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FARMS Journal of
Book of Mormon Studies

(1992 — 2016)

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Full Issues

Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 26. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 26 (2017).
ID = [81886]  Type = book, compendium  Date = 2017-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 13  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 18:35:03
Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 28. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 28 (2019).
ID = [81888]  Type = book, compendium  Date = 2019-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 16  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 18:35:03
Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 27. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 27 (2018).
ID = [81887]  Type = book,compendium  Date = 2019-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 18  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 18:35:03

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 1 (1992)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

Introduction to the first issue of the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies.

ID = [2812]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 4051  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 1 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2726]  Type = book  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 13  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sorenson, John L. “When Lehi’s Party Arrived in the Land, Did They Find Others There?” In Nephite Culture and Society: Collected Papers, 65-104. Salt Lake City: New Sage Books, 1997.

A number of statements in the Book of Mormon text indicate the presence in Lehi’s promised land of peoples other than those descended from Lehi’s party. Reasons the topic is not addressed more explicitly in the record include a focus on the Nephites (and not on other people), a generic treatment of Lamanites, an a desire not to waste space on something obvious or insignificant. Clear evidence for the presence of others in substantial populations is present in the Book of Mormon. The demographic or cultural history of Lehi’s literal descendants must take into account these other groups.

Keywords: Ancient America; Lehi (Prophet); Mesoamerica; Others in the Land; Population Size; Promised Land; Sailing; Transoceanic Voyage
ID = [2813]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 87480  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Robison, Lindon J. “Economic Insights from the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1, no. 1 (1992): 35-53.

Economic systems are distinguished by their emphasis on equity and efficiency. Market controls are justified because of the need for equity. Free markets are justified because of the need for private incentives and efficiency. Most countries of the world today have adopted a combination of controls and free-market incentives. The Book of Mormon teaches that only through caring can equity and efficiency be simultaneously achieved.

Keywords: Economics; Economy; Efficiency; Equity; Money
ID = [2814]  Type = journal article  Date = 1969-12-31  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 43492  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Gee, John. “Limhi in the Library.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1, no. 1 (1992): 54-66.

Analysis of comparative data and historical background indicates that the quotations in Mosiah 7–22 are historically accurate. Further examination of the quotations of Limhi shows that they depend heavily on other sources. This implies some things about the character of Limhi and provides as well attendant lessons for our own day.

Keywords: King Limhi; Recordkeeping; Scripture Study
ID = [2815]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 34306  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Goff, Alan. “Boats, Beginnings, and Repetitions.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1, no. 1 (1992): 67-84.

Ancient texts are too often approached using modern assumptions. Among those assumptions obstructing an understanding of ancient texts is the modern emphasis on originality and on writing as intellectual property. Ancient writers relished repetition—stories that were repeated in succeeding generations—over originality. The Bible is full of repeated or allusive stories, and the Book of Mormon often reinscribes this biblical emphasis on repetition. One such biblical reverberation in the Book of Mormon is Nephi’s ocean voyage, which evokes biblical stories of origination: creation, deluge, and exodus. These three stories of beginnings are carefully alluded to in Nephi’s own foundational story, exactly as we would expect to find in an ancient Hebraic text.

Keywords: Boat; Nephi; Repetition; Ship; Transoceanic Voyage; Voyage
ID = [2816]  Type = journal article  Date = 1969-12-31  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 39030  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Kerr, Todd R. “Ancient Aspects of Nephite Kingship in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1, no. 1 (1992): 85-118.

Nephite kings were expected to fulfill the same roles that kings played in other ancient civilizations— commander of the military forces, chief judicial official, and leader of the national religion. A king’s success depended not only on the extent to which he performed each role, but also on the motives behind his service. Selfless rule by Benjamin-type kings commanded the respect and praise of the people, while King Noah’s quest for personal gain roused Old World disdain for the monarch. The Nephite experiment with kingship confirms that between “kings and tyrants there’s this difference known; kings seek their subject’s good; tyrants their own” (Robert Herrick, 1591–1674).

Keywords: Ancient; King Benjamin; King Noah; Kingship; Nephite; Old World
ID = [2817]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 75971  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Welch, John W. “Legal Perspectives on the Slaying of Laban.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1, no. 1 (1992): 119-141.

This article marshals ancient legal evidence to show that Nephi’s slaying of Laban should be understood as a protected manslaughter rather than a criminal homicide. The biblical law of murder demanded a higher level of premeditation and hostility than Nephi exhibited or modern law requires. The terms of Exodus 21:13, it is argued, protected more than accidental slayings or unconscious acts, particularly where God was seen as having delivered the victim into the slayer’s hand. Various rationales for Nephi’s killing of Laban include ancient views on surrendering one person for the benefit of a whole community. Other factors within the Book of Mormon as well as in Moses’ killing of the Egyptian in Exodus 2 corroborate the conclusion that Nephi did not commit the equivalent of a first-degree murder under the laws of his day.

Keywords: Laban; Laws; Legal; Murder; Nephi (Son of Lehi)
ID = [2818]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,welch  Size: 60261  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Hilton, John L., and Janet F. Hilton. “A Correlation of the Sidon River and the Lands of Manti and Zarahemla with the Southern End of the Rio Grijalva (San Miguel).” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

We construct a detailed geographical model of the Nephite homeland areas of Manti, Zarahemla, and the river Sidon using the Book of Mormon text of around 80 BC. This model assumes that these areas are located in Mesoamerica, that the names of their surrounding seas do not necessarily correspond to local compass directions, and that the directions stated in the text are to be understood in the nontechnical normal English sense. We then describe the southern end of the Grijalva river basin, located across the southern part of the Mexico–Guatemala border. We nominate this area as a possible candidate for the ancient Nephite homeland because it corresponds to the text’s topography from the most general to the most detailed parts of the description. Furthermore, significant geographical and climatic changes in this area over the last 2,000 years are unlikely. The number and detail of the topological matches encourage further careful study.

ID = [2819]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 48619  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Brown, S. Kent. “The Prophetic Laments of Samuel the Lamanite.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The wide-ranging sermon of Samuel the Lamanite, spoken from the top of the city wall of Zarahemla, exhibits poetic features in a censuring passage—features that bear similarities to laments found in the Bible, most notably in the Psalms. Like the laments in the Bible, those in Samuel’s speech show contacts with worship. In distinction to the biblical laments, but like the Thanksgiving Hymns of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the poetic pieces in Samuel’s sermon reveal a set of prophecies that find fulfillment in later periods, including the days of Mormon, the compiler and editor of the Book of Mormon.

ID = [2820]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 43859  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Parry, Donald W. “‘Thus Saith the Lord’: Prophetic Language in Samuel’s Speech.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The prophetic language in the writings of Samuel the Lamanite includes the messenger formula, proclamation formula, oath formula, woe oracle, announcement formula, and revelations formula.

Keywords: Prophecy; Prophet; Samuel the Lamanite
ID = [2821]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 5909  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Peterson, Daniel C. “‘Secret Combinations’ Revisited.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The claim that the Gadianton robbers in the Book of Mormon are merely a reflection of nineteenth-century Masons, who were referred to in the late 1820s as “secret combinations,” is false since an 1826 use of the phrase establishes that those words were not used exclusively to describe Masons.

ID = [2822]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,peterson  Size: 10670  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Gee, John. “A Note on the Name Nephi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).

The name Nephi is attested as a Syro-Palestinian Semitic form of an Egyptian man’s name dating from the Late Period in Egypt.

ID = [2823]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 8144  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1 no. 1 (1992).
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Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 2, No. 1 (1993)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Summary of current issue.

ID = [2825]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 2564  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 2 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2727]  Type = book  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 13  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Christensen, Kevin. “‘Nigh unto Death’: NDE Research and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

This article suggests that contemporary near-death research casts light on several episodes in the Book of Mormon. Alma’s conversion while “nigh unto death” fits a common pattern of experience. Modern researchers have noticed distinctive aftereffects among those who have experienced a near-death experience (NDE). In the Book of Mormon, both Alma and the resurrected Christ demonstrate these aftereffects. Lehi’s dream invites comparison with the otherworld journey literature of many nations. Nephi’s interpretation of Lehi’s dream casts light on the tension between the literal and the symbolic elements of visionary experience. Finally, just as accurate out-of-body observations made by NDErs argued for the reality of their experiences, so the testable aspects of the Book of Mormon give Joseph Smith a significance apart from others who may have experienced similar visions.

ID = [2826]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 42130  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Thomasson, Gordon C. “Mosiah: The Complex Symbolism and Symbolic Complex of Kingship in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 1 (1993): 21-38.

This article discusses the significance of major scriptural personalities, contrasting the lessons we can learn from the positive and negative experiences of such individuals with the role models set for us in Christ and little children. Internal textual sources relate to the composition of the book of Mosiah within the context of a particular literary tradition and style. According to one argument, the text employs a “dialectical” style or stylistic device based on the “law of opposition in all things,” which juxtaposes individuals, such as righteous and wicked kings, to illuminate gospel principles. Several Old World and Book of Mormon perspectives give insight on royal treasures, symbolism, and iconography (including objects such as the Liahona and the sword of Laban). The article also contrasts views of religious freedom, taxation, and agency and responsibility, and compares duties of parents and kings.

Keywords: Dialectic; Government; Kingship; Mosiah (Book); Mosiah (Nephite); Religious Freedom; Scripture; Symbolism
ID = [2827]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 39200  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Holbrook, Brett L. “The Sword of Laban as a Symbol of Divine Authority and Kingship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Swords often symbolize divine authority and kingship. Numerous examples from the mythology, literature, and history of the world attest to distinct patterns. The sword of Laban from the Book of Mormon fits these patterns and can be compared to the sword of Goliath. The sword of Laban can also be traced as part of the royal regalia that provides authority throughout Nephite history and later as it appears in the restoration. The sword of Laban as associated with Joseph Smith came to be an additional witness of his authority and of the divine sanction for his work.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Authority; Early Church History; Joseph; Jr.; King Benjamin; Nephite; Sacred; Smith; Sword of Laban; Symbolism; Weaponry
ID = [2828]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 75943  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Rolph, Daniel N. “Prophets, Kings, and Swords: The Sword of Laban and Its Possible Pre-Laban Origin.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 1 (1993): 73-79.

The sword of Laban plays a prominent role in the Book of Mormon narrative as a Nephite national treasure. Scholarly analysis of this regal heirloom has primarily concentrated upon its physical construction in relation to ancient Near Eastern metallurgical technology. However, when examined within the cultural milieu of the ancient world, along with data from church history, the scriptures, and Jewish tradition, the sword of Laban takes on new significance. Though the Book of Mormon reveals that the sword of Laban served as an ancestral and hereditary sword of the ancient Nephite prophets, evidence suggests that the weapon may have been the birthright sword of biblical tradition, a sacred heirloom that may have been wielded by the patriarchs up until the time of Joseph of Egypt. Laban, being a descendant of Joseph, inherited the birthright sword and the plates of brass, both treasures eventually coming into the possession of Nephi, who was both a prophet and a descendant of Joseph, as was Joseph Smith Jr.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Birthright; Laban; Metallurgy; Nephi; Sword; Sword of Laban; Technology
ID = [2829]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 19016  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Draper, Richard D. “The Mortal Ministry of the Savior as Understood by the Book of Mormon Prophets.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 1 (1993): 80-92.

The mortal Savior was not man, not human (Alma 34:10). Infinite and eternal, he received his physical life not from a son of Adam but from the Father of Adam, God. He took upon himself the image of man, but in truth he was the model, not the copy. Though mortal, he was still God, able to suffer and to redeem as only a god could. He was Son, because he received physical life from his Father, and Father, because he used his divine powers to give eternal life to others. Though not man, he experienced mortality, which allowed him to understand and love mortals.

Keywords: Condescension of God; Jesus Christ; Mortal Ministry; Mortality; Prophet; Savior
ID = [2830]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 30878  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Miller, Jeanette W. “The Tree of Life, a Personification of Christ.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 1 (1993): 93-106.

