermon of Samuel the Lamanite, spoken from the top of the city wall of Zarahemla, exhibits poetic features in a censuring passage—features that bear similarities to laments found in the Bible, most notably in the Psalms. Like the laments in the Bible, those in Samuel’s speech show contacts with worship. In distinction to the biblical laments, but like the Thanksgiving Hymns of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the poetic pieces in Samuel’s sermon reveal a set of prophecies that find fulfillment in later periods, including the days of Mormon, the compiler and editor of the Book of Mormon.

Parry, Donald W. “‘Thus Saith the Lord’: Prophetic Language in Samuel’s Speech.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The prophetic language in the writings of Samuel the Lamanite includes the messenger formula, proclamation formula, oath formula, woe oracle, announcement formula, and revelations formula.

Peterson, Daniel C. “‘Secret Combinations’ Revisited.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The claim that the Gadianton robbers in the Book of Mormon are merely a reflection of nineteenth-century Masons, who were referred to in the late 1820s as “secret combinations,” is false since an 1826 use of the phrase establishes that those words were not used exclusively to describe Masons.

Gee, John. “A Note on the Name Nephi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The name Nephi is attested as a Syro-Palestinian Semitic form of an Egyptian man’s name dating from the Late Period in Egypt.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 2, No. 1 (1993)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Summary of current issue.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 2 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Christensen, Kevin. “‘Nigh unto Death’: NDE Research and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

This article suggests that contemporary near-death research casts light on several episodes in the Book of Mormon. Alma’s conversion while “nigh unto death” fits a common pattern of experience. Modern researchers have noticed distinctive aftereffects among those who have experienced a near-death experience (NDE). In the Book of Mormon, both Alma and the resurrected Christ demonstrate these aftereffects. Lehi’s dream invites comparison with the otherworld journey literature of many nations. Nephi’s interpretation of Lehi’s dream casts light on the tension between the literal and the symbolic elements of visionary experience. Finally, just as accurate out-of-body observations made by NDErs argued for the reality of their experiences, so the testable aspects of the Book of Mormon give Joseph Smith a significance apart from others who may have experienced similar visions.

Thomasson, Gordon C. “Mosiah: The Complex Symbolism and Symbolic Complex of Kingship in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

This article discusses the significance of major scriptural personalities, contrasting the lessons we can learn from the positive and negative experiences of such individuals with the role models set for us in Christ and little children. Internal textual sources relate to the composition of the book of Mosiah within the context of a particular literary tradition and style. According to one argument, the text employs a “dialectical” style or stylistic device based on the “law of opposition in all things,” which juxtaposes individuals, such as righteous and wicked kings, to illuminate gospel principles. Several Old World and Book of Mormon perspectives give insight on royal treasures, symbolism, and iconography (including objects such as the Liahona and the sword of Laban). The article also contrasts views of religious freedom, taxation, and agency and responsibility, and compares duties of parents and kings.

Holbrook, Brett L. “The Sword of Laban as a Symbol of Divine Authority and Kingship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Swords often symbolize divine authority and kingship. Numerous examples from the mythology, literature, and history of the world attest to distinct patterns. The sword of Laban from the Book of Mormon fits these patterns and can be compared to the sword of Goliath. The sword of Laban can also be traced as part of the royal regalia that provides authority throughout Nephite history and later as it appears in the restoration. The sword of Laban as associated with Joseph Smith came to be an additional witness of his authority and of the divine sanction for his work.

Rolph, Daniel N. “Prophets, Kings, and Swords: The Sword of Laban and Its Possible Pre-Laban Origin.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

The sword of Laban plays a prominent role in the Book of Mormon narrative as a Nephite national treasure. Scholarly analysis of this regal heirloom has primarily concentrated upon its physical construction in relation to ancient Near Eastern metallurgical technology. However, when examined within the cultural milieu of the ancient world, along with data from church history, the scriptures, and Jewish tradition, the sword of Laban takes on new significance. Though the Book of Mormon reveals that the sword of Laban served as an ancestral and hereditary sword of the ancient Nephite prophets, evidence suggests that the weapon may have been the birthright sword of biblical tradition, a sacred heirloom that may have been wielded by the patriarchs up until the time of Joseph of Egypt. Laban, being a descendant of Joseph, inherited the birthright sword and the plates of brass, both treasures eventually coming into the possession of Nephi, who was both a prophet and a descendant of Joseph, as was Joseph Smith Jr.

Draper, Richard D. “The Mortal Ministry of the Savior as Understood by the Book of Mormon Prophets.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

The mortal Savior was not man, not human (Alma 34:10). Infinite and eternal, he received his physical life not from a son of Adam but from the Father of Adam, God. He took upon himself the image of man, but in truth he was the model, not the copy. Though mortal, he was still God, able to suffer and to redeem as only a god could. He was Son, because he received physical life from his Father, and Father, because he used his divine powers to give eternal life to others. Though not man, he experienced mortality, which allowed him to understand and love mortals.

Miller, Jeanette W. “The Tree of Life, a Personification of Christ.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Throughout history in many cultures, man has looked to the tree of life as a symbol of eternal life. The form of the tree of life varies according to a culture’s perception of the universe. Many early Christians saw the tree of life as a personification of Jesus Christ. It may be that the tree of life vision in the Book of Mormon was presented to introduce the Savior and his ministry. We may learn much about the Lord’s calling and personality by combining a study of various cultural ideas of the tree of life with the testimonies of the prophets contained in the scriptures.

Ball, Russell H. “An Hypothesis concerning the Three Days of Darkness among the Nephites.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Aspects of the three days of darkness following the three-hour period of intense destruction described principally in 3 Nephi include: (1) the strange absence of rain among the destructive mechanisms described; (2) the source of the intense lightning, which seems to be unaccompanied by rain; (3) a mechanism to account for the inundation of the cities of Onihah, Mocum, and Jerusalem, which were not among the cities which “sunk in the depths of the sea”; and (4) the absence in the histories of contemporary European and Asiatic civilizations of corresponding events, which are repeatedly characterized in 3 Nephi as affecting “the face of the whole earth.”

Morrise, Mark J. “Simile Curses in the Ancient Near East, Old Testament, and Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

The simile curse is a type of curse that appears in ancient Near Eastern, Old Testament, and Book of Mormon texts. It consists of two parts: (1) an event (e.g., “Just as this wax is burned by fire”) and (2) an application of that event to the subject of the curse (e.g., “so shall Arpad be burned”). In ancient Near Eastern texts, simile curses appear in written treaties and were often part of a ritual acted out during a treaty ceremony. In the Old Testament, simile curses appear primarily in prophetic writings as literary devices. In the Book of Mormon, simile curses appear in the context of treaties, religious covenants, and prophecies, and in several instances were acted out. These curses were probably part of the oral tradition of ancient Near Eastern, Old Testament, and Book of Mormon peoples.

Compton, Todd M. “The Spirituality of the Outcast in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

In the Book of Mormon, despised outcasts, such as the Lamanites or the poor, often have a special aptitude for spirituality, and the richer, civilized, and more overtly religious Nephites are often declining in righteousness. This phenomenon, with some characteristic specific themes, such as being excluded from a religious edifice, is found in ancient and contemporary cultures and religions. This theme points up the complexity of the Book of Mormon, which is not simple cowboys-and-Indians melodrama.

Hamblin, William J. “Basic Methodological Problems with the Anti-Mormon Approach to the Geography and Archaeology of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Anti-Mormon criticisms of the Book of Mormon are frequently based on a questionable set of assumptions concerning the nature of historical and archaeological evidence, the role of governing presuppositions, and the nature of historical proof. Using arguments found in a recent anti-Mormon critique by Luke Wilson as a foundation, this article analyzes difficulties of reconstructing ancient geographies, problems with the discontinuity of Mesoamerican toponyms, the historical development of the idea of a limited geography model, and challenges of textual and artifactual interpretation when trying to relate the Book of Mormon to archaeological remains.

Clark, Robert E. “Notes on Korihor and Language.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Korihor makes use of language to cast doubt in the minds of his listeners and to tear down the power of God. Language is used for both good and ill.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 2, No. 2 (1993)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

Summary of current issue.

Millet, Robert L. “The Book of Mormon, Historicity, and Faith.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The historicity of the Book of Mormon record is crucial. We cannot exercise faith in that which is untrue, nor can “doctrinal fiction” have normative value in our lives. Too often the undergirding assumption of those who cast doubt on the historicity of the Book of Mormon, in whole or in part, is a denial of the supernatural and a refusal to admit of revelation and predictive prophecy. Great literature, even religious literature, cannot engage the human soul and transform the human personality like scripture. Only scripture—writings and events and descriptions from real people at a real point in time, people who were moved upon and directed by divine powers—can serve as a revelatory channel, enabling us to hear and feel the word of God.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 2 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Volluz, Corbin T. “Lehi’s Dream of the Tree of Life: Springboard to Prophecy.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

Lehi’s dream of the tree of life is well known in Latter- day Saint circles. Its relationship to the vision of Nephi (1 Nephi 11–14), however, may not be so well known. This paper examines the proposition that Nephi’s vision was an expansive, prophetic interpretation of Lehi’s dream of the tree of life; gives an alternate interpretation of Lehi’s dream as a guide to the afterlife; and links Lehi’s dream, the Garden of Eden, and the temple.

Lane, Jennifer Clark. “The Lord Will Redeem His People: Adoptive Covenant and Redemption in the Old Testament and Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

In the text of the Old Testament Yahweh is described as the Redeemer of Israel. A redeemer in Israelite society was a close family member who was responsible to help his enslaved kinsmen by buying them out of bondage. A comparable family relationship is created between the Lord and individuals by the making of covenants and the giving of a new name. The adoptive covenant becomes the basis for the Lord’s acts of redemption. This pattern of adoptive redemption can be seen in both the Old Testament and the Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon identifies Yahweh, the God and Redeemer of the Old Testament, with Jesus Christ. It further explains that redemption from spiritual bondage comes through the ransom price of his blood and is available to those who enter into adoptive covenants, which create a familial relationship and allow the Lord to act as their redeemer.