Throughout history in many cultures, man has looked to the tree of life as a symbol of eternal life. The form of the tree of life varies according to a culture’s perception of the universe. Many early Christians saw the tree of life as a personification of Jesus Christ. It may be that the tree of life vision in the Book of Mormon was presented to introduce the Savior and his ministry. We may learn much about the Lord’s calling and personality by combining a study of various cultural ideas of the tree of life with the testimonies of the prophets contained in the scriptures.

Keywords: Dream; Eternal Life; Jesus Christ; Lehi (Prophet); Nephi; Personification; Symbolism; Tree of Life; Vision
ID = [2831]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 31674  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Ball, Russell H. “An Hypothesis concerning the Three Days of Darkness among the Nephites.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 1 (1993): 107-123.

Aspects of the three days of darkness following the three-hour period of intense destruction described principally in 3 Nephi include: (1) the strange absence of rain among the destructive mechanisms described; (2) the source of the intense lightning, which seems to be unaccompanied by rain; (3) a mechanism to account for the inundation of the cities of Onihah, Mocum, and Jerusalem, which were not among the cities which “sunk in the depths of the sea”; and (4) the absence in the histories of contemporary European and Asiatic civilizations of corresponding events, which are repeatedly characterized in 3 Nephi as affecting “the face of the whole earth.”

Keywords: 3 Nephi; Destruction; Geology; Natural Disaster
ID = [2832]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 35289  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Morrise, Mark J. “Simile Curses in the Ancient Near East, Old Testament, and Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

The simile curse is a type of curse that appears in ancient Near Eastern, Old Testament, and Book of Mormon texts. It consists of two parts: (1) an event (e.g., “Just as this wax is burned by fire”) and (2) an application of that event to the subject of the curse (e.g., “so shall Arpad be burned”). In ancient Near Eastern texts, simile curses appear in written treaties and were often part of a ritual acted out during a treaty ceremony. In the Old Testament, simile curses appear primarily in prophetic writings as literary devices. In the Book of Mormon, simile curses appear in the context of treaties, religious covenants, and prophecies, and in several instances were acted out. These curses were probably part of the oral tradition of ancient Near Eastern, Old Testament, and Book of Mormon peoples.

ID = [2833]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 32861  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Compton, Todd M. “The Spirituality of the Outcast in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 1 (1993): 139-160.

In the Book of Mormon, despised outcasts, such as the Lamanites or the poor, often have a special aptitude for spirituality, and the richer, civilized, and more overtly religious Nephites are often declining in righteousness. This phenomenon, with some characteristic specific themes, such as being excluded from a religious edifice, is found in ancient and contemporary cultures and religions. This theme points up the complexity of the Book of Mormon, which is not simple cowboys-and-Indians melodrama.

Keywords: Outcast; Poor; Spirituality
ID = [2834]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 52168  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Hamblin, William J. “Basic Methodological Problems with the Anti-Mormon Approach to the Geography and Archaeology of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 1 (1993): 161-197.

Anti-Mormon criticisms of the Book of Mormon are frequently based on a questionable set of assumptions concerning the nature of historical and archaeological evidence, the role of governing presuppositions, and the nature of historical proof. Using arguments found in a recent anti-Mormon critique by Luke Wilson as a foundation, this article analyzes difficulties of reconstructing ancient geographies, problems with the discontinuity of Mesoamerican toponyms, the historical development of the idea of a limited geography model, and challenges of textual and artifactual interpretation when trying to relate the Book of Mormon to archaeological remains.

Keywords: Ancient America; Archaeology; Assumptions; Book of Mormon Geography; Book of Mormon Geography - Limited Geography; Evidence; Interpretation; Mesoamerica; Proof
ID = [2835]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 90302  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Clark, Robert E. “Notes on Korihor and Language.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).

Korihor makes use of language to cast doubt in the minds of his listeners and to tear down the power of God. Language is used for both good and ill.

Keywords: Antichrist; Korihor
ID = [2836]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 6889  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 1 (1993).
ID = [2837]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 2009  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 2, No. 2 (1993)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

Summary of current issue.

ID = [2838]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 2434  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Millet, Robert L. “The Book of Mormon, Historicity, and Faith.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 2 (1993): 1-13.

The historicity of the Book of Mormon record is crucial. We cannot exercise faith in that which is untrue, nor can “doctrinal fiction” have normative value in our lives. Too often the undergirding assumption of those who cast doubt on the historicity of the Book of Mormon, in whole or in part, is a denial of the supernatural and a refusal to admit of revelation and predictive prophecy. Great literature, even religious literature, cannot engage the human soul and transform the human personality like scripture. Only scripture—writings and events and descriptions from real people at a real point in time, people who were moved upon and directed by divine powers—can serve as a revelatory channel, enabling us to hear and feel the word of God.

Keywords: Doctrine; Faith; Historicity; Literature; Revelation; Scripture
ID = [2839]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 31546  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 2 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2728]  Type = book  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 16  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Volluz, Corbin T. “Lehi’s Dream of the Tree of Life: Springboard to Prophecy.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 2 (1993): 14-38.

Lehi’s dream of the tree of life is well known in Latter- day Saint circles. Its relationship to the vision of Nephi (1 Nephi 11–14), however, may not be so well known. This paper examines the proposition that Nephi’s vision was an expansive, prophetic interpretation of Lehi’s dream of the tree of life; gives an alternate interpretation of Lehi’s dream as a guide to the afterlife; and links Lehi’s dream, the Garden of Eden, and the temple.

Keywords: Dream; Garden of Eden; Lehi (Prophet); Nephi (Son of Lehi); Prophecy; Prophet; Spirit World; Temple; Tree of Life; Vision
ID = [2840]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 58879  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Lane, Jennifer Clark. “The Lord Will Redeem His People: Adoptive Covenant and Redemption in the Old Testament and Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

In the text of the Old Testament Yahweh is described as the Redeemer of Israel. A redeemer in Israelite society was a close family member who was responsible to help his enslaved kinsmen by buying them out of bondage. A comparable family relationship is created between the Lord and individuals by the making of covenants and the giving of a new name. The adoptive covenant becomes the basis for the Lord’s acts of redemption. This pattern of adoptive redemption can be seen in both the Old Testament and the Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon identifies Yahweh, the God and Redeemer of the Old Testament, with Jesus Christ. It further explains that redemption from spiritual bondage comes through the ransom price of his blood and is available to those who enter into adoptive covenants, which create a familial relationship and allow the Lord to act as their redeemer.

ID = [2841]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 57561  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Clark, Robert E. “The Type at the Border: An Inquiry into Book of Mormon Typology.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 2 (1993): 63-77.

A certain combination of temperament and upbringing can lead to a sense of alienation from the scriptures’ meaning. This paper considers the role that types might play in overcoming that alienation as they mediate between scriptural understanding and human experience, permitting deeper insight into both. The difficulties and possibilities inherent in such an approach shed light on a typological analysis of the figures of Abinadi and the brother of Jared.

Keywords: Abinadi (Prophet); Brother of Jared; Mahonri Moriancumer; Type; Typology
ID = [2842]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 37382  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Mangum, Garth L. “The Economics of the Book of Mormon: Joseph Smith as Translator or Commentator.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 2 (1993): 78-89.

From 1830 to the present those who find it difficult to accept “angelic visitations in the age of railroads” have searched Joseph Smith’s nineteenth-century environment for sources of the subject matter of the Book of Mormon. For example, in 1990 Susan Curtis explains the economic subthemes of the book as Joseph Smith’s commentary on “market capitalism.” But the economic conditions of Joseph Smith’s time and place are not reflected in the Book of Mormon. Its economic descriptions are consistent with our vast knowledge of the economic conditions of the ancient Middle East and not inconsistent with the little known of the economics of Mesoamerica of the relevant time period. Those more comfortable with Joseph Smith as universal commentator on the issues of his day would be well advised to ignore economics or limit that topic to the Doctrine and Covenants. Those who accept him as translator of ancient scriptural documents can gain additional reassurance from the economics of the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Ancient America; Ancient Near East; Commentary; Early Church History; Economics; Economy; Joseph; Jr.; Mesoamerica; Smith; Translation
ID = [2843]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,d-c,farms-jbms  Size: 28736  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Mackay, Thomas W. “Mormon as Editor: A Study in Colophons, Headers, and Source Indicators.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 2 (1993): 90-109.

The Book of Mormon contains various colophons and source indicators that signal documents or authors that Mormon and the writers of the small plates used, quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in composing the final text. Some of these headers have been italicized and separated out by the printer; others form an integral part of the text but could as well have been separated and italicized. Mormon’s extensive notation of sources is another set of evidence for the intricate and complex nature of the text and, simultaneously, of the magnitude of Mormon’s work as an ancient editor and historian.

Keywords: Colophon; Editor; Header; Historian; Mormon; Sources; Structure
ID = [2844]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 38323  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Read, Lenet Hadley. “Joseph Smith’s Receipt of the Plates and the Israelite Feast of Trumpets.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 2 (1993): 110-120.

Joseph Smith received the golden plates on the Israelite Day of Remembrance (or Rosh ha-Shanah). Biblical references and interpretation by Jewish sages through the centuries set this day as the day God would remember his covenants with Israel to bring them back from exile. Also called the Feast of Trumpets, this day features ritual trumpet blasts to signify the issuance of revelation and a call for Israel to gather for God’s word of redemption. The day, which is set at the time of Israel’s final agricultural harvest, also symbolizes the Lord’s final harvest of souls. Furthermore, it initiates the completion of the Lord’s time periods, the Days of Awe, and signifies the last time to prepare for final judgment and the Messianic Age. The coming forth of the Book of Mormon is literally fulfilling such prophecies of the day.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Early Church History; Festival; Gold Plates; Israelite Feast of Trumpets; Joseph; Jr.; Plates; Prophecy; Smith; Translation
ID = [2845]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 26613  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Hunt, Wallace E., Jr. “Moses’ Brazen Serpent as It Relates to Serpent Worship in Mesoamerica.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

This paper shows that the account of Moses’ brazen serpent as taught by the Nephite leaders parallels the symbol and name of the Mesoamerican god Quetzalcoatl. It further shows that the term flying, used in the Nephite but not in the biblical account of the fiery serpent, has parallels in the Old and New Worlds.

ID = [2846]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 27822  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Midgley, Louis C. “The Radical Reformation of the Reorganization of the Restoration: Recent Changes in the RLDS Understanding of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 2 (1993): 132-163.

Beginning in the 1960s, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS) has modified its understanding of the Book of Mormon and Joseph Smith’s prophetic charisms. Where the RLDS were earlier permitted to do this, they are now encouraged by their leaders to read the Book of Mormon as nineteenth-century fiction, though they are still permitted to find in it, if they wish, some inspiring passages. These changes have been resisted by a conservative minority that has lost the battle for control of the Reorganization and now tends to worship outside RLDS congregations. A few Latter-day Saints have also begun to read the Book of Mormon as fiction. Their efforts to turn the Book of Mormon into nineteenth-century fiction have been opposed by competent Latter-day Saint scholarship, though not without resistance from those who control “independent” and “liberal” publishing ventures.

Keywords: Community of Christ; Historicity; Inspired Fiction; RLDS; Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; Scripture
ID = [2847]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 86546  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Roper, Matthew P. “Comments on the Book of Mormon Witnesses: A Response to Jerald and Sandra Tanner.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, no. 2 (1993): 164-193.

Critics of the Book of Mormon frequently claim that some of the Book of Mormon witnesses later doubted or denied their testimony of the Book of Mormon. They also claim that the activities of the Three Witnesses while out of the church cast doubt upon the reliability of their earlier written testimony. I review evidence for these claims and also discuss the issue of what may constitute a witness of the Book of Mormon and whether the witnesses ever doubted or denied their testimony of the Book of Mormon. Evidence for later disbelief in the Book of Mormon by the witnesses is unpersuasive. I detail several miscellaneous issues relating to Jerald and Sandra Tanner’s criticisms of the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Anti-Mormon; Apologetics; Cowdery; David; Early Church History; Eight Witnesses; Gold Plates; Harris; Martin; Oliver; Testimony; Three Witnesses; Vision; Whitmer
ID = [2848]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 72249  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Adams, William James, Jr. “Nephi’s Jerusalem and Laban’s Sword.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

A three-foot sword excavated at Vered Jericho, likely dating to 620 BC, lends credence to the description of the sword of Laban in the Book of Mormon.

ID = [2849]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 3931  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “Sariah in the Elephantine Papyri.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The Book of Mormon name Sariah does not appear as a female name in the Bible but has now been identified in a reconstructed form in an Aramaic papyrus. A Jewish woman living at Elephantine in Upper Egypt during the fifth century BC was identified as Sariah daughter of Hoshea.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Elephantine; Ostracon; Sariah
ID = [2850]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 11200  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Ricks, Stephen D. “Translation of the Book of Mormon: Interpreting the Evidence.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

The process used by Joseph Smith to translate the Book of Mormon from the plates involved both human effort and divine assistance through the seerstone and interpreters.

ID = [2851]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 14174  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sorenson, John L. “Comments on Nephite Chronology.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).

Revisions of Nephite chronology in the Book of Mormon occur as scholarship on various issues improves.

ID = [2852]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 12551  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2 no. 2 (1993).
ID = [2853]  Type = journal article  Date = 1993-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 2284  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 3, No. 1 (1994)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Introduction to the current issue.

ID = [2854]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 2028  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Thomasson, Gordon C. “What’s in a Name? Book of Mormon Language, Names, and [Metonymic] Naming.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 1 (1994): 1-27.

Anthropological perspectives lend insight on names and on the social and literary function of names in principle and in the Book of Mormon. A discussion of the general function of names in kinship; secret names; and names, ritual, and rites of passage precedes a Latter-day Saint perspective. Names and metonymy are used symbolically. Examples include biblical and Book of Mormon metonymic naming, nomenclature, and taxonomy. Biblical laws of purity form the foundation for a pattern of metonymic associations with the name Lamanite, where the dichotomy of clean/unclean is used to give name to social alienation and pollution.

Keywords: Anthropology; Lamanite; Language; Literature; Metonymic; Name
ID = [2855]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 59217  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Skousen, Royal. “The Original Language of the Book of Mormon: Upstate New York Dialect, King James English, or Hebrew?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 1 (1994): 28-38.

The original text of the Book of Mormon contains complex, Hebrew-like constructions that have been subsequently removed from the text because of their non-English character.

Keywords: Early Church History; Language; Language - Hebrew; Original Text; Structure; Translation
ID = [2856]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 18658  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 3 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2729]  Type = book  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 15  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Rust, Richard Dilworth. “Recurrence in Book of Mormon Narratives.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 1 (1994): 39-52.

Repetition appears purposefully within Book of Mormon narratives as a principle of reinforcement and confirmation. It seems that every important action, event, or character is repeated in the Book of Mormon. These repetitions emphasize the law of witnesses at work within the book (e.g., “in the mouth of three witnesses shall these things be established”; Ether 5:4). Further, they underscore the relevance of one character or action to people living in a different time, and they link narratives together with what Robert Alter calls “type-scenes.” Analyzed in detail as particularly striking are threefold repetitions in Nephi’s task to retrieve the brass plates and repetition of the word “power” in the missionary endeavor of the sons of Mosiah. Larger repeated narratives treat escape and travel to a promised land; repentance; and the nature, rise, and effect of secret combinations.

Keywords: Brass Plates; Missionary Work; Narrative; Nephi; Promised Land; Repentance; Repetition; Secret Combinations; Witnesses
ID = [2857]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 33256  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Wardle, Lynn D. “Dissent: Perspectives from the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Most scriptural references to dissent are in the Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon teaches that dissension is a cause of evil, suffering, and destruction; some dissenters undergo a hardening, while others may be reclaimed; preaching the gospel is the best way to reclaim dissenters; after patient endurance, compulsion may be necessary to stop dissenters from causing severe harm to the innocent, but compulsion should be avoided when possible; both spiritual and civic responses may be used to quell dissent; responding to dissent is not the task of leaders only; dissent is inevitable in our society and the church; and the Lord blesses the faithful who endure the trials and temptations of dissent.

ID = [2858]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 45790  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Christensen, Kevin. “A Response to David Wright on Historical Criticism.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 1 (1994): 74-93.

In an article criticizing the historicity of the Book of Mormon, David Wright described critical scholarship and traditionalist modes as contrasting paradigms used to approach the scriptures. This article explores the nature of paradigm debate in general, in that context points out weaknesses in Wright’s critical approach, and discerns crucial flaws in his definition of believing paradigms.

Keywords: Paradigm; Scripture; Scripture Study
ID = [2859]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 42279  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Honey, David B. “The Secular as Sacred: The Historiography of the Title Page.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 1 (1994): 94-103.

The title page of the Book of Mormon acts as a historiographical introduction to the editorial guidelines followed by Mormon in his work of compilation and redaction. These guidelines defined what was important for Mormon to incorporate in his historical record and included the themes of genealogy, covenants, and the teaching and testifying of Christ.

Keywords: Covenant; Genealogy; Historiography; Jesus Christ; Mormon; Testimony
ID = [2860]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 22681  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Thompson, John S. “The Jaredite Exodus: A Literary Perspective of a Historical Narrative.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 1 (1994): 104-112.

The application of some techniques of literary analysis to the Jaredite exodus narrative in Ether 1–3 and 6 reveals that it is more than just a historical account. The author or editor of the narrative uses imagery and dialogue to help the reader look beyond the historical facts and see elements of the creation, Christ, and temples, among other things.

Keywords: Creation; Jaredite; Jaredite Exodus; Jesus Christ; Literature; Narrative; Temple
ID = [2861]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 20383  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Barney, Kevin L. “Enallage in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 1 (1994): 113-147.

Thomas W. Brookbank long ago suggested that enallage, meaning the substitution of the singular for the plural or vice versa for rhetorical effect, is present in the Book of Mormon. Enallage does appear to exist as a prominent, meaningful rhetorical figure in the Bible, but its presence in the Book of Mormon is more difficult to demonstrate given the pronominal variation found in the Book of Mormon, a factor that Brookbank did not account for in his study. Nevertheless, a careful reading of contextual and verbal clues reveals that enallage does indeed appear to exist in some passages in the Book of Mormon. An awareness of this usage is important for a full understanding of such passages.

Keywords: Context; Enallage; Language; Language - Hebrew; Rhetoric; Substitution
ID = [2862]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 49622  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Volluz, Corbin T. “Cry Redemption: The Plan of Redemption as Taught in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 1 (1994): 148-169.

According to the Book of Mormon, men must obey the commandments of God in order to gain eternal life. And yet men are incapable of yielding full obedience to God because of the carnal nature they inherit from the fallen Adam and Eve. To overcome this carnal nature, God has provided a way, through the atonement of his Son, whereby men may be redeemed from the carnal state to a spiritual state. If men are to be redeemed, they must call upon the Lord in the spirit of true humility, faith, and repentance. If they do so, God will redeem them by the power of the Holy Ghost. A covenant of obedience is frequently associated with the redemption process.

Keywords: Atonement; Commandments; Covenant; Faith; Fall of Adam; Humility; Jesus Christ; Obedience; Plan of Redemption; Plan of Salvation; Redemption; Repentance
ID = [2863]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 46555  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Tvedtnes, John A. “Historical Parallels to the Destruction at the Time of the Crucifixion.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 1 (1994): 170-186.

To the nonbeliever, the wide variety of destructive forces unleashed in the New World at the time of Christ’s crucifixion seems preposterous or, at the very least, unscientific. The account in 3 Nephi 8–9 mentions the simultaneous occurrence of earthquake, fire, strong winds, extensive flooding, the complete burial of cities, and thick darkness. An examination of known great natural disasters in historical times reveals that the Book of Mormon in no way exaggerates. All of the destructive forces mentioned in 3 Nephi 8–9 can be readily explained in terms of the tectonic forces that result from the encounter of the plates on which the continents and the oceans lie. The complex variety of destructive forces that we normally consider to be separate phenomena of nature is, in reality, strong evidence for the historicity of the Book of Mormon account.

Keywords: Crucifixion; Destruction; Earthquake; Historicity; Natural Disaster; Parallels
ID = [2864]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 38621  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Boehm, Bruce J. “Wanderers in the Promised Land: A Study of the Exodus Motif in the Book of Mormon and Holy Bible.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Lehi’s exodus to the promised land is only the first of a series of exoduses occurring throughout the Book of Mormon. Indeed, Lehi’s exodus becomes mere precedent for later flights into the wilderness by Nephi, Mosiah, Alma1, Limhi, and the Anti-Nephi-Lehies. For the Nephites, continuing exodus is not merely historical fact. Understanding the biblical exodus as a type and shadow, the Nephites come to see their wandering as a metaphor of their spiritual condition. Thus, even centuries after Lehi’s arrival in the promised land, Nephite prophets recognize their status as “wanderers in a strange land” (Alma 13:23). As did Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the Nephites also looked beyond their temporal land of promise “for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God” (Hebrews 11:10).

ID = [2865]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 38547  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Adams, William James, Jr. “Lehi’s Jerusalem and Writing on Metal Plates.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

The discovery in Jerusalem of two inscribed silver strips, dating from the seventh century BC, support the Book of Mormon claim of writing on metal plates.

ID = [2866]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 4935  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Tvedtnes, John A. “‘My First-Born in the Wilderness’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).

Lehi may have viewed Jacob (“my first-born in the wilderness”) and Joseph as replacement sons for the disobedient Laman and Lemuel. Scriptural parallels include Manasseh and Ephraim as replacements for Reuben and Simeon, and Seth for Abel.

ID = [2867]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 5161  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 1 (1994).
ID = [2868]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 1587  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 3, No. 2 (1994)

Bunker, Robert L. “The Design of the Liahona and the Purpose of the Second Spindle.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 2 (1994): 1-11.

The Liahona was given by the Lord as a communicationsdevice for Lehi to determine the appropriate direction of travel. This device contained two pointers, only one of which was necessary to provide directional information. But the Liahona was more than just a simple compass in function, for it additionally required faith for correct operation. Since a single pointer always "points" in some direction, the additional pointer was necessary to indicate whether or not the first pointer could be relied upon. This proposed purpose for the second pointer conforms to a well-established engineering principle used in modern fault-tolerant computer systems called "voting," in which two identical process states are compared and declared correct if they are the same, and incorrect if they are different. Hence the second pointer, when coincident with the first, would indicate proper operation, and when orthogonal, would indicate nonoperation.

Keywords: Compass; Faith; Lehi (Prophet); Liahona; Nephi (Son of Lehi); Revelation; Symbolism
ID = [2869]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,d-c,farms-jbms  Size: 23819  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Draper, Richard D. “Hubris and Atē: A Latter-day Warning from the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Civilizations fall due to complex pressures, but the Book of Mormon points to one sin which assisted if not drove the demise of both the Nephite and Jaredite peoples. This sin was pride. This essay ties pride to the Old World concepts of hubris and at? as a means of revealing the dynamic nature of this sin and exploring its deadly character. It shows that pride leads to hubris, the attempt by individuals and nations to become a law unto themselves, and that the consequence of hubris is at?, a spiritual blindness that impels the individual or society toward its doom. The paper warns the Latter-day Saint about this vice.

ID = [2870]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 49875  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Tvedtnes, John A. “The Influence of Lehi’s Admonitions on the Teachings of His Son Jacob.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 2 (1994): 34-48.