Clark, Robert E. “The Type at the Border: An Inquiry into Book of Mormon Typology.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

A certain combination of temperament and upbringing can lead to a sense of alienation from the scriptures’ meaning. This paper considers the role that types might play in overcoming that alienation as they mediate between scriptural understanding and human experience, permitting deeper insight into both. The difficulties and possibilities inherent in such an approach shed light on a typological analysis of the figures of Abinadi and the brother of Jared.

Mangum, Garth L. “The Economics of the Book of Mormon: Joseph Smith as Translator or Commentator.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

From 1830 to the present those who find it difficult to accept “angelic visitations in the age of railroads” have searched Joseph Smith’s nineteenth-century environment for sources of the subject matter of the Book of Mormon. For example, in 1990 Susan Curtis explains the economic subthemes of the book as Joseph Smith’s commentary on “market capitalism.” But the economic conditions of Joseph Smith’s time and place are not reflected in the Book of Mormon. Its economic descriptions are consistent with our vast knowledge of the economic conditions of the ancient Middle East and not inconsistent with the little known of the economics of Mesoamerica of the relevant time period. Those more comfortable with Joseph Smith as universal commentator on the issues of his day would be well advised to ignore economics or limit that topic to the Doctrine and Covenants. Those who accept him as translator of ancient scriptural documents can gain additional reassurance from the economics of the Book of Mormon.

Mackay, Thomas W. “Mormon as Editor: A Study in Colophons, Headers, and Source Indicators.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The Book of Mormon contains various colophons and source indicators that signal documents or authors that Mormon and the writers of the small plates used, quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in composing the final text. Some of these headers have been italicized and separated out by the printer; others form an integral part of the text but could as well have been separated and italicized. Mormon’s extensive notation of sources is another set of evidence for the intricate and complex nature of the text and, simultaneously, of the magnitude of Mormon’s work as an ancient editor and historian.

Read, Lenet Hadley. “Joseph Smith’s Receipt of the Plates and the Israelite Feast of Trumpets.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

Joseph Smith received the golden plates on the Israelite Day of Remembrance (or Rosh ha-Shanah). Biblical references and interpretation by Jewish sages through the centuries set this day as the day God would remember his covenants with Israel to bring them back from exile. Also called the Feast of Trumpets, this day features ritual trumpet blasts to signify the issuance of revelation and a call for Israel to gather for God’s word of redemption. The day, which is set at the time of Israel’s final agricultural harvest, also symbolizes the Lord’s final harvest of souls. Furthermore, it initiates the completion of the Lord’s time periods, the Days of Awe, and signifies the last time to prepare for final judgment and the Messianic Age. The coming forth of the Book of Mormon is literally fulfilling such prophecies of the day.

Hunt, Wallace E., Jr. “Moses’ Brazen Serpent as It Relates to Serpent Worship in Mesoamerica.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

This paper shows that the account of Moses’ brazen serpent as taught by the Nephite leaders parallels the symbol and name of the Mesoamerican god Quetzalcoatl. It further shows that the term flying, used in the Nephite but not in the biblical account of the fiery serpent, has parallels in the Old and New Worlds.

Midgley, Louis C. “The Radical Reformation of the Reorganization of the Restoration: Recent Changes in the RLDS Understanding of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

Beginning in the 1960s, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS [now Community of Christ]) has modified its understanding of the Book of Mormon and Joseph Smith’s prophetic charisms. Where the RLDS were earlier permitted to read the Book of Mormon as nineteenth-century fiction, they are now encouraged by their leaders to do so, though they are still permitted to find in it, if they wish, some inspiring passages. These changes have been resisted by a conservative minority that has lost the battle for control of the Reorganization and now tends to worship outside RLDS congregations. A few Latter-day Saints have also begun to read the Book of Mormon as fiction. Their efforts to turn the Book of Mormon into nineteenth-century fiction have been opposed by competent Latter-day Saint scholarship, though not without resistance from those who control independent and liberal publishing ventures.

Roper, Matthew. “Comments on the Book of Mormon Witnesses: A Response to Jerald and Sandra Tanner.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

Critics of the Book of Mormon frequently claim that some of the Book of Mormon witnesses later doubted or denied their testimony of the Book of Mormon. They also claim that the activities of the Three Witnesses while out of the church cast doubt upon the reliability of their earlier written testimony. I review evidence for these claims and also discuss the issue of what may constitute a witness of the Book of Mormon and whether the witnesses ever doubted or denied their testimony of the Book of Mormon. Evidence for later disbelief in the Book of Mormon by the witnesses is unpersuasive. I detail several miscellaneous issues relating to Jerald and Sandra Tanner’s criticisms of the Book of Mormon.

Adams, William J., Jr. “Nephi’s Jerusalem and Laban’s Sword.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

A three-foot sword excavated at Vered Jericho, likely dating to 620 BC, lends credence to the description of the sword of Laban in the Book of Mormon.

Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “Sariah in the Elephantine Papyri.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The Book of Mormon name Sariah does not appear as a female name in the Bible but has now been identified in a reconstructed form in an Aramaic papyrus. A Jewish woman living at Elephantine in Upper Egypt during the fifth century BC was identified as Sariah daughter of Hoshea.

Ricks, Stephen D. “Translation of the Book of Mormon: Interpreting the Evidence.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The process used by Joseph Smith to translate the Book of Mormon from the plates involved both human effort and divine assistance through the seerstone and interpreters.

Sorenson, John L. “Comments on Nephite Chronology.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

Revisions of Nephite chronology in the Book of Mormon occur as scholarship on various issues improves.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 3, No. 1 (1994)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Introduction to the current issue.

Thomasson, Gordon C. “What’s in a Name? Book of Mormon Language, Names, and [Metonymic] Naming.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Anthropological perspectives lend insight on names and on the social and literary function of names in principle and in the Book of Mormon. A discussion of the general function of names in kinship; secret names; and names, ritual, and rites of passage precedes a Latter-day Saint perspective. Names and metonymy are used symbolically. Examples include biblical and Book of Mormon metonymic naming, nomenclature, and taxonomy. Biblical laws of purity form the foundation for a pattern of metonymic associations with the name Lamanite, where the dichotomy of clean/unclean is used to give name to social alienation and pollution.

Skousen, Royal. “The Original Language of the Book of Mormon: Upstate New York Dialect, King James English, or Hebrew?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

The original text of the Book of Mormon contains complex, Hebrew-like constructions that have been subsequently removed from the text because of their non-English character.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 3 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Rust, Richard Dilworth. “Recurrence in Book of Mormon Narratives.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Repetition appears purposefully within Book of Mormon narratives as a principle of reinforcement and confirmation. It seems that every important action, event, or character is repeated in the Book of Mormon. These repetitions emphasize the law of witnesses at work within the book (e.g., “in the mouth of three witnesses shall these things be established”; Ether 5:4). Further, they underscore the relevance of one character or action to people living in a different time, and they link narratives together with what Robert Alter calls “type-scenes.” Analyzed in detail as particularly striking are threefold repetitions in Nephi’s task to retrieve the brass plates and repetition of the word power in the missionary endeavor of the sons of Mosiah. Larger repeated narratives treat escape and travel to a promised land; repentance; and the nature, rise, and effect of secret combinations.

Wardle, Lynn D.Dissent: Perspectives from the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Most scriptural references to dissent are in the Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon teaches that dissension is a cause of evil, suffering, and destruction; some dissenters undergo a hardening, while others may be reclaimed; preaching the gospel is the best way to reclaim dissenters; after patient endurance, compulsion may be necessary to stop dissenters from causing severe harm to the innocent, but compulsion should be avoided when possible; both spiritual and civic responses may be used to quell dissent; responding to dissent is not the task of leaders only; dissent is inevitable in our society and the church; and the Lord blesses the faithful who endure the trials and temptations of dissent.

Christensen, Kevin. “A Response to David Wright on Historical Criticism.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

In an article criticizing the historicity of the Book of Mormon, David Wright described critical scholarship and traditionalist modes as contrasting paradigms used to approach the scriptures. This article explores the nature of paradigm debate in general, in that context points out weaknesses in Wright’s critical approach, and discerns crucial flaws in his definition of believing paradigms.

Honey, David B. “The Secular as Sacred: The Historiography of the Title Page.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

The title page of the Book of Mormon acts as a historiographical introduction to the editorial guidelines followed by Mormon in his work of compilation and redaction. These guidelines defined what was important for Mormon to incorporate in his historical record and included the themes of genealogy, covenants, and the teaching and testifying of Christ.

Thompson, John S. “The Jaredite Exodus: A Literary Perspective of a Historical Narrative.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

The application of some techniques of literary analysis to the Jaredite exodus narrative in Ether 1–3 and 6 reveals that it is more than just a historical account. The author or editor of the narrative uses imagery and dialogue to help the reader look beyond the historical facts and see elements of the creation, Christ, and temples, among other things.

Barney, Kevin L. “Enallage in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Thomas W. Brookbank long ago suggested that enallage, meaning the substitution of the singular for the plural or vice versa for rhetorical effect, is present in the Book of Mormon. Enallage appears to exist as a prominent, meaningful rhetorical figure in the Bible, but its presence in the Book of Mormon is more difficult to demonstrate given the pronominal variation found in the Book of Mormon, a factor that Brookbank did not account for in his study. Nevertheless, a careful reading of contextual and verbal clues reveals that enallage does indeed seem to exist in some passages in the Book of Mormon. An awareness of this usage is important for a full under- standing of such passages.

Volluz, Corbin T. “Cry Redemption: The Plan of Redemption as Taught in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

According to the Book of Mormon, men must obey the commandments of God in order to gain eternal life. And yet men are incapable of yielding full obedience to God because of the carnal nature they inherit from the fallen Adam and Eve. To overcome this carnal nature, God has provided a way, through the atonement of his Son, whereby men may be redeemed from the carnal state to a spiritual state. If men are to be redeemed, they must call upon the Lord in the spirit of true humility, faith, and repentance. If they do so, God will redeem them by the power of the Holy Ghost. A covenant of obedience is frequently associated with the redemption process.