Lehi, though unable to convince his older sons to follow the Lord, was very successful with both Nephi and Jacob. The speeches and writings of Jacob clearly show that he remembered the admonitions given to him by his dying father and that he shared Lehi’s teachings—including some of his verbiage—with other members of the family. Jacob’s life and his teachings found in the Book of Mormon stand as a memorial to his father’s faith and parental love.

Keywords: Faith; Lehi (Prophet); Nephi (Son of Lehi); Parable; Sermons; Speeches; Zenos (Prophet)
ID = [2871]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 30608  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Pritchett, Bruce M., Jr. “Lehi’s Theology of the Fall in Its Preexilic/Exilic Context.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Some authors have claimed that Lehi’s teachings on the fall of Adam are so similar to teachings prevalent in nineteenth-century America that they must be the source for 2 Nephi 2. However, this paper demonstrates that the bulk of well-recognized scholarly authority attributes teachings very similar to those in 2 Nephi 2 to preexilic and exilic biblical writers such as Hosea and Ezekiel. Thus, Lehi’s teachings are more consistent with a preexilic/exilic Israelite context than with a nineteenth-century American context.

ID = [2872]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 69645  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 3 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2730]  Type = book  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 10  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Johnson, D. Lynn. “The Missing Scripture.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 2 (1994): 84-93.

During his visit to the Nephites, the Savior instructed Nephi to add to their records a missing scripture concerning the resurrection of many of the dead immediately following his own resurrection, as well as their appearance to many people. Good evidence suggests that it was Samuel the Lamanite’s prophecy of this resurrection that was missing. Aspects of the manner of recording, abridgment, and translation of the text of the Book of Mormon are elucidated through this missing scripture as it appears in the English text.

Keywords: Abridgment; Missing Scripture; Record; Resurrection; Samuel the Lamanite; Scripture; Translation
ID = [2873]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 17556  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Miner, Alan C. “A Chronological Setting for the Epistles of Mormon to Moroni.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3, no. 2 (1994): 94-113.

Although chapters 8 and 9 of the book of Moroni (Mormon’s epistles to Moroni) were placed with Mormon and Moroni’s abridgment by Moroni sometime between the years ad 401 and 421, these chapters were not written at that time. The insertion into the text of these epistles was done for doctrinal reasons; however, mixed in with the doctrinal message are certain facts and phrases that deal with their historical-chronological setting. By analyzing the specific chronological clues contained within Mormon’s epistles and comparing them with his abridged record of the final years of the Nephite nation, we can create a set of chronological time frames which then can be compared to construct a reasonable historical setting of ad 375 to 376.

Keywords: Chronology; Epistle; Mormon (Prophet); Moroni (Son of Mormon)
ID = [2874]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 39718  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Tvedtnes, John A. “Faith and Truth.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Alma’s definition of faith as “hope for things which are not seen, which are true” (Alma 32:21) serves as a pattern for the juxtaposition of faith and truth throughout the scriptures. Faith in the atoning power of Jesus is the truth that will save us.

ID = [2875]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 7837  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Fowles, John L. “The Jewish Lectionary and Book of Mormon Prophecy.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

The reading schedule of the Law and the Prophets in the Jewish synagogue at the time of the Feast of Dedication relates Old Testament prophesies in Ezekiel 37 to the coming forth of the Book of Mormon.

ID = [2876]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 12404  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Johnson, Mark J. “The Exodus of Lehi Revisited.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).

Two additional parallels to the exodus pattern include death and burial in the desert and the transfiguration of Nephi and Moses.

Keywords: Exodus Motif; Lehi (Prophet)
ID = [2877]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 7410  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3 no. 2 (1994).
ID = [2878]  Type = journal article  Date = 1994-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 1665  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 4, No. 1 (1995)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Introduction to this special issue of Sidney B. Sperry’s Book of Mormon writings.

ID = [2879]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 8044  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Sidney B. Sperry.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Brief biography of Sidney B. Sperry.

ID = [2892]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 3871  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Anonymous. “Sidney B. Sperry: The Man, Scholar, and Teacher.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

ID = [2893]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 8692  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Anderson, Carma deJong. “Sidney B. Sperry: Memories.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

ID = [2894]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 5126  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Anderson, Richard Lloyd. “Sidney B. Sperry: Steadfast Scholar.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

ID = [2895]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 6262  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 4 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2731]  Type = book  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 32  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Rasmussen, Ellis T. “Sidney B. Sperry, As I Remember and Appreciate Him.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Personal reminiscences about Sidney B. Sperry.

ID = [2896]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 4964  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “What the Book of Mormon Is.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The records of the Nephite, Jaredite, and Mulekite peoples comprise the Book of Mormon, of which Mormon is the principal editor. Four divisions are evident—namely, the small plates of Nephi, Mormon’s explanatory notes, the literary labors of Mormon, and the literary labors of Moroni. The first division, the small plates of Nephi, is analyzed in this chapter.

ID = [2897]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 24301  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “What the Book of Mormon Is (Continued).” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 18-27.

An analysis of the Words of Mormon to Helaman, including Mormon’s abridgment between the small and large plates of Nephi. The teachings of Benjamin, Mosiah, Abinadi, Alma, and his son, Alma the Younger. Helaman’s and Shiblon’s writings in the book of Alma are set forth. Alma the Younger is to the Book of Mormon as Paul is to the New Testament. The book of Helaman covers fifty years of Nephite history.

Keywords: Abinadi (Prophet); Abridgment; Alma the Elder; Alma the Younger; Helaman (Son of Alma the Younger); King Benjamin; King Mosiah; Shiblon (Son of Alma the Younger)
ID = [2898]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 11747  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “What the Book of Mormon Is (Concluded).” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 28-40.

An analysis of the text of 3 Nephi to Moroni. Third Nephi was written by Nephi, the son of Nephi, the son of Helaman. Fourth Nephi in turn was written by the son of Nephi3, also called Nephi, and Nephi’s son Amos and grandsons Amos and his brother Ammaron. The book of Mormon was principally inscribed by Mormon and Moroni. The book of Ether exposes the terrible end of a people persisting in wickedness. The book of Moroni shows his love for his enemies.

Keywords: 3 Nephi; 4 Nephi; Abridgment; Ammaron; Amos (Son of Amos); Amos (Son of Nephi); Ether; History; Mormon; Moroni; Nephite
ID = [2899]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 25705  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon as Literature.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 41-47.

What constitutes great literature? What is it about the literature of the Book of Mormon that has such a profound effect upon its readers? Although perhaps not beautifully written, the Book of Mormon’s message or theme justifies its classification as great literature and accounts for its profound effect on the lives of millions.

Keywords: Book of Mormon; Impact; Literature; Narrative
ID = [2900]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 13908  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “Types of Literature in the Book of Mormon: ‘The American Gospel’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 48-68.

The American Gospel, found in 3 Nephi, differs from the Gospels of the New Testament in that Jesus is teaching as a resurrected, glorified, and exalted person. It includes details of the cataclysmic events at the time of the crucifixion and of the multiple appearances of the Savior to the Nephites. Jesus delivers sermons to the Nephites in general and also to the Nephite twelve. He heals the sick and institutes the sacrament. The depiction of prayer is perhaps the most powerful in all scripture. The Savior quotes the prophecies of Isaiah and Micah with regard to the New Jerusalem and the Gentiles. He emphasizes the importance of record keeping for the church, which should be called in his name.

Keywords: 3 Nephi; Bountiful (Polity); Gospel; Isaiah; Jesus Christ; Micah; Ministry; Nephite; Prayer; Prophecy; Record Keeping; Scripture; Sermon; Temple
ID = [2901]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 41590  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “Types of Literature in the Book of Mormon: Epistles, Psalms, Lamentations.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 69-80.

The Book of Mormon contains nine epistles—two pastoral, one prophetic, and six dealing with war. The “Psalm of Nephi” is the only psalm in the Book of Mormon, called such because it is a song of praise, betraying deep religious feeling. A good example of lamentation literature occurs in Mormon 6.

Keywords: Epistle; Lamentations; Literature; Pastoral Epistle; Praise; Prophet; Prophetic Epistle; Psalm of Nephi; Psalms
ID = [2902]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 22497  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sperry, Sidney B. “Types of Literature in the Book of Mormon: Historical Narrative, Memoir, Prophetic Discourse, Oratory.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 81-94.

Historical narrative in the Book of Mormon is written by laymen and is the truth as they see it. Of emphasis is the doctrine that blessings follow those who keep the commandments; they will prosper in the land. More than autobiography, the words of the writers could be described as memoirs. Benjamin delivered a wonderful oration that deserves detailed study and can be divided into three parts.

Keywords: Commandment; Doctrine; History; King Benjamin; Memoir; Narrative; Obedience; Oratory; Prophet; Prophetic Discourse; Sermon
ID = [2903]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 28272  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sperry, Sidney B. “Types of Literature in the Book of Mormon: Patriarchal Blessings, Symbolic Prophecy, Prophetic Narrative, Prophetic Dialogue.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 95-105.

The patriarchal blessings that Lehi bestows upon his children and grandchildren are filled with important doctrinal and historical details and contain many prophetic elements. Lehi and Nephi share the vision of the tree of life, a fine example of symbolic prophecy. Perhaps the finest example of prophetic literature in the Book of Mormon deals with the coming of Christ. The prophetic dialogue in the Book of Mormon can be divided into five parts.

Keywords: Jacob (Son of Lehi); Jesus Christ; Joseph (Son of Lehi); Laman (Son of Lehi); Lehi (Prophet); Lemuel (Son of Lehi); Literature; Narrative; Nephi (Son of Lehi); Patriarchal Blessing; Prophecies of; Prophecy; Prophetic Dialogue; Sam (Son of Lehi); Symbolism; Zoram (Servant of Laban)
ID = [2904]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 21171  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sperry, Sidney B. “Types of Literature in the Book of Mormon: Allegories, Prayers, Songs, Genealogies.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 106-118.

The most significant allegory in the Book of Mormon is the allegory of the tame and wild olive tree, which appears in Jacob 5. Six different types of prayers are found in the Book of Mormon. Perhaps the best example of a true song is “The Song of the Vineyard,” actually a quotation from Isaiah. There is only one example of an extended genealogy, that of Ether, the last Jaredite prophet.

Keywords: Allegory; Allegory of the Olive Tree; Genealogy; Horticulture; Jaredite; King List; Literature; Music; Prayer; Song; Song of the Vineyard
ID = [2905]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 22183  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon and the Problem of the Pentateuch.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 119-128.

Many critics deny that the first five books of the Old Testament were written by Moses and consider them to be childish myths. However, when Nephi and Lehi examined the brass plates, they found them to contain “the five books of Moses.” And in the Book of Mormon, the Savior himself confirms their authorship. The book of Ether also offers confirmation of the Tower of Babel story.

Keywords: Authorship; Brass Plates; Five Books of Moses; Lehi (Prophet); Nephi; Pentateuch; Tower of Babel
ID = [2906]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 21650  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sperry, Sidney B. “The ‘Isaiah Problem’ in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 129-152.

Doubts as to the literary unity of the book of Isaiah are fairly recent. The late nineteenth century saw a division of Isaiah into three parts by critics, who categorized only 262 of the 1292 verses as the genuine product of Isaiah. These critics deny the prediction element of prophecy and highlight different literary forms and theological ideas. The Book of Mormon attributes two of these three sections to Isaiah by quotation; ancient scriptures as well give no hint of a division. Christ and the apostles themselves attribute the book to Isaiah. Internal evidences of the unity of the book include imagery, repetition, expressions peculiar to Isaiah, and song. Changes in style can be attributed to mood. The differences between the Book of Mormon and the King James Version support the authenticity and literary unity of Isaiah.

Keywords: Higher Criticism; Isaiah (Book); Isaian Authorship; Prophecy; Prophet
ID = [2907]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 52331  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon and the Problem of the Sermon on the Mount.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 153-165.

The Sermon on the Mount in 3 Nephi parallels the accounts in Matthew and Luke, although it is closer to Matthew. The sermon was addressed partly to a general audience and partly to the twelve disciples exclusively, although the crowd heard it. In many cases the account in 3 Nephi clarifies the New Testament accounts; in particular, the Joseph Smith Translation and Book of Mormon explain the Lord’s Prayer.