Tvedtnes, John A. “Historical Parallels to the Destruction at the Time of the Crucifixion.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

To the nonbeliever, the wide variety of destructive forces unleashed in the New World at the time of Christ’s crucifixion seems preposterous or, at the very least, unscientific. The account in 3 Nephi 8–9 mentions the simultaneous occurrence of earthquake, fire, strong winds, extensive flooding, the complete burial of cities, and thick darkness. An examination of known great natural disasters in historical times reveals that the Book of Mormon in no way exaggerates. All of the destructive forces mentioned in 3 Nephi 8–9 can be readily explained in terms of the tectonic forces that result from the encounter of the plates on which the continents and the oceans lie. The complex variety of destructive forces that we normally consider to be separate phenomena of nature is, in reality, strong evidence for the historicity of the Book of Mormon account.

Boehm, Bruce J. “Wanderers in the Promised Land: A Study of the Exodus Motif in the Book of Mormon and Holy Bible.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Lehi’s exodus to the promised land is only the first of a series of exoduses occurring throughout the Book of Mormon. Indeed, Lehi’s exodus becomes mere precedent for later flights into the wilderness by Nephi, Mosiah, Alma1, Limhi, and the Anti-Nephi-Lehies. For the Nephites, continuing exodus is not merely historical fact. Understanding the biblical exodus as a type and shadow, the Nephites come to see their wandering as a metaphor of their spiritual condition. Thus, even centuries after Lehi’s arrival in the promised land, Nephite prophets recognize their status as “wanderers in a strange land” (Alma 13:23). As did Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the Nephites also looked beyond their temporal land of promise “for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God” (Hebrews 11:10).

Adams, William J., Jr. “Lehi’s Jerusalem and Writing on Metal Plates.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

The discovery in Jerusalem of two inscribed silver strips, dating from the seventh century BC, support the Book of Mormon claim of writing on metal plates.

Tvedtnes, John A. “‘My First-Born in the Wilderness’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Lehi may have viewed Jacob (“my first-born in the wilderness”) and Joseph as replacement sons for the disobedient Laman and Lemuel. Scriptural parallels include Manasseh and Ephraim as replacements for Reuben and Simeon, and Seth for Abel.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 3, No. 2 (1994)

Bunker, Robert L. “The Design of the Liahona and the Purpose of the Second Spindle.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

The Liahona was given by the Lord as a communicationsdevice for Lehi to determine the appropriate direction of travel. This device contained two pointers, only one of which was necessary to provide directional information. But the Liahona was more than just a simple compass in function, for it additionally required faith for correct operation. Since a single pointer always "points" in some direction, the additional pointer was necessary to indicate whether or not the first pointer could be relied upon. This proposed purpose for the second pointer conforms to a well-established engineering principle used in modern fault-tolerant computer systems called "voting," in which two identical process states are compared and declared correct if they are the same, and incorrect if they are different. Hence the second pointer, when coincident with the first, would indicate proper operation, and when orthogonal, would indicate nonoperation.

Draper, Richard D.Hubris and Atē: A Latter-day Warning from the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Civilizations fall due to complex pressures, but the Book of Mormon points to one sin which assisted if not drove the demise of both the Nephite and Jaredite peoples. This sin was pride. This essay ties pride to the Old World concepts of hubris and at? as a means of revealing the dynamic nature of this sin and exploring its deadly character. It shows that pride leads to hubris, the attempt by individuals and nations to become a law unto themselves, and that the consequence of hubris is at?, a spiritual blindness that impels the individual or society toward its doom. The paper warns the Latter-day Saint about this vice.

Tvedtnes, John A. “The Influence of Lehi’s Admonitions on the Teachings of His Son Jacob.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Lehi, though unable to convince his older sons to follow the Lord, was very successful with both Nephi and Jacob. The speeches and writings of Jacob clearly show that he remembered the admonitions given to him by his dying father and that he shared Lehi’s teachings—including some of his verbiage—with other members of the family. Jacob’s life and his teachings found in the Book of Mormon stand as a memorial to his father’s faith and parental love.

Pritchett, Bruce M., Jr. “Lehi’s Theology of the Fall in Its Preexilic/Exilic Context.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Some authors have claimed that Lehi’s teachings on the fall of Adam are so similar to teachings prevalent in nineteenth-century America that they must be the source for 2 Nephi 2. However, this paper demonstrates that the bulk of well-recognized scholarly authority attributes teachings very similar to those in 2 Nephi 2 to preexilic and exilic biblical writers such as Hosea and Ezekiel. Thus, Lehi’s teachings are more consistent with a preexilic/exilic Israelite context than with a nineteenth-century American context.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 3 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Johnson, D. Lynn. “The Missing Scripture.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

During his visit to the Nephites, the Savior instructed Nephi to add to their records a missing scripture concerning the resurrection of many of the dead immediately following his own resurrection, as well as their appearance to many people. Good evidence suggests that it was Samuel the Lamanite’s prophecy of this resurrection that was missing. Aspects of the manner of recording, abridgment, and translation of the text of the Book of Mormon are elucidated through this missing scripture as it appears in the English text.

Miner, Alan C. “A Chronological Setting for the Epistles of Mormon to Moroni.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Although chapters 8 and 9 of the book of Moroni (Mormon’s epistles to Moroni) were placed with Mormon and Moroni’s abridgment by Moroni sometime between the years ad 401 and 421, these chapters were not written at that time. The insertion into the text of these epistles was done for doctrinal reasons; however, mixed in with the doctrinal message are certain facts and phrases that deal with their historical-chronological setting. By analyzing the specific chronological clues contained within Mormon’s epistles and comparing them with his abridged record of the final years of the Nephite nation, we can create a set of chronological time frames which then can be compared to construct a reasonable historical setting of ad 375 to 376.

Tvedtnes, John A. “Faith and Truth.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Alma’s definition of faith as “hope for things which are not seen, which are true” (Alma 32:21) serves as a pattern for the juxtaposition of faith and truth throughout the scriptures. Faith in the atoning power of Jesus is the truth that will save us.

Fowles, John L. “The Jewish Lectionary and Book of Mormon Prophecy.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

The reading schedule of the Law and the Prophets in the Jewish synagogue at the time of the Feast of Dedication relates Old Testament prophesies in Ezekiel 37 to the coming forth of the Book of Mormon.

Johnson, Mark J. “The Exodus of Lehi Revisited.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Two additional parallels to the exodus pattern include death and burial in the desert and the transfiguration of Nephi and Moses.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 4, No. 1 (1995)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Introduction to this special issue of Sidney B. Sperry’s Book of Mormon writings.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Sidney B. Sperry.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Brief biography of Sidney B. Sperry.

Anonymous. “Sidney B. Sperry: The Man, Scholar, and Teacher.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

Anderson, Carma deJong. “Sidney B. Sperry: Memories.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

Anderson, Richard Lloyd. “Sidney B. Sperry: Steadfast Scholar.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 4 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Rasmussen, Ellis T. “Sidney B. Sperry, As I Remember and Appreciate Him.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

Sperry, Sidney B. “What the Book of Mormon Is.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The records of the Nephite, Jaredite, and Mulekite peoples comprise the Book of Mormon, of which Mormon is the principal editor. Four divisions are evident—namely, the small plates of Nephi, Mormon’s explanatory notes, the literary labors of Mormon, and the literary labors of Moroni. The first division, the small plates of Nephi, is analyzed in this chapter.

Sperry, Sidney B. “What the Book of Mormon Is (Continued).” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

An analysis of the Words of Mormon to Helaman, including Mormon’s abridgment between the small and large plates of Nephi. The teachings of Benjamin, Mosiah, Abinadi, Alma, and his son, Alma the Younger. Helaman’s and Shiblon’s writings in the book of Alma are set forth. Alma the Younger is to the Book of Mormon as Paul is to the New Testament. The book of Helaman covers fifty years of Nephite history.

Sperry, Sidney B. “What the Book of Mormon Is (Concluded).” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

An analysis of the text of 3 Nephi to Moroni. Third Nephi was written by Nephi, the son of Nephi, the son of Helaman. Fourth Nephi in turn was written by the son of Nephi3, also called Nephi, and Nephi’s son Amos and grandsons Amos and his brother Ammaron. The book of Mormon was principally inscribed by Mormon and Moroni. The book of Ether exposes the terrible end of a people persisting in wickedness. The book of Moroni shows his love for his enemies.

Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon as Literature.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

What constitutes great literature? What is it about the literature of the Book of Mormon that has such a profound effect upon its readers? Although perhaps not beautifully written, the Book of Mormon’s message or theme justifies its classification as great literature and accounts for its profound effect on the lives of millions.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Types of Literature in the Book of Mormon: ‘The American Gospel’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The American Gospel, found in 3 Nephi, differs from the Gospels of the New Testament in that Jesus is teaching as a resurrected, glorified, and exalted person. It includes details of the cataclysmic events at the time of the crucifixion and of the multiple appearances of the Savior to the Nephites. Jesus delivers sermons to the Nephites in general and also to the Nephite twelve. He heals the sick and institutes the sacrament. The depiction of prayer is perhaps the most powerful in all scripture. The Savior quotes the prophecies of Isaiah and Micah with regard to the New Jerusalem and the Gentiles. He emphasizes the importance of record keeping for the church, which should be called in his name.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Types of Literature in the Book of Mormon: Epistles, Psalms, Lamentations.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The Book of Mormon contains nine epistles—two pastoral, one prophetic, and six dealing with war. The “Psalm of Nephi” is the only psalm in the Book of Mormon, called such because it is a song of praise, betraying deep religious feeling. A good example of lamentation literature occurs in Mormon 6.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Types of Literature in the Book of Mormon: Historical Narrative, Memoir, Prophetic Discourse, Oratory.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Historical narrative in the Book of Mormon is written by laymen and is the truth as they see it. Of emphasis is the doctrine that blessings follow those who keep the commandments; they will prosper in the land. More than autobiography, the words of the writers could be described as memoirs. Benjamin delivered a wonderful oration that deserves detailed study and can be divided into three parts.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Types of Literature in the Book of Mormon: Patriarchal Blessings, Symbolic Prophecy, Prophetic Narrative, Prophetic Dialogue.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The patriarchal blessings that Lehi bestows upon his children and grandchildren are filled with important doctrinal and historical details and contain many prophetic elements. Lehi and Nephi share the vision of the tree of life, a fine example of symbolic prophecy. Perhaps the finest example of prophetic literature in the Book of Mormon deals with the coming of Christ. The prophetic dialogue in the Book of Mormon can be divided into five parts.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Types Of Literature in the Book of Mormon: Allegories, Prayers, Songs, Genealogies.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The most significant allegory in the Book of Mormon is the allegory of the tame and wild olive tree, which appears in Jacob 5. Six different types of prayers are found in the Book of Mormon. Perhaps the best example of a true song is “The Song of the Vineyard,” actually a quotation from Isaiah. There is only one example of an extended genealogy, that of Ether, the last Jaredite prophet.

Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon and the Problem of the Pentateuch.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Many critics deny that the first five books of the Old Testament were written by Moses and consider them to be childish myths. However, when Nephi and Lehi examined the brass plates, they found them to contain “the five books of Moses.” And in the Book of Mormon, the Savior himself confirms their authorship. The book of Ether also offers confirmation of the Tower of Babel story.

Sperry, Sidney B. “The ‘Isaiah Problem’ in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Doubts as to the literary unity of the book of Isaiah are fairly recent. The late nineteenth century saw a division of Isaiah into three parts by critics, who categorized only 262 of the 1292 verses as the genuine product of Isaiah. These critics deny the prediction element of prophecy and highlight different literary forms and theological ideas. The Book of Mormon attributes two of these three sections to Isaiah by quotation; ancient scriptures as well give no hint of a division. Christ and the apostles themselves attribute the book to Isaiah. Internal evidences of the unity of the book include imagery, repetition, expressions peculiar to Isaiah, and song. Changes in style can be attributed to mood. The differences between the Book of Mormon and the King James Version support the authenticity and literary unity of Isaiah.

Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon and the Problem of the Sermon on the Mount.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The Sermon on the Mount in 3 Nephi parallels the accounts in Matthew and Luke, although it is closer to Matthew. The sermon was addressed partly to a general audience and partly to the twelve disciples exclusively, although the crowd heard it. In many cases the account in 3 Nephi clarifies the New Testament accounts; in particular, the Joseph Smith Translation and Book of Mormon explain the Lord’s Prayer.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Literary Problems in the Book of Mormon involving 1 Corinthians 12, 13, and Other New Testament Books.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The literary problem caused by the parallels between Moroni 7–10 and 1 Corinthians 12–13 can be explained if one realizes that Moroni had access to the same teachings of Christ as Paul, and that both received revelation, so that the Lord himself might be the author of both dissertations. Different prophets might have had similar inspiration in dealing with the same topics.

Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon and Textual Criticism.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The text of the Book of Mormon contributes to the understanding of the Pentateuch and to a confirmation that Moses was indeed its author. The Book of Mormon also helps confirm that Isaiah was the author of the book of Isaiah. The Isaiah chapters quoted in the Book of Mormon are a better translation than the King James Version, as they are undoubtedly from an older version. The Book of Mormon quotes Micah and Malachi with clarification and augments selected New Testament scriptures.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Some Problems of Interest Relating to the Brass Plates.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Most contemporary Old Testament scholars question whether Moses wrote the Pentateuch, but the Book of Mormon affirms Moses’ authorship. Questions arise as to how Jeremiah’s prophecies appeared on the brass plates and what the nature of the Book of the Law was. According to the brass plates, Laban and Lehi were descendants of Manasseh. How then did they come to be living in Jerusalem? The brass plates, on which may be found lost scripture, may have been the official scripture of the ten tribes.

Sperry, Sidney B. “The Isaiah Quotation: 2 Nephi 12-24.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Nephi quotes from the book of Isaiah because of its relevance to his people and to all men. He highlights the message of Christ’s appearance and atonement. The latter-day prophecies, both those which have been fulfilled and those that are yet to be fulfilled, are cited and explained. Israel will be restored in the latter days, but warnings accompany this glorious prophecy. The enemies of Zion will be confounded.

Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon as Translation English.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The Book of Mormon is a translation, containing details of the original language in which it is written. Very few of the writers would have had a working knowledge of Egyptian; the writing would more likely be a Hebraized Egyptian. The Book of Mormon contains many passages from Isaiah, more correctly translated than in the King James Version. Various examples of the Hebrew construct state are evident in Joseph Smith’s translation, together with direct translations of Hebrew idioms.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Hebrew Idioms in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Literal translations of Hebrew idioms are prevalent in the Book of Mormon, as are literal renditions of compound Hebrew prepositions. Parallels can be found in the Old and New Testaments, especially in the Hebrew translation of the Old Testament.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Some Universals in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

A universal element is a succinct concept with comprehensive spiritual appeal to humanity; the Book of Mormon is itself a universal element. Among universals found in the Book of Mormon are concepts (1) that truth is given of God to all peoples; (2) of faith, in which good and evil are clearly defined in terms of opposition; (3) of the purpose of man’s existence in mortality; and (4) of the importance of service given to men and God.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Did Father Lehi Have Daughters Who Married the Sons of Ishmael?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Although the beginning of Nephi’s record only mentions sons, Joseph Smith says the record of Lehi in the 116 missing manuscript pages refers to at least two of Ishmael’s sons marrying Lehi’s daughters. Nephi himself mentions his sisters at the end of his record. As no mention is made of further births to Lehi and Sariah after Jacob and Joseph, the assumption can be made that these sisters are the daughters who married Ishmael’s sons.

Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon’s Message on Brotherhood.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The Book of Mormon exhibits the intimate relationship between God and his people. The brother of Jared’s experience is a fine example. The driving force of the prophets was moral and religious, rather than economic and political. Social injustice was condemned by Nephi, Jacob, Alma, and Captain Moroni. Although little is said about the status of the family, respect for women and family affection are standard. Workers were well treated and friendship was promoted between Nephites and Lamanites. The Book of Mormon displays a high caliber of personal religion and brotherhood.

Sperry, Sidney B. “The Lamanites Portrayed in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The Lamanites in the Book of Mormon are descendants of the Nephite, Mulekite, and Lamanite peoples. They were a scourge to the Nephites to keep them faithful to the Lord. They survived because they observed the Lord’s commandments regarding marriage. When the elder Mosiah and his followers left, the remaining body of Nephites were probably either destroyed or became Lamanites. Once the Lamanites understood the Lord’s word, they were very faithful and renounced their previous living style. Out of this milieu came Samuel, the Lamanite prophet.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Moroni the Lonely: The Story of the Writing of the Title Page to the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Moroni wandered alone for sixteen years before adding to the abridged record of his father. When he did make his additions, he also wrote the title page of the Book of Mormon, but in two stages, each stage necessitating a return to the Hill Cumorah. The second paragraph clearly follows his decision to abridge the book of Ether.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Were There Two Cumorahs?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

No one doubts that the hill where Joseph Smith received the plates is known as Cumorah, but is the hill where the final battles between the Nephites and Lamanites took place another Cumorah? The book of Ether tells us that Omer traveled to this place of the last battles of the Nephites, and that the relatively short duration of this journey would not account for the three thousand miles from Middle America to New York. A similar journey was undertaken by Limhi’s men, of equally short duration. The description of the geographical features around the final battle site is also at odds with the topography of present-day Cumorah.

Sperry, Sidney B. “Moroni Expounds Old Testament Scriptures.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The prophecies given by Moroni to Joseph Smith come from Malachi, Isaiah, and Joel. The Malachi prophecies deal with the rise and restoration of the church, preparation for the millennium, and the significance of the sons of Levi. The Isaiah prophecies, explained in the Doctrine and Covenants, give a direct explanation of the millennium and Joseph’s own role in the preparation for it. The Joel prophecies have to do with the events just prior to the “great and terrible day of the Lord.”

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Bibliography of the Writings of Sidney B. Sperry.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Bibliography of Sidney B. Sperry’s writings.

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 4, No. 2 (1995)

Welch, John W. “Criteria for Identifying and Evaluating the Presence of Chiasmus.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

This article defines fifteen criteria one can use to measure the strength or weakness of a proposed chiastic pattern in a given text. The need for rigor in such studies depends primarily on how the results of the proposed structural analyses will be used. Ultimately, analysts may not know with certainty whether an author created inverted parallel structures intentionally or not; but by examining a text from various angles, one may assess the likelihood that an author consciously employed chiasmus to achieve specific literary purposes.

Barney, Kevin L. “Poetic Diction and Parallel Word Pairs in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

Hebrew poetry is based on various patterns of parallelism. Parallel lines are in turn created by the use of parallel words, that is, pairs of words bearing generally synonymous or antithetic meanings. Since the 1930s, scholars have come to realize that many of these “word pairs” were used repeatedly in a formulaic fashion as the basic building blocks of different parallel lines. The Book of Mormon reflects numerous parallel structures, including synonymous parallelism, antithetic parallelism, and chiasmus. As word pairs are a function of parallelism, the presence of such parallel structures in the Book of Mormon suggests the possible presence of word pairs within those structures. This article catalogs the use of forty word pairs that occur in parallel collocations both in the Book of Mormon and in Hebrew poetry.

Hamblin, William J. “The Latest Straw Man.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The failure of those who reject the historicity of the Book of Mormon to respond cogently to the increasing body of evidence and argument supporting historicity is becoming painfully apparent. Stephen E. Thompson’s recent review of Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6/1 (1994) is one of the most recent examples of this "straw man" approach.

Snow, Edgar C., Jr. “Narrative Criticism and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

This paper suggests the use of narrative criticism, a recent literary interpretive tool, as a favorable method of Book of Mormon interpretation. As an example of narrative interpretation, the narrative by Samuel the Lamanite in Helaman 13–16 is analyzed as a discrete narrative portion of the Book of Mormon for the exploration of the possibilities of a narrative critical approach to its text. Instead of focusing on the content of Samuel’s exhortations, lamentations, and prophecies in order to understand these passages, I interpret the surrounding narrative and find it serves as an impressive complement to the doctrinal content of Samuel’s discourse.