Keywords: 3 Nephi; Jesus Christ; Joseph Smith Translation; Lord’s Prayer; New Testament; Sermon on the Mount
ID = [2908]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 25184  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sperry, Sidney B. “Literary Problems in the Book of Mormon involving 1 Corinthians 12, 13, and Other New Testament Books.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 166-174.

The literary problem caused by the parallels between Moroni 7–10 and 1 Corinthians 12–13 can be explained if one realizes that Moroni had access to the same teachings of Christ as Paul, and that both received revelation, so that the Lord himself might be the author of both dissertations. Different prophets might have had similar inspiration in dealing with the same topics.

Keywords: Charity; Faith; Gifts of the Spirit; Hope; Literature; Mormon (Prophet); Moroni (Son of Mormon)
ID = [2909]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 18200  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon and Textual Criticism.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 175-184.

The text of the Book of Mormon contributes to the understanding of the Pentateuch and to a confirmation that Moses was indeed its author. The Book of Mormon also helps confirm that Isaiah was the author of the book of Isaiah. The Isaiah chapters quoted in the Book of Mormon are a better translation than the King James Version, as they are undoubtedly from an older version. The Book of Mormon quotes Micah and Malachi with clarification and augments selected New Testament scriptures.

Keywords: Authorship; Isaiah; Malachi (Book); Micah (Book); Moses (Prophet); Pentateuch; Textual Criticism
ID = [2880]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 21744  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “Some Problems of Interest Relating to the Brass Plates.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 185-191.

Most contemporary Old Testament scholars question whether Moses wrote the Pentateuch, but the Book of Mormon affirms Moses’ authorship. Questions arise as to how Jeremiah’s prophecies appeared on the brass plates and what the nature of the Book of the Law was. According to the brass plates, Laban and Lehi were descendants of Manasseh. How then did they come to be living in Jerusalem? The brass plates, on which may be found lost scripture, may have been the official scripture of the ten tribes.

Keywords: Brass Plates; Deuteronomy (Book); Jeremiah (Prophet); Laban (Custodian of Brass Plates); Pentateuch; Recordkeepers; Recordkeeping; Jerusalem; Lehi (Prophet); Lost Tribes; Manasseh (Tribe)
ID = [2881]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 15615  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “The Isaiah Quotation: 2 Nephi 12-24.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Nephi quotes from the book of Isaiah because of its relevance to his people and to all men. He highlights the message of Christ’s appearance and atonement. The latter-day prophecies, both those which have been fulfilled and those that are yet to be fulfilled, are cited and explained. Israel will be restored in the latter days, but warnings accompany this glorious prophecy. The enemies of Zion will be confounded.

ID = [2882]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 32131  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon as Translation English.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 209-217.

The Book of Mormon is a translation, containing details of the original language in which it is written. Very few of the writers would have had a working knowledge of Egyptian; the writing would more likely be a Hebraized Egyptian. The Book of Mormon contains many passages from Isaiah, more correctly translated than in the King James Version. Various examples of the Hebrew construct state are evident in Joseph Smith’s translation, together with direct translations of Hebrew idioms.

Keywords: Authenticity; Book of Mormon Authorship; Book of Mormon Translation; Intertextuality; Isaiah; Language; Reformed Egyptian; Translation
ID = [2883]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 19369  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “Hebrew Idioms in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 218-225.

Literal translations of Hebrew idioms are prevalent in the Book of Mormon, as are literal renditions of compound Hebrew prepositions. Parallels can be found in the Old and New Testaments, especially in the Hebrew translation of the Old Testament.

Keywords: Figurative Language; Hebraisms; Idiom; Language; Language - Hebrew; Linguistic Analysis; Translation
ID = [2884]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 13381  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “Some Universals in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 226-234.

A universal element is a succinct concept with comprehensive spiritual appeal to humanity; the Book of Mormon is itself a universal element. Among universals found in the Book of Mormon are concepts (1) that truth is given of God to all peoples; (2) of faith, in which good and evil are clearly defined in terms of opposition; (3) of the purpose of man’s existence in mortality; and (4) of the importance of service given to men and God.

Keywords: Book of Mormon; Doctrine; Equality; Joy; Service; Universalism; Faith; Mortality; Opposition; Service; Truth; Universal Element
ID = [2885]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 18553  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “Did Father Lehi Have Daughters Who Married the Sons of Ishmael?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 235-238.

Although the beginning of Nephi’s record only mentions sons, Joseph Smith says the record of Lehi in the 116 missing manuscript pages refers to at least two of Ishmael’s sons marrying Lehi’s daughters. Nephi himself mentions his sisters at the end of his record. As no mention is made of further births to Lehi and Sariah after Jacob and Joseph, the assumption can be made that these sisters are the daughters who married Ishmael’s sons.

Keywords: Daughters of Ishmael; Daughters of Lehi; Ishmael (Ephraimite); Lehi (Prophet); Snow. Erastus; Sons of Ishmael; Lost 116 Pages; Marriage
ID = [2886]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 7937  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “The Book of Mormon’s Message on Brotherhood.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

The Book of Mormon exhibits the intimate relationship between God and his people. The brother of Jared’s experience is a fine example. The driving force of the prophets was moral and religious, rather than economic and political. Social injustice was condemned by Nephi, Jacob, Alma, and Captain Moroni. Although little is said about the status of the family, respect for women and family affection are standard. Workers were well treated and friendship was promoted between Nephites and Lamanites. The Book of Mormon displays a high caliber of personal religion and brotherhood.

ID = [2887]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 13583  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “The Lamanites Portrayed in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 246-254.

The Lamanites in the Book of Mormon are descendants of the Nephite, Mulekite, and Lamanite peoples. They were a scourge to the Nephites to keep them faithful to the Lord. They survived because they observed the Lord’s commandments regarding marriage. When the elder Mosiah and his followers left, the remaining body of Nephites were probably either destroyed or became Lamanites. Once the Lamanites understood the Lord’s word, they were very faithful and renounced their previous living style. Out of this milieu came Samuel, the Lamanite prophet.

Keywords: Lamanites; Missionary Work; Native Americans; Scourge; White and Delightsome; Conversion; Culture; Lamanite; Missionary Work; Obedience; Prophet; Samuel the Lamanite
ID = [2888]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 16554  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “Moroni the Lonely: The Story of the Writing of the Title Page to the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 255-259.

Moroni wandered alone for sixteen years before adding to the abridged record of his father. When he did make his additions, he also wrote the title page of the Book of Mormon, but in two stages, each stage necessitating a return to the Hill Cumorah. The second paragraph clearly follows his decision to abridge the book of Ether.

Keywords: Authorship; Cumorah; Ether; Hill Cumorah; Moroni; Title Page
ID = [2889]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 10708  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “Were There Two Cumorahs?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

No one doubts that the hill where Joseph Smith received the plates is known as Cumorah, but is the hill where the final battles between the Nephites and Lamanites took place another Cumorah? The book of Ether tells us that Omer traveled to this place of the last battles of the Nephites, and that the relatively short duration of this journey would not account for the three thousand miles from Middle America to New York. A similar journey was undertaken by Limhi’s men, of equally short duration. The description of the geographical features around the final battle site is also at odds with the topography of present-day Cumorah.

ID = [2890]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 20667  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sperry, Sidney B. “Moroni Expounds Old Testament Scriptures.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 1 (1995): 269-285.

The prophecies given by Moroni to Joseph Smith come from Malachi, Isaiah, and Joel. The Malachi prophecies deal with the rise and restoration of the church, preparation for the millennium, and the significance of the sons of Levi. The Isaiah prophecies, explained in the Doctrine and Covenants, give a direct explanation of the millennium and Joseph’s own role in the preparation for it. The Joel prophecies have to do with the events just prior to the “great and terrible day of the Lord.”

Keywords: Isaiah (Prophet); Joel (Prophet); Malachi (Prophet); Millennium; Moroni (Son of Mormon); Old Testament; Prophecy; Prophet; Restoration; Second Coming; Sons of Levi
ID = [2891]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,d-c,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 37727  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Bibliography of the Writings of Sidney B. Sperry.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 1 (1995).

Bibliography of Sidney B. Sperry’s writings.

ID = [2910]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 14820  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 4, No. 2 (1995)

Welch, John W. “Criteria for Identifying and Evaluating the Presence of Chiasmus.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 2 (1995): 1-14.

This article defines fifteen criteria one can use to measure the strength or weakness of a proposed chiastic pattern in a given text. The need for rigor in such studies depends primarily on how the results of the proposed structural analyses will be used. Ultimately, analysts may not know with certainty whether an author created inverted parallel structures intentionally or not; but by examining a text from various angles, one may assess the likelihood that an author consciously employed chiasmus to achieve specific literary purposes.

Keywords: Chiasmus; Chiastic; Parallelism; Structure
ID = [2911]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,welch  Size: 31987  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Barney, Kevin L. “Poetic Diction and Parallel Word Pairs in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 2 (1995): 15-81.

Hebrew poetry is based on various patterns of parallelism. Parallel lines are in turn created by the use of parallel words, that is, pairs of words bearing generally synonymous or antithetic meanings. Since the 1930s, scholars have come to realize that many of these “word pairs” were used repeatedly in a formulaic fashion as the basic building blocks of different parallel lines. The Book of Mormon reflects numerous parallel structures, including synonymous parallelism, antithetic parallelism, and chiasmus. As word pairs are a function of parallelism, the presence of such parallel structures in the Book of Mormon suggests the possible presence of word pairs within those structures. This article catalogs the use of forty word pairs that occur in parallel collocations both in the Book of Mormon and in Hebrew poetry.

Keywords: Antithetic Parallelism; Chiasmus; Diction; Language - Hebrew; Parallel; Parallelism; Poetic; Poetry; Synonymous Parallelism; Word Pairs
ID = [2912]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 106500  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hamblin, William J. “The Latest Straw Man.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 2 (1995): 82-92.

The failure of those who reject the historicity of the Book of Mormon to respond cogently to the increasing body of evidence and argument supporting historicity is becoming painfully apparent. Stephen E. Thompson’s recent review of Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6/1 (1994) is one of the most recent examples of this "straw man" approach.

Keywords: 19th Century Literature; Apologetics; Argument; Evidence; Historicity; Straw Man
ID = [2913]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 25405  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Snow, Edgar C., Jr. “Narrative Criticism and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

This paper suggests the use of narrative criticism, a recent literary interpretive tool, as a favorable method of Book of Mormon interpretation. As an example of narrative interpretation, the narrative by Samuel the Lamanite in Helaman 13–16 is analyzed as a discrete narrative portion of the Book of Mormon for the exploration of the possibilities of a narrative critical approach to its text. Instead of focusing on the content of Samuel’s exhortations, lamentations, and prophecies in order to understand these passages, I interpret the surrounding narrative and find it serves as an impressive complement to the doctrinal content of Samuel’s discourse.

ID = [2914]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 35353  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sturgess, Gary L. “The Book of Mosiah: Thoughts about Its Structure, Purposes, Themes, and Authorship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 2 (1995): 107-135.

The book of Mosiah is a cultic history of the reign of Mosiah2, structured around three royal ceremonies in 124, 121, and 92–91 BC. On each of these occasions, newly discovered scriptures were read to the people, stressing the dangers of monarchical government and celebrating the deliverance of the people and the revelation of Jesus Christ. This book existed independently hundreds of years before Mormon engraved it onto the gold plates. The most likely occasion for the writing of such a book was in the aftermath of Mosiah’s death when Alma the Younger needed to undermine the Amlicite bid to reestablish the monarchy.