Sturgess, Gary L. “The Book of Mosiah: Thoughts about Its Structure, Purposes, Themes, and Authorship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The book of Mosiah is a cultic history of the reign of Mosiah2, structured around three royal ceremonies in 124, 121, and 92–91 BC. On each of these occasions, newly discovered scriptures were read to the people, stressing the dangers of monarchical government and celebrating the deliverance of the people and the revelation of Jesus Christ. This book existed independently hundreds of years before Mormon engraved it onto the gold plates. The most likely occasion for the writing of such a book was in the aftermath of Mosiah’s death when Alma the Younger needed to undermine the Amlicite bid to reestablish the monarchy.

Adams, William J., Jr. “More on the Silver Plates from Lehi’s Jerusalem.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

Michael D. Coogan identifies the silver plates found in a Jerusalem burial site as one of the ten most significant finds for biblical archaeology because “they are our earliest witness to the text of the Bible.”

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 4 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Hunt, Wallace E., Jr. “The Marketplace.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The small detail of the “chief market” mentioned in the story of Nephi’s prayer on his tower (Helaman 7:10) corresponds well to what is known of marketplaces in ancient Mesoamerica.

Roper, Matthew. “Noah Webster and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

Book of Mormon descriptions of defensive fortifications are not attributable to specific nineteenth-century sources but rather to the English vocabulary of the day.

Tvedtnes, John A. “Cities and Lands in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The practice of naming lands by a chief city of the land correlates well with authentic Old World practices.

Ziebarth, Christian M. “Examining a Nephite/Latter-day Apostolic Parallel.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The events of 3 Nephi and 4 Nephi may foreshadow the events of the final days as witnesses of Christ are killed, are raised from the dead, and continue to instill fear in the hearts of the wicked.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 5, No. 1 (1996)

Stubbs, Brian D. “Looking Over vs. Overlooking: Native American Languages: Let’s Void the Void.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

The time-depth of the Romance language family (ca. 2,000 years) yields an abundance of similarities among languages descended from Latin: Spanish, French, Italian, and so forth. The time-depth of Lehi is not much greater (2,600 years), yet no similar abundance of accepted linguistic evidence for Lehi’s presence in the Americas has emerged. Is this because of a lack of evidence or a lack of looking? We cannot know until we look. The relative absence of effort in Native American languages relevant to Book of Mormon research is a huge void in Latter-day Saint scholarly endeavor. This paper discusses the value of and need to void this existing void, and presents from one Native American language family an example of the possibilities.

Goff, Alan. “Historical Narrative, Literary Narrative—Expelling Poetics from the Republic of History.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Positivist historiography has always maintained an impermeable boundary between history and literature. But positivism is itself a historical sediment whose time is now past. Recent literary theory and historiography emphasize the continuities between history and literature. Under the domination of historiography by a positivist epistemology (from about 1880 to 1960), history attempted to free itself from its literary heritage. More recently theorists from a number of disciplines have recognized that history, both ancient and modern, has been informed by literary motifs, themes, and strategies. The repetition of the exodus literary pattern, for example, through the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and Christian history does nothing to bring into question the historical status of the events. The exodus patterns evident in Mosiah do not force the Book of Mormon to surrender historical claims just because they also happen to be literary.

Duke, James T. “The Literary Structure and Doctrinal Significance of Alma 13:1-9.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Alma’s sermon at Ammonihah includes a remarkable passage (Alma 13:1–9) that contains a main chiasm as well as four shorter chiasms and four alternates. It also uses synonymia, cycloides, repetition, and an important Nephite idiom (rest). In addition, this passage explains the doctrine of the priesthood and the eternal nature of Christ in conjunction with the priesthood, and introduces the doctrines of a preparatory redemption and the rest of God.

Welch, John W. “From Presence to Practice: Jesus, the Sacrament Prayers, the Priesthood, and Church Discipline in 3 Nephi 18 and Moroni 2-6.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

This paper explores several relationships between the texts in Moroni 2–6 and the words and deeds of Jesus in 3 Nephi 18. The opening chapters of Moroni contain the words that Jesus Christ spoke to the twelve when he ordained them to the high priesthood, the words used by the Nephites in administering the sacrament, and also a few words by Moroni about baptism, church membership, congregational worship, and ecclesiastical discipline. This study demonstrates that these instructions and procedures were rooted in the words and deeds of the resurrected Jesus in 3 Nephi 18 as he administered the sacrament, gave instructions to his disciples, and conferred upon the twelve the power to bestow the gift of the Holy Ghost. Thus, one can appreciate the extent to which Nephite ecclesiastical procedures were based directly on the Savior’s instructions and ministry. Those practices, essential to the restored gospel, came from that divine source.

Allred, Philip A. “Alma’s Use of State in the Book of Mormon: Evidence of Multiple Authorship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Alma’s distinctive use of the word state in the Book of Mormon is present in his unique concentration of state, his tendency to reword with state, and his treatment of a shared topic involving state.

Tvedtnes, John A. “The Iliad and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

The Iliad features some battle clothing, battle tactics, reasons for fighting, and smiting off arms of enemies similar to those in the Book of Mormon, thus strengthening the links to an Old World culture.

Roper, Matthew. “Eyewitness Descriptions of Mesoamerican Swords.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Spanish chroniclers describe the use of various swords, including the macuahuitl, in Mesoamerican culture. The macuahuitl may fit the criteria for a Book of Mormon “sword.”

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 5 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Tvedtnes, John A. “Knowledge of Christ to Come.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Prophetic references to Christ appear not only in the Book of Mormon but also in other ancient Christian works.

Gee, John. “Two Notes on Egyptian Script.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Possible scripts for the “reformed Egyptian” referred to in the Book of Mormon include abnormal hieratic and carved hieratic.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 5, No. 2 (1996)

Introvigne, Massimo. “The Book of Mormon Wars: A Non-Mormon Perspective.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The Protestant Bible wars were fought between fundamentalists, who initially claimed for the Bible the same "truth" that Enlightenment claimed for science, and liberals, who denied that historical "truth" could be achieved at all. In the present Book of Mormon wars the opposite seems to be true: the liberal camp appears deeply rooted in the Enlightenment paradigm, while the orthodox (but not fundamentalist) position often uses postmodernist arguments, claiming that absolute objectivity is a "noble dream" never achieved nor obtainable in historical studies. The article reviews the present Mormon controversies by comparing them to the discussions on biblical interpretation in the Roman Catholic Church, as summarized in the semiofficial 1993 document "The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church" by the Pontifical Biblical Commission.

Reynolds, Noel B. “The True Points of My Doctrine.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

In a 1991 BYU Studies article, I identified and analyzed three core Book of Mormon passages in which the gospel or doctrine of Jesus Christ is defined. Each of these passages presents the gospel as a six-point formula or message about what men must do if they will be saved. In the present article I go on to examine all other Book of Mormon references to the six elements in this formula. Faith is choosing to trust in Jesus Christ in all that one does. Repentance is turning away from the life of sin by making a covenant to obey the Lord and remember him always. Baptism in water is the public witnessing to the Father of that covenant. The baptism of fire and of the Holy Ghost is a gift sent from the Father in fulfillment of his promise to all his children that if they will repent and be baptized, they will be filled with the Holy Ghost. It brings the remission of sins with its cleansing fires. The recipient of these great blessings must yet endure to the end in faith, hope, and charity in order to obtain salvation, or eternal life.

Sloan, David E. “The Anthon Transcripts and the Translation of the Book of Mormon: Studying It Out in the Mind of Joseph Smith.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

Prophesying of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, Nephi foretold that an unlearned man would be asked by God to read the words of a book after a learned man had failed to do so. The unlearned man was initially unwilling, claiming, “I am not learned” (2 Nephi 27:19). One interpretation of Nephi’s account is that Joseph Smith could not translate the Book of Mormon before the meeting of Martin Harris and Charles Anthon. Early historical accounts are consistent with this interpretation. However, according to Joseph Smith—History 1:64, Harris did take a translation to Anthon. Although this translation has not been found, evidence exists of similarities between this document and documents produced during the preliminary stages of the translation of the Book of Abraham. These similarities suggest that the document taken to Anthon was a preliminary and unsuccessful attempt to translate the Book of Mormon, during which Joseph Smith studied the translation problem out in his own mind as he qualified himself to receive the revealed translation from God.

Stubbs, Brian D. “A Lengthier Treatment of Length.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

Book of Mormon language frequently contains lengthy structures of rather awkward English. Some may consider these to be instances of poor grammar, weakness in writing (Ether 12:23–26), or the literary ineptness of a fraudulent author; however, I see them as potentially significant support for a translation from a Near Eastern language in an ancient American setting. Many of these examples of awkward, lengthy structures in English parallel Semitic (and Egyptian) patterns, particularly the circumstantial or hal-clause. In response to critics of my previous proposal to that effect, this article is a lengthier treatment of these lengthy structures found in the Book of Mormon.

Smith, Robert F. “Book of Mormon Event Structure: The Ancient Near East.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The Book of Mormon annals open in an ancient Near Eastern context. The archaeological-historical context is carefully outlined here within a systematic chronology that is tied to fixed, absolute dates of recorded astronomical events—particularly those from cuneiform eponym calendars. The resultant matrix allows those early Book of Mormon events to be understood in a rational, familiar, and meaningful way—that is, in a biblical context. In addition, an excursus is devoted to understanding the Arabia of the Book of Mormon as the Lehite exiles must have known it. Throughout it is clear that the world depicted by the Book of Mormon dovetails remarkably well with what we know of the ancient Near East.

Tvedtnes, John A.Rod and Sword as the Word of God.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The rod or staff, as well as the sword, symbolize power and the word of God.

Ricks, Stephen D., and John A. Tvedtnes. “Jewish and Other Semitic Texts Written in Egyptian Characters.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

An Egyptian script was possibly used to write Hebrew text on the Nephite record. Documents from the correct location and time period have texts and languages in varying scripts that lend credence to this scribal phenomenon.

Haubrock, Ken. “Sam: A Just and Holy Man.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

Nephi’s older brother Sam was a holy and just man who experienced and witnessed many events in early Nephite history.

Tvedtnes, John A. “‘His Stewardship Was Fulfilled’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The Lord preserves his prophets until they have delivered their messages; examples include Abinadi from the Book of Mormon, Jeremiah in 4 Baruch, and Jesus in the New Testament.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 5 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 6, No. 1 (1997)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Introduction to current issue.

Christenson, Allen J. “The Sacred Tree of the Ancient Maya.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Sacred trees, representing the power of life to grow from the underworld realm of the dead, are a common motif in the art and literature of the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica. Such trees are similar in concept to the tree of life described in the Book of Mormon, as well as to the mythic traditions of many other contemporary world cultures. Hieroglyphic inscriptions and sixteenth-century highland Maya texts describe a great world tree that was erected at the dawn of the present age to stand as the axis point of the cosmos. In its fruit-laden form, it personified the god of creation who fathered the progenitors of the Maya royal dynasty.

Childs, Larry G. “Present Participle Adjuncts in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Participle adjuncts in the Book of Mormon are compared with those in the other writings of Joseph Smith and with English in general. Participle adjuncts include present participle phrases, e.g., “having gained the victory over death” (Mosiah 15:8); present participle clauses, e.g., “he having four sons” (Ether 6:20), and a double-subject adjunct construction, known as the coreferential subject construction, where both subjects refer to the same thing, as in “Alma, being the chief judge . . . of the people of Nephi, therefore he went up with the people” (Alma 2:16). The Book of Mormon is unique in the occurrences of extremely long compound adjunct phrases and coreferential subject constructions, indicating that Joseph Smith used a very literal translation style for the Book of Mormon.

Stubbs, Brian D. “A Short Addition to Length: Some Relative Frequencies of Circumstantial Structures.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

In previous articles I have discussed the nature and prominence of certain linguistic structures in the Book of Mormon that are typical of hal-clauses translated from Hebrew or Egyptian. This article compares the frequencies of those structures in three works produced through the instrumentality of Joseph Smith: the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, only the first of which is a translation from an ancient Near Eastern language. The results of this preliminary investigation into styles and these linguistic structures as found in these three works are worth noting.

Archer, John B., John L. Hilton, and G. Bruce Schaalje. “Comparative Power of Three Author-Attribution Techniques for Differentiating Authors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Over the last twenty years, various objective author-attribution techniques have been applied to the English Book of Mormon in order to shed light on the question of multiple authorship of Book of Mormon texts. Two methods, one based on rates of use of noncontextual words and one based on word-pattern ratios, measure patterns consistent with multiple authorship in the Book of Mormon. Another method, based on vocabulary-richness measures, suggests that only one author is involved. These apparently contradictory results are reconciled by showing that for texts of known authorship, the method based on vocabulary-richness measures is not as powerful in discerning differences among authors as are the other methods, especially for works translated into English by a single translator.

Gee, John. “New and Old Light on Shawabtis from Mesoamerica.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Two Egyptian shawabti-figurines, reputedly discovered in Acajutla, El Salvador, in 1914, are likely forgeries. Had they been authentic, they might have helped to establish cultural contact between Egypt and Mesoameria.

Tvedtnes, John A. “Drought and Serpents.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

The story of the Jaredites being plagued by “poisonous serpents” at a time of “great dearth” makes sense when one realizes that drought causes rodents and then serpents to migrate.

Tvedtnes, John A. “‘The Workmanship Thereof Was Exceedingly Fine’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

The War Scroll of the Dead Sea Scrolls describes magnificent swords, whose workmanship may parallel that of the sword of Laban. Israelite leaders may well have carried precious swords.

Tvedtnes, John A. “‘As a Garment in a Hot Furnace’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

The idea that King Noah’s life was to be valued “as a garment in a hot furnace” is a type of simile curse. He would suffer death by fire, which was a just punishment for the wicked.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Citation Index to the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, 1992-96.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Five-year citation index.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 6 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Subject Index to the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, 1992-96.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Five-year subject index.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 6, No. 2 (1997)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Introduction to the current issue.

Petersen, Boyd J. “Something to Move Mountains: The Book of Mormon in Hugh Nibley's Correspondences.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 2 (1997): 1–25.

Hugh Nibley’s correspondence reveals a lifelong fascination with the Book of Mormon. This is significant for two reasons: First, Nibley has taken the book seriously longer than we have as a church, and second, the private Hugh Nibley is as devoted to the Book of Mormon as is the public man.

Nibley’s interest in the book is threefold: he recognizes the striking similarities it shares with other ancient Near Eastern texts; acknowledges its witness to Joseph Smith’s divine calling; and, most importantly, perceives the relevance and accuracy of the book’s prophetic warnings. In his letters, Nibley also addresses criticism raised against his methodology. “The potential power” of the Book of Mormon, writes Nibley, “is something to move mountains; it will only take effect when everything is pretty far gone, but then it will be dynamite. That leaves room for optimism.” Hugh Nibley’s words make that optimism contagious.

Nickerson, Matthew. “Nephi’s Psalm: 2 Nephi 4:16-35 in the Light of Form-Critical Analysis.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Identifying the poetic forms in the Book of Mormon enables readers to appreciate its beautiful literary style and gain a better understanding of its message. The form-critical analysis of psalms, first outlined by Hermann Gunkel in 1926, demonstrates sharp similarities between Nephi’s psalm and similar psalms in the Old Testament. Nephi’s psalm plainly follows the format and substance of the individual lament as described by Gunkel and elaborated by numerous subsequent scholars. As in other instances of Hebrew poetic forms in the Book of Mormon, understanding and appreciating the psalm, more particularly the personal lament, can offer new insights into 2 Nephi 4:16–35 and make its message of hope and trust more powerful and personal.

Harris, Tod R. “The Journey of the Hero: Archetypes of Earthly Adventure and Spiritual Passage in 1 Nephi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Study of the varied metaphorical levels of the Book of Mormon continues to yield new insights into the message and meaning of that book. Several prominent typological readings of aspects of the Book of Mormon have been published, but despite calls for such an effort, little inquiry into its possible archetypal levels, or what has been called “the mythic dimension” of the book, has yet been undertaken. As an initial attempt at such an endeavor, I compare certain events described in 1 Nephi with the elements of one prominent mythic archetype, the hero’s journey, as elucidated by Joseph Campbell in his famous The Hero with a Thousand Faces. A strong correlation between the hero’s journey archetype and the events from 1 Nephi is intriguing and seems to demonstrate at least the presence of mythic patterns in the Book of Mormon. This leads to some preliminary conclusions about what the apparent presence of such patterns might signify.

Sloan, David E. “Nephi’s Convincing of Christ through Chiasmus: Plain and Precious Persuading from a Prophet of God.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

One of the principal themes of Nephi’s writings on the small plates is his desire to convince others of Christ. A second, related theme is his desire to write plain and precious things on those plates. Some of the most plain and precious writings of Nephi are those instances in which he used the name Christ in chiasmus or other forms of poetry. Perhaps more than any other portion of his words, Nephi intended these plain and precious writings to convince both Jew and Gentile that Jesus is the Christ, the one true Messiah.

Tvedtnes, John A. “Glowing Stones in Ancient and Medieval Lore.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

One of the great miracles of the Book of Mormon occurred when the brother of Jared asked the Lord to touch some clear stones so they would provide light inside the barges that would take his people across the ocean to the New World. To some modern readers, the story seems implausible. This article surveys a number of ancient and medieval accounts of glowing stones, including some said to have been used in Noah’s ark and the “fish” the Lord prepared to swallow Jonah. The parallels to the Jaredite story are remarkable and suggest an ancient milieu for the book of Ether.

Brown, Matthew B. “Girded about with a Lambskin.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The publication of the Book of Mormon brought forward the first of many comparisons between the restorational work of the Prophet Joseph Smith and his surrounding environment, including Freemasonry. One point of comparison has been the lambskin apparel mentioned in 3 Nephi 4:7. A possible connection exists between this item of apparel and ritual clothing that was worn in ancient Israel, Egypt, and Mesoamerica. I suggest a possible reason for the use of this item of clothing among the secret combinations in the Book of Mormon and discuss the lambskin apron used in Freemasonic ritual.

Stirling, Mack C. “The Way of Life and the Way of Death in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The Book of Mormon describes a great division in mankind between the few who walk in the way of life and the many who walk in the way of death. This division results from the response of each individual to Christ or to the voice of God during probation. Men either hearken to the voice of Christ and progressively acquire spiritual life or they hearken to the voice of the devil and progressively descend into spiritual death. Nine Book of Mormon texts reveal detailed teachings on life and death. A diagram illustrates the ideas of each text. The conception and portrayal of spiritual reality in terms of two mutually exclusive, progressively diverging, and correspondingly opposite ways of life and death are clearly demonstrated. This dualistic conception of reality underlies the entire Book of Mormon. An understanding of this paradigm is critical, in order both to assimilate the essential message of the Book of Mormon on life and death and to understand its theological relationship to the Doctrine and Covenants.

Brown, S. Kent. “A Case for Lehi’s Bondage in Arabia.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The lengthy sojourn of Lehi’s family in the Arabian desert invites the almost inevitable question whether circumstances forced family members to live in the service of tribesmen either for protection or for food. In my view, enough clues exist in the Book of Mormon—they have to be assembled—to bring one to conclude that the family lived for a time in a servile condition, a situation that apparently entailed suffering and conflict.

Midgley, Louis C. “‘Inspiring’ but Not True: An Added Glimpse of the RLDS Stance on the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Since the late 1960s RLDS “liberals” have argued that the Book of Mormon should not be read as an authentic ancient history. This novel reading of the Book of Mormon has been part of a sustained effort by the RLDS hierarchy to make the Reorganization conform more closely with Protestant liberal approaches to the Bible. I demonstrate that the RLDS hierarchy has encouraged changes in the way the Book of Mormon is read by RLDS intellectuals. I then examine the arguments of Roger Launius, currently the foremost RLDS historian, who has recently insisted that the Book of Mormon ought to be read as “inspiring” frontier fiction. I also describe and criticize his claim that any concern with the historical authenticity of the Book of Mormon is not serious historical scholarship, which he wants focused on issues currently fashionable among secularized historians.