Keywords: Alma the Younger; Amlici; Authorship; Ceremony; Government; History; Monarchy; Mosiah (Book); Purpose; Structure; Theme
ID = [2915]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 67527  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Adams, William James, Jr. “More on the Silver Plates from Lehi’s Jerusalem.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

Michael D. Coogan identifies the silver plates found in a Jerusalem burial site as one of the ten most significant finds for biblical archaeology because “they are our earliest witness to the text of the Bible.”

ID = [2916]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 3110  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 4 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2732]  Type = book  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 11  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Hunt, Wallace E., Jr. “The Marketplace.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The small detail of the “chief market” mentioned in the story of Nephi’s prayer on his tower (Helaman 7:10) corresponds well to what is known of marketplaces in ancient Mesoamerica.

ID = [2917]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 8951  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Roper, Matthew P. “Noah Webster and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, no. 2 (1995): 142-146.

Book of Mormon descriptions of defensive fortifications are not attributable to specific nineteenth-century sources but rather to the English vocabulary of the day.

Keywords: Apologetics; Book of Mormon Translation; Fortifications; Warfare
ID = [2918]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 9495  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “Cities and Lands in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The practice of naming lands by a chief city of the land correlates well with authentic Old World practices.

Keywords: Book of Mormon Geography; City; Land
ID = [2919]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 9450  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Ziebarth, Christian M. “Examining a Nephite/Latter-day Apostolic Parallel.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).

The events of 3 Nephi and 4 Nephi may foreshadow the events of the final days as witnesses of Christ are killed, are raised from the dead, and continue to instill fear in the hearts of the wicked.

ID = [2920]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 7646  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4 no. 2 (1995).
ID = [2921]  Type = journal article  Date = 1995-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 1768  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 5, No. 1 (1996)

Stubbs, Brian D. “Looking Over vs. Overlooking: Native American Languages: Let’s Void the Void.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

The time-depth of the Romance language family (ca. 2,000 years) yields an abundance of similarities among languages descended from Latin: Spanish, French, Italian, and so forth. The time-depth of Lehi is not much greater (2,600 years), yet no similar abundance of accepted linguistic evidence for Lehi’s presence in the Americas has emerged. Is this because of a lack of evidence or a lack of looking? We cannot know until we look. The relative absence of effort in Native American languages relevant to Book of Mormon research is a huge void in Latter-day Saint scholarly endeavor. This paper discusses the value of and need to void this existing void, and presents from one Native American language family an example of the possibilities.

ID = [2922]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 88129  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Goff, Alan. “Historical Narrative, Literary Narrative—Expelling Poetics from the Republic of History.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Positivist historiography has always maintained an impermeable boundary between history and literature. But positivism is itself a historical sediment whose time is now past. Recent literary theory and historiography emphasize the continuities between history and literature. Under the domination of historiography by a positivist epistemology (from about 1880 to 1960), history attempted to free itself from its literary heritage. More recently theorists from a number of disciplines have recognized that history, both ancient and modern, has been informed by literary motifs, themes, and strategies. The repetition of the exodus literary pattern, for example, through the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and Christian history does nothing to bring into question the historical status of the events. The exodus patterns evident in Mosiah do not force the Book of Mormon to surrender historical claims just because they also happen to be literary.

ID = [2923]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 110541  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Duke, James T. “The Literary Structure and Doctrinal Significance of Alma 13:1-9.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Alma’s sermon at Ammonihah includes a remarkable passage (Alma 13:1–9) that contains a main chiasm as well as four shorter chiasms and four alternates. It also uses synonymia, cycloides, repetition, and an important Nephite idiom (rest). In addition, this passage explains the doctrine of the priesthood and the eternal nature of Christ in conjunction with the priesthood, and introduces the doctrines of a preparatory redemption and the rest of God.

ID = [2924]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 28668  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Welch, John W. “From Presence to Practice: Jesus, the Sacrament Prayers, the Priesthood, and Church Discipline in 3 Nephi 18 and Moroni 2-6.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

This paper explores several relationships between the texts in Moroni 2–6 and the words and deeds of Jesus in 3 Nephi 18. The opening chapters of Moroni contain the words that Jesus Christ spoke to the twelve when he ordained them to the high priesthood, the words used by the Nephites in administering the sacrament, and also a few words by Moroni about baptism, church membership, congregational worship, and ecclesiastical discipline. This study demonstrates that these instructions and procedures were rooted in the words and deeds of the resurrected Jesus in 3 Nephi 18 as he administered the sacrament, gave instructions to his disciples, and conferred upon the twelve the power to bestow the gift of the Holy Ghost. Thus, one can appreciate the extent to which Nephite ecclesiastical procedures were based directly on the Savior’s instructions and ministry. Those practices, essential to the restored gospel, came from that divine source.

ID = [2925]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,welch  Size: 48880  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Allred, Philip A. “Alma’s Use of State in the Book of Mormon: Evidence of Multiple Authorship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Alma’s distinctive use of the word state in the Book of Mormon is present in his unique concentration of state, his tendency to reword with state, and his treatment of a shared topic involving state.

ID = [2926]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 15073  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “The Iliad and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

The Iliad features some battle clothing, battle tactics, reasons for fighting, and smiting off arms of enemies similar to those in the Book of Mormon, thus strengthening the links to an Old World culture.

ID = [2927]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 6665  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Roper, Matthew P. “Eyewitness Descriptions of Mesoamerican Swords.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5, no. 1 (1996): 150-158.

Spanish chroniclers describe the use of various swords, including the macuahuitl, in Mesoamerican culture. The macuahuitl may fit the criteria for a Book of Mormon “sword.”

Keywords: Ancient America - Mesoamerica; Book of Mormon Geography - Mesoamerica; Macuahuitl; Warfare; Weaponry – Sword
ID = [2928]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 15223  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 5 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2733]  Type = book  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 10  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Tvedtnes, John A. “Knowledge of Christ to Come.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Prophetic references to Christ appear not only in the Book of Mormon but also in other ancient Christian works.

ID = [2929]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 4652  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Gee, John. “Two Notes on Egyptian Script.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).

Possible scripts for the “reformed Egyptian” referred to in the Book of Mormon include abnormal hieratic and carved hieratic.

Keywords: Egyptian; Language; Language - Hebrew; Writing
ID = [2930]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 34667  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 1 (1996).
ID = [2931]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 1869  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 5, No. 2 (1996)

Introvigne, Massimo. “The Book of Mormon Wars: A Non-Mormon Perspective.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5, no. 2 (1996): 1-25.

The Protestant Bible wars were fought between fundamentalists, who initially claimed for the Bible the same "truth" that Enlightenment claimed for science, and liberals, who denied that historical "truth" could be achieved at all. In the present Book of Mormon wars the opposite seems to be true: the liberal camp appears deeply rooted in the Enlightenment paradigm, while the orthodox (but not fundamentalist) position often uses postmodernist arguments, claiming that absolute objectivity is a "noble dream" never achieved nor obtainable in historical studies. The article reviews the present Mormon controversies by comparing them to the discussions on biblical interpretation in the Roman Catholic Church, as summarized in the semiofficial 1993 document "The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church" by the Pontifical Biblical Commission.

Keywords: Fundamentalism; Historicity; Postmodernism; Truth
ID = [2932]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 61216  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Reynolds, Noel B. “The True Points of My Doctrine.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5, no. 2 (1996): 26-56.

In a 1991 BYU Studies article, I identified and analyzed three core Book of Mormon passages in which the gospel or doctrine of Jesus Christ is defined. Each of these passages presents the gospel as a six-point formula or message about what men must do if they will be saved. In the present article I go on to examine all other Book of Mormon references to the six elements in this formula. Faith is choosing to trust in Jesus Christ in all that one does. Repentance is turning away from the life of sin by making a covenant to obey the Lord and remember him always. Baptism in water is the public witnessing to the Father of that covenant. The baptism of fire and of the Holy Ghost is a gift sent from the Father in fulfillment of his promise to all his children that if they will repent and be baptized, they will be filled with the Holy Ghost. It brings the remission of sins with its cleansing fires. The recipient of these great blessings must yet endure to the end in faith, hope, and charity in order to obtain salvation, or eternal life.

Keywords: Baptism; Covenant; Doctrine; Endure to the End; Eternal Life; Faith; Gospel; Gospel of Jesus Christ; Repentance; Salvation; Trust
ID = [2933]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 71306  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sloan, David E. “The Anthon Transcripts and the Translation of the Book of Mormon: Studying It Out in the Mind of Joseph Smith.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5, no. 2 (1996): 57-81.

Prophesying of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, Nephi foretold that an unlearned man would be asked by God to read the words of a book after a learned man had failed to do so. The unlearned man was initially unwilling, claiming, “I am not learned” (2 Nephi 27:19). One interpretation of Nephi’s account is that Joseph Smith could not translate the Book of Mormon before the meeting of Martin Harris and Charles Anthon. Early historical accounts are consistent with this interpretation. However, according to Joseph Smith—History 1:64, Harris did take a translation to Anthon. Although this translation has not been found, evidence exists of similarities between this document and documents produced during the preliminary stages of the translation of the Book of Abraham. These similarities suggest that the document taken to Anthon was a preliminary and unsuccessful attempt to translate the Book of Mormon, during which Joseph Smith studied the translation problem out in his own mind as he qualified himself to receive the revealed translation from God.

Keywords: Anthon; Anthon Transcript; Charles; Early Church History; Harris; Joseph; Jr.; Martin; Nephi (Son of Lehi); Prophecy; Prophet; Smith; Translation
ID = [2934]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = abraham,bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 63476  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Stubbs, Brian D. “A Lengthier Treatment of Length.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5, no. 2 (1996): 82-97.

Book of Mormon language frequently contains lengthy structures of rather awkward English. Some may consider these to be instances of poor grammar, weakness in writing (Ether 12:23–26), or the literary ineptness of a fraudulent author; however, I see them as potentially significant support for a translation from a Near Eastern language in an ancient American setting. Many of these examples of awkward, lengthy structures in English parallel Semitic (and Egyptian) patterns, particularly the circumstantial or hal-clause. In response to critics of my previous proposal to that effect, this article is a lengthier treatment of these lengthy structures found in the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Language; Length; Structure
ID = [2935]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 36341  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Smith, Robert F. “Book of Mormon Event Structure: The Ancient Near East.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The Book of Mormon annals open in an ancient Near Eastern context. The archaeological-historical context is carefully outlined here within a systematic chronology that is tied to fixed, absolute dates of recorded astronomical events—particularly those from cuneiform eponym calendars. The resultant matrix allows those early Book of Mormon events to be understood in a rational, familiar, and meaningful way—that is, in a biblical context. In addition, an excursus is devoted to understanding the Arabia of the Book of Mormon as the Lehite exiles must have known it. Throughout it is clear that the world depicted by the Book of Mormon dovetails remarkably well with what we know of the ancient Near East.

ID = [2936]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 107057  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “Rod and Sword as the Word of God.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The rod or staff, as well as the sword, symbolize power and the word of God.

ID = [2937]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 17448  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Ricks, Stephen D., and John A. Tvedtnes. “Jewish and Other Semitic Texts Written in Egyptian Characters.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

An Egyptian script was possibly used to write Hebrew text on the Nephite record. Documents from the correct location and time period have texts and languages in varying scripts that lend credence to this scribal phenomenon.

Keywords: Egyptian; Language; Language - Hebrew; Writing
ID = [2938]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 21608  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Haubrock, Ken. “Sam: A Just and Holy Man.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

Nephi’s older brother Sam was a holy and just man who experienced and witnessed many events in early Nephite history.

Keywords: Nephi (Son of Lehi); Sam (Son of Lehi)
ID = [2939]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 11307  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “‘His Stewardship Was Fulfilled’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The Lord preserves his prophets until they have delivered their messages; examples include Abinadi from the Book of Mormon, Jeremiah in 4 Baruch, and Jesus in the New Testament.

Keywords: Abinadi (Prophet); Martyrdom; Prophet; Stewardship
ID = [2940]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 4769  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 5 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2734]  Type = book  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 10  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5 no. 2 (1996).
ID = [2941]  Type = journal article  Date = 1996-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 2283  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 6, No. 1 (1997)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Introduction to current issue.

ID = [2942]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 2117  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Christenson, Allen J. “The Sacred Tree of the Ancient Maya.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 1 (1997): 1-23.

Sacred trees, representing the power of life to grow from the underworld realm of the dead, are a common motif in the art and literature of the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica. Such trees are similar in concept to the tree of life described in the Book of Mormon, as well as to the mythic traditions of many other contemporary world cultures. Hieroglyphic inscriptions and sixteenth-century highland Maya texts describe a great world tree that was erected at the dawn of the present age to stand as the axis point of the cosmos. In its fruit-laden form, it personified the god of creation who fathered the progenitors of the Maya royal dynasty.

Keywords: Ancient America; Maya; Mesoamerica; Sacred; Sacred Tree
ID = [2943]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 35896  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Childs, Larry G. “Present Participle Adjuncts in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 1 (1997): 24-38.

Participle adjuncts in the Book of Mormon are compared with those in the other writings of Joseph Smith and with English in general. Participle adjuncts include present participle phrases, e.g., “having gained the victory over death” (Mosiah 15:8); present participle clauses, e.g., “he having four sons” (Ether 6:20), and a double-subject adjunct construction, known as the coreferential subject construction, where both subjects refer to the same thing, as in “Alma, being the chief judge . . . of the people of Nephi, therefore he went up with the people” (Alma 2:16). The Book of Mormon is unique in the occurrences of extremely long compound adjunct phrases and coreferential subject constructions, indicating that Joseph Smith used a very literal translation style for the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Grammar; Joseph; Jr.; Language; Participle Adjunct; Smith; Translation
ID = [2944]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 31046  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Stubbs, Brian D. “A Short Addition to Length: Some Relative Frequencies of Circumstantial Structures.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 1 (1997): 39-46.

In previous articles I have discussed the nature and prominence of certain linguistic structures in the Book of Mormon that are typical of hal-clauses translated from Hebrew or Egyptian. This article compares the frequencies of those structures in three works produced through the instrumentality of Joseph Smith: the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, only the first of which is a translation from an ancient Near Eastern language. The results of this preliminary investigation into styles and these linguistic structures as found in these three works are worth noting.

Keywords: Length; Structure
ID = [2945]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,d-c,farms-jbms  Size: 16597  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Archer, John B., John L. Hilton, and G. Bruce Schaalje. “Comparative Power of Three Author-Attribution Techniques for Differentiating Authors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Over the last twenty years, various objective author-attribution techniques have been applied to the English Book of Mormon in order to shed light on the question of multiple authorship of Book of Mormon texts. Two methods, one based on rates of use of noncontextual words and one based on word-pattern ratios, measure patterns consistent with multiple authorship in the Book of Mormon. Another method, based on vocabulary-richness measures, suggests that only one author is involved. These apparently contradictory results are reconciled by showing that for texts of known authorship, the method based on vocabulary-richness measures is not as powerful in discerning differences among authors as are the other methods, especially for works translated into English by a single translator.

ID = [2946]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 31931  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Gee, John. “New and Old Light on Shawabtis from Mesoamerica.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Two Egyptian shawabti-figurines, reputedly discovered in Acajutla, El Salvador, in 1914, are likely forgeries. Had they been authentic, they might have helped to establish cultural contact between Egypt and Mesoameria.

ID = [2947]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 9703  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “Drought and Serpents.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

The story of the Jaredites being plagued by “poisonous serpents” at a time of “great dearth” makes sense when one realizes that drought causes rodents and then serpents to migrate.

Keywords: Book of Mormon Geography; Ecology; Weather
ID = [2948]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 6216  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “‘The Workmanship Thereof Was Exceedingly Fine’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

The War Scroll of the Dead Sea Scrolls describes magnificent swords, whose workmanship may parallel that of the sword of Laban. Israelite leaders may well have carried precious swords.

Keywords: Metallurgy; Sword of Laban; Weaponry
ID = [2949]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 5659  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “‘As a Garment in a Hot Furnace’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

The idea that King Noah’s life was to be valued “as a garment in a hot furnace” is a type of simile curse. He would suffer death by fire, which was a just punishment for the wicked.

Keywords: Abinadi (Prophet); King Noah; Laws; Legal; Prophecy; Simile Curse
ID = [2950]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 9729  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Citation Index to the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, 1992-96.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Five-year citation index.

ID = [2951]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 222439  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 6 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2735]  Type = book  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 12  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Subject Index to the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, 1992-96.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).

Five-year subject index.

ID = [2952]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 74291  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 1 (1997).
ID = [2953]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 1890  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 6, No. 2 (1997)

Ricks, Stephen D. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Introduction to the current issue.

ID = [2954]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 898  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Petersen, Boyd J. “Something to Move Mountains: The Book of Mormon in Hugh Nibley’s Correspondences.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 2 (1997): 1–25.

Hugh Nibley’s correspondence reveals a lifelong fascination with the Book of Mormon. This is significant for two reasons: First, Nibley has taken the book seriously longer than we have as a church, and second, the private Hugh Nibley is as devoted to the Book of Mormon as is the public man.
Nibley’s interest in the book is threefold: he recognizes the striking similarities it shares with other ancient Near Eastern texts; acknowledges its witness to Joseph Smith’s divine calling; and, most importantly, perceives the relevance and accuracy of the book’s prophetic warnings. In his letters, Nibley also addresses criticism raised against his methodology. “The potential power” of the Book of Mormon, writes Nibley, “is something to move mountains; it will only take effect when everything is pretty far gone, but then it will be dynamite. That leaves room for optimism.” Hugh Nibley’s words make that optimism contagious.

ID = [742]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,nibley  Size:   Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:32
Nickerson, Matthew. “Nephi’s Psalm: 2 Nephi 4:16-35 in the Light of Form-Critical Analysis.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Identifying the poetic forms in the Book of Mormon enables readers to appreciate its beautiful literary style and gain a better understanding of its message. The form-critical analysis of psalms, first outlined by Hermann Gunkel in 1926, demonstrates sharp similarities between Nephi’s psalm and similar psalms in the Old Testament. Nephi’s psalm plainly follows the format and substance of the individual lament as described by Gunkel and elaborated by numerous subsequent scholars. As in other instances of Hebrew poetic forms in the Book of Mormon, understanding and appreciating the psalm, more particularly the personal lament, can offer new insights into 2 Nephi 4:16–35 and make its message of hope and trust more powerful and personal.

ID = [2956]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 34116  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Harris, Tod R. “The Journey of the Hero: Archetypes of Earthly Adventure and Spiritual Passage in 1 Nephi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 2 (1997): 43-66.

Study of the varied metaphorical levels of the Book of Mormon continues to yield new insights into the message and meaning of that book. Several prominent typological readings of aspects of the Book of Mormon have been published, but despite calls for such an effort, little inquiry into its possible archetypal levels, or what has been called “the mythic dimension” of the book, has yet been undertaken. As an initial attempt at such an endeavor, I compare certain events described in 1 Nephi with the elements of one prominent mythic archetype, the hero’s journey, as elucidated by Joseph Campbell in his famous The Hero with a Thousand Faces. A strong correlation between the hero’s journey archetype and the events from 1 Nephi is intriguing and seems to demonstrate at least the presence of mythic patterns in the Book of Mormon. This leads to some preliminary conclusions about what the apparent presence of such patterns might signify.

Keywords: 1 Nephi; Archetype; Hero; Hero’s Journey; Metaphor; Nephi
ID = [2957]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 49063  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sloan, David E. “Nephi’s Convincing of Christ through Chiasmus: Plain and Precious Persuading from a Prophet of God.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 2 (1997): 67-98.

One of the principal themes of Nephi’s writings on the small plates is his desire to convince others of Christ. A second, related theme is his desire to write plain and precious things on those plates. Some of the most plain and precious writings of Nephi are those instances in which he used the name Christ in chiasmus or other forms of poetry. Perhaps more than any other portion of his words, Nephi intended these plain and precious writings to convince both Jew and Gentile that Jesus is the Christ, the one true Messiah.

Keywords: Chiasmus; Chiastic; Jesus Christ; Messiah; Parallelism; Plain and Precious Things
ID = [2958]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 74952  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “Glowing Stones in Ancient and Medieval Lore.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 2 (1997): 99-123.

One of the great miracles of the Book of Mormon occurred when the brother of Jared asked the Lord to touch some clear stones so they would provide light inside the barges that would take his people across the ocean to the New World. To some modern readers, the story seems implausible. This article surveys a number of ancient and medieval accounts of glowing stones, including some said to have been used in Noah’s ark and the “fish” the Lord prepared to swallow Jonah. The parallels to the Jaredite story are remarkable and suggest an ancient milieu for the book of Ether.

Keywords: 16 Small Stones; Ancient Near East; Brother of Jared; Glowing Stones; Historicity; Jaredite; Jonah (Prophet); Noah (Prophet); Noah’s Ark
ID = [2959]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1564  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Brown, Matthew B. “Girded about with a Lambskin.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 2 (1997): 124-151.

The publication of the Book of Mormon brought forward the first of many comparisons between the restorational work of the Prophet Joseph Smith and his surrounding environment, including Freemasonry. One point of comparison has been the lambskin apparel mentioned in 3 Nephi 4:7. A possible connection exists between this item of apparel and ritual clothing that was worn in ancient Israel, Egypt, and Mesoamerica. I suggest a possible reason for the use of this item of clothing among the secret combinations in the Book of Mormon and discuss the lambskin apron used in Freemasonic ritual.

Keywords: Ancient Israel; Ancient Near East; Apron; Clothing; Egypt; Freemasonry; Joseph; Jr.; Mesoamerica; Restoration; Ritual; Smith
ID = [2960]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 61894  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Stirling, Mack C. “The Way of Life and the Way of Death in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 2 (1997): 152-204.

The Book of Mormon describes a great division in mankind between the few who walk in the way of life and the many who walk in the way of death. This division results from the response of each individual to Christ or to the voice of God during probation. Men either hearken to the voice of Christ and progressively acquire spiritual life or they hearken to the voice of the devil and progressively descend into spiritual death. Nine Book of Mormon texts reveal detailed teachings on life and death. A diagram illustrates the ideas of each text. The conception and portrayal of spiritual reality in terms of two mutually exclusive, progressively diverging, and correspondingly opposite ways of life and death are clearly demonstrated. This dualistic conception of reality underlies the entire Book of Mormon. An understanding of this paradigm is critical, in order both to assimilate the essential message of the Book of Mormon on life and death and to understand its theological relationship to the Doctrine and Covenants.

Keywords: Agency; Death; Division; Life; Theology; Two Ways
ID = [2961]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,d-c,farms-jbms  Size: 103862  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Brown, S. Kent. “A Case for Lehi’s Bondage in Arabia.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The lengthy sojourn of Lehi’s family in the Arabian desert invites the almost inevitable question whether circumstances forced family members to live in the service of tribesmen either for protection or for food. In my view, enough clues exist in the Book of Mormon—they have to be assembled—to bring one to conclude that the family lived for a time in a servile condition, a situation that apparently entailed suffering and conflict.

ID = [2962]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 33409  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Midgley, Louis C. “‘Inspiring’ but Not True: An Added Glimpse of the RLDS Stance on the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, no. 2 (1997): 218-228.

Since the late 1960s RLDS “liberals” have argued that the Book of Mormon should not be read as an authentic ancient history. This novel reading of the Book of Mormon has been part of a sustained effort by the RLDS hierarchy to make the Reorganization conform more closely with Protestant liberal approaches to the Bible. I demonstrate that the RLDS hierarchy has encouraged changes in the way the Book of Mormon is read by RLDS intellectuals. I then examine the arguments of Roger Launius, currently the foremost RLDS historian, who has recently insisted that the Book of Mormon ought to be read as “inspiring” frontier fiction. I also describe and criticize his claim that any concern with the historical authenticity of the Book of Mormon is not serious historical scholarship, which he wants focused on issues currently fashionable among secularized historians.