Barney, Kevin L. “Divine Discourse Directed at a Prophet’s Posterity in the Plural: Further Light on Enallage.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

A follow-up on a previous article on enallage provides further strength for a pattern of a speech to a prophet in which later verses seem to be addressed to both the prophet and his posterity by use of the plural ye.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 6 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Gee, John. “Another Note on the Three Days of Darkness.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The fragmentary text on a stele erected at Karnak seems to be connected with the volcanic eruption on Thera. The phraseology in many instances bears uncanny resemblance to the Book of Mormon account of the destruction in the Americas at the time of the crucifixion.

Tvedtnes, John A. “That Which Is to Come.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Expressions similar to “that which is to come” (Mosiah 3:1) refer specifically to Christ. Numerous prophets prophesy of Christ and the good news of his atoning influence in our lives.

Crowell, Angela M., and John A. Tvedtnes. “The Nephite and Jewish Practice of Blessing God after Eating One’s Fill.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

A Jewish custom of blessing God after eating one’s fill at a meal is reflected in passing in Amulek’s household and when the resurrected Christ blesses the sacrament for the Nephites and thereafter instructs them to pray. They “gave glory to Jesus” on this occasion.

Ricks, Stephen D., and John A. Tvedtnes. “The Hebrew Origin of Some Book of Mormon Place Names.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The place-names Cumorah, Jershon, and Zarahemla have possible Hebrew origins.

Tvedtnes, John A. “A Visionary Man.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Lehi’s visionary powers are manifest when he “dreamed a dream” or has “seen a vision.” This cognate accusative construction in which the verb is followed by a noun from the same root lends authenticity to the antiquity of the Book of Mormon.

Tvedtnes, John A. “Word Groups in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Word groupings, which tend to fall in certain categories, are an authentic means of expression in Hebrew poetry. Such groupings may reveal ties between the Book of Mormon and the biblical world.

Sloan, David E. “The Book of Lehi and the Plates of Lehi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon consistently use such phrases as “Book of Lehi,” “plates of Lehi,” and “account of Nephi” in distinct ways.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 7, No. 1 (1998)

Sorenson, John L. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Introduction to this issue.

Aston, Warren P. “The Arabian Bountiful Discovered? Evidence for Nephi’s Bountiful.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

According to the Book of Mormon, a land named “Bountiful” was a fertile site on the Arabian Peninsula with timber, fresh water, and ore where Nephi built a ship to carry Lehi’s group to the New World. In the seemingly barren land of the southern Arabian peninsula, a site that appears to correspond to the description in Nephi’s record has been identified on the remote southern coast of the country of Oman. Kharfot may not be the exact location of Bountiful, but its discovery does show that a place matching the criteria for Bountiful does exist.

Ball, Terry B., S. Kent Brown, Arnold H. Green, David J. Johnson, and W. Revell Phillips. “Planning Research on Oman: The End of Lehi’s Trail.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

In February 1998, five Brigham Young University professors spent more than a week together in southern Oman to collect data for future research projects in the area, which seems to correspond to the end of Lehi’s trail in the Old World. Future research must be performed in a professional manner and seek to reconstruct that part of the world in 600 BC. Botanical, archaeological, chronological, mineralogical, geological, and inscriptional studies in the area would depend on acquiring sponsors in Oman and on the availability of resources.

Skousen, Royal. “How Joseph Smith Translated the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Details of the translation process Joseph Smith used for translating the Book of Mormon from the plates can be adduced from statements of witnesses and from evidence in the original and printer’s manuscripts. According to witnesses, Joseph Smith often translated without the plates being present and used the interpreters to receive the revealed text. Evidence from the manuscripts themselves shows that the original manuscript was written from dictation, that Joseph Smith was working with at least twenty words at a time, that Joseph Smith could see the spelling of names, that the scribe repeated the text to Joseph Smith, and that the word chapter and the corresponding chapter numbers were not part of the revealed text. The manuscripts and text show that Joseph Smith apparently received the translation word for word and letter for letter, in what is known as “tight control.”

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “The Book of Mormon Critical Text Project.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).
Robinson, Stephen E. “Nephi’s ‘Great and Abominable Church’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

In 1 Nephi 13–14, Nephi describes major characteristics of the great and abominable church: it persecutes and slays the Saints of God; it seeks wealth and luxury; it is characterized by sexual immortality; it has excised plain and precious things from the scriptures; it has dominion over all the earth; and its fate is destruction by a world war. Nephi’s vision, known as an apocalyptic vision in biblical literature, corresponds well to features of Babylon as described in the apocalyptic Revelation of John (Revelation 17). Clearly, the earliest apostate church and the great and abominable church are the same. A suggested description for this phenomenon, avoiding a denominational name, is hellenized Christianity.

Hallen, Cynthia L. “Redeeming the Desolate Woman: The Message of Isaiah 54 and 3 Nephi 22.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Third Nephi 22 (quoting Isaiah 54) addresses a desolate woman who will be redeemed in the latter days. The desolate woman represents Zion, which itself signifies the city of Enoch in ancient times, the hill where the temple was built in Jerusalem, the celestial city of God, the kingdom of God on earth, and a covenant community of temple-worthy Saints. The Lord promises to relieve the desolation of Zion felt through barrenness, lack of a permanent home, and being forsaken and persecuted. The destiny of Zion parallels the pattern of Noah—both remain faithful to their covenants and witness a cleansing of the earth. The Savior serves as Zion’s husband. The servants of the Lord are equated with Zion—the Lord will not allow oppressors to be successful against Zion. The Lord promises to redeem Zion as he sings a song of redeeming love.

Spackman, Randall P. “The Jewish/Nephite Lunar Calendar.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Nephite record keepers were very meticulous in monitoring the passage of time. Lehi’s departure from Jerusalem in the reign of Zedekiah marks the beginning of one formal reckoning of time. The prophesied 600-year window to the birth of Christ could well have been measured in lunar years. Lehi must have drawn on familiar Israelite calendrical practices to establish his calendar. Lehi’s descendants likely used twelve lunar months for their calendar without adding an occasional thirteenth month to adjust for the length of a solar year, which would solve the chronological problem of dating Lehi’s departure 600 years before the birth of Christ.

Faulring, Scott H. “The Book of Mormon: A Blueprint for Organizing the Church.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Concepts from the Book of Mormon contributed to how the church was built up and conducted. Oliver Cowdery was instructed to draw upon the Book of Mormon in formulating his vision of how the restored church should be organized and regulated. His 1829 Articles of the Church of Christ were a precursor to Joseph Smith’s 1830 Articles and Covenants of the Church of Christ (now known as Doctrine and Covenants 20). Three key aspects of church organization that originated in the Book of Mormon include baptism and priesthood authority, the ordination of priests and teachers, and the administration of the Lord’s supper.

Hoskisson, Paul Y. “What’s in a Name? Alma as a Hebrew Name.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

The name Alma appears more frequently in the Book of Mormon than any other name besides Nephi. The name has a logical derivation from a Hebrew root that means “youth” or “lad.”

Tvedtnes, John A. “Book of Mormon Answers ‘Fulness of the gospel’ and ‘familiar spirit’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Responses to the following questions appear here: “Is the ‘fulness of the gospel’ in the Book of Mormon?” and “What is the meaning of ‘familiar spirit’ in Isaiah 29?”

Cracroft, Richard H. “A General Reader’s Library of Book of Mormon StudiesThe (Literary) Coming Forth of the Book of Mormon: Three Recent Milestones.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Cracroft reviews the following books that can deepen one’s understanding of the Book of Mormon: Richard Dilworth Rust’s Feasting on the Word: The Literary Testimony of the Book of Mormon; Marilyn Arnold’s Sweet Is the Word: Reflections on the Book of Mormon: Its Narrative, Teachings and People; and Elder Jeffrey R. Holland’s Christ and the New Covenant: The Messianic Message of the Book of Mormon.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 7 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “From the Vineyard.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

This department gives news updates on various topics related to Book of Mormon studies: evidence of Chinese voyagers in Mexico, publicity on an ancient skull of a Caucasian male discovered in Washington, excavation of an ancient basilica in Jordan, Egyptian figurines from El Salvador shown to be fakes, and the establishment of a new journal, Pre-Columbiana: A Journal of Long-distance Contacts.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “New Light.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

The Smithsonian statement about the Book of Mormon has been revised to indicate that the “Book of Mormon is a religious document and not a scientific guide.” James E. Talmage correctly identified various Michigan relics as fraudulent.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Memorial: Max Wells Jakeman 1910-1998.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Observations from Jakeman’s students honor this LDS scholar, who could be called the father of Book of Mormon archaeology.

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 8, No. 1 (1999)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).
Sorenson, John L. “The Editors’ Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Introduction to the current issue.

Midgley, Louis C. “A Māori View of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

The M?ori people read and understood the Book of Mormon from their own cultural perspective. Rather than examining particular verses for doctrinal content, the M?ori viewed the Book of Mormon as a moral story of a people with failings and strengths. They likened the stories to themselves, feeling they lacked the spiritual strength to stay on a righteous path for long. They saw a tragic story of families in conflict and subtribes and tribes quarreling with each other and bent on revenge for personal insults and factional quarrels. The kinship ties seemed particularly relevant to them. The Book of Mormon can be read in multiple ways and will be interpreted according to the cultural background of those reading it.

Brewer, Stewart W. “The History of an Idea: The Scene on Stela 5 from Izapa, Mexico, as a Representation of Lehi’s Vision of the Tree of Life.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Stela 5, a large stone monument discovered in 1941 in Izapa, Mexico, was identified a decade later by M. Wells Jakeman as a bas-relief of Lehi’s vision of the tree of life. Scholars and laymen alike have both accepted and scoffed at this theory. This article provides a historical sketch of reactions to this claim and discusses some of the implications of accepting or rejecting Jakeman’s theory. Jakeman was the first to publish an LDS interpretation of Stela 5; later V. Garth Norman proposed a different interpretation based on a series of high-quality photographs of the monument. Suzanne Miles, a non-Mormon, postulated that Izapa Stela 5 presented a “fantastic visual myth,” and Gareth W. Lowe proposed that Stela 5 presents an original creation myth. Further criticisms and responses ensued over the years.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Book of Mormon Archaeology,: A Rich Source for LDS Folklore.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Excerpts from a letter written in 1962 reveal how Jakeman’s interpretation of Stela 5 quickly stimulated a body of folklore among some Latter-day Saints.

Clark, John E. “A New Artistic Rendering of Izapa Stela 5: A Step toward Improved Interpretation.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Aided by creative techniques, Ajáx Moreno carefully prepared more accurate, detailed renderings of the Izapa monuments, including Stela 5, with its complex scenes of gods and other supernatural creatures, royalty, animals invested with mythic and value symbolism, and mortals. The author raises relevant questions about reconciling Jakeman’s view with the new drawing: Are there Old World connections? Can Izapa be viewed as a Book of Mormon city? Did the Nephites know of Lehi’s dream? Are there name glyphs on the stela? The scene, if it does not depict Lehi’s dream, fits clearly in Mesoamerican art in theme, style, technical execution, and meaning. The basic theme of Stela 5 may be the king as intercessor with the gods on behalf of his people.

Roper, Matthew. “Swords and Cimeters in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Roper examines the use of the terms sword and cimeter in a Mesoamerican setting as well as in the Book of Mormon text. The macuahuitl was a fearsome weapon consisting of a long, flat piece of hardwood with grooves along the side into which sharp fragments of flint or obsidian were set and glued. Our knowledge of this weapon comes more from written accounts than actual artifacts because few specimens have survived. The Book of Mormon sword of Laban was used as a model for making swords, but they were not necessarily made of the same material. The discussion in Alma 24:12 having to do with stained swords would make particular sense with wooden swords. Cimeters, or scimitars, differ from swords in having curved blades. Several kinds of swords and cimeters that were in use in ancient Mesoamerica are plausible candidates for Book of Mormon weapons.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Near Eastern Weapon Parallels.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Parallels between sickle swords and two-bladed knives in ancient Mesoamerica and the Near East may strengthen the possibility of some historical link between the areas. Similarities in weapons terminology may also lead to fruitful research.

Yerman, Bruce E. “Ammon and the Mesoamerican Custom of Smiting off Arms.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Ammon, a Nephite missionary who chose to serve a Lamanite king as his servant, gained fame by cutting off the arms of the king’s enemies. The practice of smiting off arms of enemies as trophies fits a cultural pattern known among the later Aztecs and Maya in pre-Spanish Mesoamerica.

Arnold, Marilyn. “Unlocking the Sacred Text.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Literary analysis provides useful tools in the study of sacred texts, including the Book of Mormon. For the author, three transforming events that enhanced her study of the Book of Mormon included reading the book in earnest as a complex and masterful literary text, the entrance of the Spirit into her study of the book, and a prayerful desire to experience the great change of heart described by King Benjamin and Alma. Nephi begins his record with sincerity and honesty and serves notice that he intends to prepare a true record. The opposition between Nephi and his brothers Laman and Lemuel illustrates well Lehi’s teachings on the necessity of opposition in all things. More subtly, the reader notes a contrast between the characters and personalities of Nephi and Jacob. Jacob is portrayed as an empathetic and compassionate person who was tutored by exile and isolation.

Potter, George D. “A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

The author serendipitously discovered a stream east of the Gulf of Aqaba that seems to share the physical features of Lehi’s “river of water” that “emptied into the Red Sea” and was “continually running.” The river Laman ran through the valley of Lemuel, described as “firm, steadfast, and immovable.” The stream and the canyon seem to fulfill the conditions of the river of Laman and the valley of Lemuel.

Berrett, LaMar C. “New Light: The So-Called Lehi Cave.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Berrett discusses point by point reasons why an ancient burial complex at Khirbet Beit Lei, sometimes called “Lehi’s cave,” is unlikely to have Book of Mormon connections. Brown describes a carved altar inscribed to the tribe Nihm discovered in the southwest Arabian peninsula (Yemen)—this location may be the place Nahom where Nephi’s father-in-law, Ishmael, was buried, according to the Book of Mormon record. The characters on the Anthon transcript reportedly taken by Martin Harris to New York to show to Professor Charles Anthon bear resemblance to characters on two Mexican seals made of baked clay. Szink identifies another possible Semitic source for the name Alma in the tablets of Ebla uncovered in Syria.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Book of Mormon Answers.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Responses to the following questions appear here: “Did the Nephites have authority to sacrifice?” and “Did the Nephites sacrifice first-born animals contrary to the law of Moses?”

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 8 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1999).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Bell, James P. “A Reader’s Library: Efficacious Scholarship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Bell reviews the following books about Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon: Susan Easton Black and Charles D. Tate Jr.’s edited volume Joseph Smith: The Prophet, the Man; Scot Facer Proctor and Maurine Jensen Proctor’s edition of The Revised and Enhanced History of Joseph Smith by His Mother; John W. Welch and Stephen D. Ricks’s edited volume King Benjamin’s Speech: “That Ye May Learn Wisdom”; and Donald W. Parry and John W. Welch’s edited volume Isaiah in the Book of Mormon.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Out of the Dust.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

It is highly unlikely that an object found in Lake Michigan could be a Jaredite barge. Lee Siegel reports about an archaeological dig at Piedras Negras, Guatemala, conceived and run by Brigham Young University’s Dr. Stephen Houston. A bronze sword discovered in Texas may be an Old World artifact. A linguist documents convincingly that the Ket language in western Siberia shares cognates with the Na-Dene language family of North America, thus showing possible transcontinental linguistic links.

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 8, No. 2 (1999)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).
Sorenson, John L. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Introduction to the current issue.

Wilson, Marian Robertson. “Leroy Robertson and the Oratorio from the Book of Mormon: Reminiscences of a Daughter.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Marian Robertson Wilson recounts her memories of her father, Leroy Robertson, and of the creation of his masterpiece, the Oratorio from the Book of Mormon. The idea to compose an oratorio based on the Book of Mormon first came to Robertson when Elder Melvin J. Ballard of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles casually suggested it to him one day in 1919. After his conversation with Elder Ballard, Robertson dedicated much of his time to studying the Book of Mormon and choosing sections of scripture to use in his compilation. The piece eventually received attention from LDS church leadership and from the renowned Maurice Abravanel. It significantly impacted missionary work, as well as the work of other LDS composers.

Hedges, Andrew H. “All My Endeavors to Preserve Them: Protecting the Plates in Palmyra, 22 September-December 1827.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

After Joseph Smith received the gold plates from the angel Moroni, he had to take great measures to protect them from people who wanted to steal them for their monetary value. Although Joseph did not leave much documentation of such experiences, the people who were closely associated with him at the time did. Using what records still exist, Hedges pieces together some of the stories of Joseph’s challenges in obtaining and protecting the gold plates.

Seely, David Rolph, and Jo Ann H. Seely. “Lehi and Jeremiah: Prophets, Priests, and Patriarchs.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Old Testament prophet Jeremiah and Book of Mormon prophet Lehi were contemporaries, and both preached repentance to the people of Jerusalem. Despite their common love for the truth, these men led very different lives because the first was commanded to remain in Jerusalem and the latter was commanded to leave. This article examines the lives and teachings of Jeremiah and Lehi and compares them to each other, suggesting that Jeremiah’s life symbolizes God’s justice and that Lehi’s life symbolizes God’s mercy.

Welch, John W. “Weighing and Measuring in the Worlds of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

This article addresses the seemingly misplaced discussion of weights and measures in the middle of Alma 11 in the Book of Mormon. Although the interruption initially seems strange, John Welch offers new insights to explain its purpose in the Book of Mormon. For instance, knowledge of the Nephite monetary system supplements a reader’s comprehension of the bribery and corruption that occurred in that society. Evidence of this monetary system also shows a link between Near Eastern civilizations and Book of Mormon civilizations, thus providing further evidence for the divinity of Joseph Smith’s work.

Smith, Robert F. “Table of Relative Values.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

This table compares Nephite weights and measures with Egyptian values and gives possible equivalents in grams and ounces.

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “A Mesoamerican System of Weights and Measures? Did the ancient peoples of Mesoamerica use a system of weights and scales in measuring goods and their values?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Ancient Mesoamericans used some systems of weights and measures; items in the market, though, were usually sold by volume. The Mesoamerican weights and measures may coincide with the weights and measures described in Alma 11 of the Book of Mormon, but more research is necessary in order to make conclusive claims.

Packard, Dennis J., and Sandra Packard. “Pondering the Word.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Despite the emphasis that the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints places on scriptures, particularly the Book of Mormon, some members find it difficult to truly love the scriptures. This article claims that by pondering the scriptures often, members can better understand and appreciate the prophetic words. In order to find a deeper love for the scriptures, readers should consider the following details while reading: the setting of a passage; the meaning of various words and phrases; the author’s attitude when he wrote the passage; the possible comparisons between passages; the possible implied messages of the authors; the possible reasons for the inclusion of a specific passage; the organization of the scriptures; the repetition of ideas, words, and sounds; and the emphasis of certain words. By pondering each of these aspects, readers can gain a greater love for and appreciation of the scriptures.

Bitton, Davis. “B. H. Roberts and Book of Mormon Scholarship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Brigham Henry Roberts, a Book of Mormon scholar in the early twentieth century, was a pioneer in his field. He conducted research regarding the culture and the geography of the Book of Mormon peoples in an attempt to determine the setting of the Book of Mormon. His extensive work in this area has significantly influenced the progress of Book of Mormon research. Roberts also enthusiastically defended the book when others criticized it. He was able to do so effectively because of his study of and familiarity with the Book of Mormon. Roberts did, however, have a few limitations, the most detrimental being his unfounded assumption that “the narrow neck of land” in the Book of Mormon is the Isthmus of Panama. Yet, Roberts’s pioneering efforts remain today a crucial catalyst to modern analytical studies of the Book of Mormon.

Godfrey, Kenneth W. “What is the Significance of Zelph in the Study of Book of Mormon Geography?” Journal of Book of Mormon Stud