Keywords: Book of Mormon; Community of Christ; Historicity; Inspired Fiction; RLDS; Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; Theology
ID = [2963]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 27497  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Barney, Kevin L. “Divine Discourse Directed at a Prophet’s Posterity in the Plural: Further Light on Enallage.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

A follow-up on a previous article on enallage provides further strength for a pattern of a speech to a prophet in which later verses seem to be addressed to both the prophet and his posterity by use of the plural ye.

Keywords: Language - Hebrew
ID = [2964]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 13622  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 6 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2736]  Type = book  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 19  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Gee, John. “Another Note on the Three Days of Darkness.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The fragmentary text on a stele erected at Karnak seems to be connected with the volcanic eruption on Thera. The phraseology in many instances bears uncanny resemblance to the Book of Mormon account of the destruction in the Americas at the time of the crucifixion.

Keywords: Book of Mormon Geography; Geology; Weather
ID = [2965]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 19680  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “That Which Is to Come.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Expressions similar to “that which is to come” (Mosiah 3:1) refer specifically to Christ. Numerous prophets prophesy of Christ and the good news of his atoning influence in our lives.

ID = [2966]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 14142  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Crowell, Angela M., and John A. Tvedtnes. “The Nephite and Jewish Practice of Blessing God after Eating One’s Fill.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

A Jewish custom of blessing God after eating one’s fill at a meal is reflected in passing in Amulek’s household and when the resurrected Christ blesses the sacrament for the Nephites and thereafter instructs them to pray. They “gave glory to Jesus” on this occasion.

Keywords: Alma the Younger; Amulek; Blessing; Custom; Prayer
ID = [2967]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 9964  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Ricks, Stephen D., and John A. Tvedtnes. “The Hebrew Origin of Some Book of Mormon Place Names.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

The place-names Cumorah, Jershon, and Zarahemla have possible Hebrew origins.

ID = [2968]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 10686  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “A Visionary Man.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Lehi’s visionary powers are manifest when he “dreamed a dream” or has “seen a vision.” This cognate accusative construction in which the verb is followed by a noun from the same root lends authenticity to the antiquity of the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Dream; Lehi (Prophet); Seer; Vision
ID = [2969]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 4821  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “Word Groups in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Word groupings, which tend to fall in certain categories, are an authentic means of expression in Hebrew poetry. Such groupings may reveal ties between the Book of Mormon and the biblical world.

ID = [2970]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 16449  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sloan, David E. “The Book of Lehi and the Plates of Lehi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).

Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon consistently use such phrases as “Book of Lehi,” “plates of Lehi,” and “account of Nephi” in distinct ways.

Keywords: Lehi (Prophet); Lost 116 Pages; Plates
ID = [2971]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 8299  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “About the Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6 no. 2 (1997).
ID = [2972]  Type = journal article  Date = 1997-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 2101  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 7, No. 1 (1998)

Sorenson, John L. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Introduction to this issue.

ID = [2973]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 5589  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Aston, Warren P. “The Arabian Bountiful Discovered? Evidence for Nephi’s Bountiful.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

According to the Book of Mormon, a land named “Bountiful” was a fertile site on the Arabian Peninsula with timber, fresh water, and ore where Nephi built a ship to carry Lehi’s group to the New World. In the seemingly barren land of the southern Arabian peninsula, a site that appears to correspond to the description in Nephi’s record has been identified on the remote southern coast of the country of Oman. Kharfot may not be the exact location of Bountiful, but its discovery does show that a place matching the criteria for Bountiful does exist.

ID = [2974]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 25388  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Ball, Terry B., S. Kent Brown, Arnold H. Green, David J. Johnson, and W. Revell Phillips. “Planning Research on Oman: The End of Lehi’s Trail.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7, no. 1 (1998): 12-21, 70.

In February 1998, five Brigham Young University professors spent more than a week together in southern Oman to collect data for future research projects in the area, which seems to correspond to the end of Lehi’s trail in the Old World. Future research must be performed in a professional manner and seek to reconstruct that part of the world in 600 BC. Botanical, archaeological, chronological, mineralogical, geological, and inscriptional studies in the area would depend on acquiring sponsors in Oman and on the availability of resources.

Keywords: Arabia; Archaeology; Bountiful; Lehi’s Trail; Old World; Oman
ID = [2975]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 37292  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Skousen, Royal. “How Joseph Smith Translated the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Details of the translation process Joseph Smith used for translating the Book of Mormon from the plates can be adduced from statements of witnesses and from evidence in the original and printer’s manuscripts. According to witnesses, Joseph Smith often translated without the plates being present and used the interpreters to receive the revealed text. Evidence from the manuscripts themselves shows that the original manuscript was written from dictation, that Joseph Smith was working with at least twenty words at a time, that Joseph Smith could see the spelling of names, that the scribe repeated the text to Joseph Smith, and that the word chapter and the corresponding chapter numbers were not part of the revealed text. The manuscripts and text show that Joseph Smith apparently received the translation word for word and letter for letter, in what is known as “tight control.”

ID = [2976]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 34039  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “The Book of Mormon Critical Text Project.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).
ID = [2977]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 4353  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Robinson, Stephen E. “Nephi’s ‘Great and Abominable Church’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7, no. 1 (1998): 32-39, 70.

In 1 Nephi 13–14, Nephi describes major characteristics of the great and abominable church: it persecutes and slays the Saints of God; it seeks wealth and luxury; it is characterized by sexual immortality; it has excised plain and precious things from the scriptures; it has dominion over all the earth; and its fate is destruction by a world war. Nephi’s vision, known as an apocalyptic vision in biblical literature, corresponds well to features of Babylon as described in the apocalyptic Revelation of John (Revelation 17). Clearly, the earliest apostate church and the great and abominable church are the same. A suggested description for this phenomenon, avoiding a denominational name, is hellenized Christianity.

Keywords: Apocalyptic Vision; Great and Abominable Church; Nephi (Son of Lehi); Prophecy; Prophet; Vision
ID = [2978]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 29096  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hallen, Cynthia L. “Redeeming the Desolate Woman: The Message of Isaiah 54 and 3 Nephi 22.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7, no. 1 (1998): 40-47, 70-71.

Third Nephi 22 (quoting Isaiah 54) addresses a desolate woman who will be redeemed in the latter days. The desolate woman represents Zion, which itself signifies the city of Enoch in ancient times, the hill where the temple was built in Jerusalem, the celestial city of God, the kingdom of God on earth, and a covenant community of temple-worthy Saints. The Lord promises to relieve the desolation of Zion felt through barrenness, lack of a permanent home, and being forsaken and persecuted. The destiny of Zion parallels the pattern of Noah—both remain faithful to their covenants and witness a cleansing of the earth. The Savior serves as Zion’s husband. The servants of the Lord are equated with Zion—the Lord will not allow oppressors to be successful against Zion. The Lord promises to redeem Zion as he sings a song of redeeming love.

Keywords: City of Enoch; Symbolism; Temple; Womenhood; Zion
ID = [2979]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 23836  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Spackman, Randall P. “The Jewish/Nephite Lunar Calendar.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7, no. 1 (1998): 48-59, 71.

Nephite record keepers were very meticulous in monitoring the passage of time. Lehi’s departure from Jerusalem in the reign of Zedekiah marks the beginning of one formal reckoning of time. The prophesied 600-year window to the birth of Christ could well have been measured in lunar years. Lehi must have drawn on familiar Israelite calendrical practices to establish his calendar. Lehi’s descendants likely used twelve lunar months for their calendar without adding an occasional thirteenth month to adjust for the length of a solar year, which would solve the chronological problem of dating Lehi’s departure 600 years before the birth of Christ.

Keywords: Birth of Christ; Calendar System; Chronology; Jewish; Lunar Calendar; Nephite; Record Keeper
ID = [2980]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 46216  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Faulring, Scott H. “The Book of Mormon: A Blueprint for Organizing the Church.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7, no. 1 (1998): 60-69, 71.

Concepts from the Book of Mormon contributed to how the church was built up and conducted. Oliver Cowdery was instructed to draw upon the Book of Mormon in formulating his vision of how the restored church should be organized and regulated. His 1829 Articles of the Church of Christ were a precursor to Joseph Smith’s 1830 Articles and Covenants of the Church of Christ (now known as Doctrine and Covenants 20). Three key aspects of church organization that originated in the Book of Mormon include baptism and priesthood authority, the ordination of priests and teachers, and the administration of the Lord’s supper.

Keywords: Baptism; Church Organization; Cowdery; Early Church History; Joseph; Jr.; Lord’s Supper; Oliver; Ordination; Priest; Priesthood Authority; Sacrament; Smith; Teacher
ID = [2981]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,d-c,farms-jbms  Size: 38235  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hoskisson, Paul Y. “What’s in a Name? Alma as a Hebrew Name.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7, no. 1 (1998): 72-73.

The name Alma appears more frequently in the Book of Mormon than any other name besides Nephi. The name has a logical derivation from a Hebrew root that means “youth” or “lad.”

Keywords: Alma the Elder; Alma the Younger; Language - Hebrew; Name; Onomastics
ID = [2982]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 6921  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “Book of Mormon Answers ‘Fulness of the gospel’ and ‘familiar spirit’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Responses to the following questions appear here: “Is the ‘fulness of the gospel’ in the Book of Mormon?” and “What is the meaning of ‘familiar spirit’ in Isaiah 29?”

ID = [2983]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 5239  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Cracroft, Richard H. “A General Reader’s Library of Book of Mormon StudiesThe (Literary) Coming Forth of the Book of Mormon: Three Recent Milestones.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Cracroft reviews the following books that can deepen one’s understanding of the Book of Mormon: Richard Dilworth Rust’s Feasting on the Word: The Literary Testimony of the Book of Mormon; Marilyn Arnold’s Sweet Is the Word: Reflections on the Book of Mormon: Its Narrative, Teachings and People; and Elder Jeffrey R. Holland’s Christ and the New Covenant: The Messianic Message of the Book of Mormon.

ID = [2984]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 7159  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 7 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2737]  Type = book  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 15  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Sorenson, John L. “From the Vineyard.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

This department gives news updates on various topics related to Book of Mormon studies: evidence of Chinese voyagers in Mexico, publicity on an ancient skull of a Caucasian male discovered in Washington, excavation of an ancient basilica in Jordan, Egyptian figurines from El Salvador shown to be fakes, and the establishment of a new journal, Pre-Columbiana: A Journal of Long-distance Contacts.

ID = [2985]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 10180  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “New Light.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

The Smithsonian statement about the Book of Mormon has been revised to indicate that the “Book of Mormon is a religious document and not a scientific guide.” James E. Talmage correctly identified various Michigan relics as fraudulent.

ID = [2986]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 8408  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “Memorial: Max Wells Jakeman 1910-1998.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7 no. 1 (1998).

Observations from Jakeman’s students honor this LDS scholar, who could be called the father of Book of Mormon archaeology.

ID = [2987]  Type = journal article  Date = 1998-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 4250  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 8, No. 1 (1999)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).
ID = [2988]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 4653  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “The Editors’ Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Introduction to the current issue.

ID = [2989]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 3846  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Midgley, Louis C. “A Māori View of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

The M?ori people read and understood the Book of Mormon from their own cultural perspective. Rather than examining particular verses for doctrinal content, the M?ori viewed the Book of Mormon as a moral story of a people with failings and strengths. They likened the stories to themselves, feeling they lacked the spiritual strength to stay on a righteous path for long. They saw a tragic story of families in conflict and subtribes and tribes quarreling with each other and bent on revenge for personal insults and factional quarrels. The kinship ties seemed particularly relevant to them. The Book of Mormon can be read in multiple ways and will be interpreted according to the cultural background of those reading it.

ID = [2990]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 23439  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Brewer, Stewart W. “The History of an Idea: The Scene on Stela 5 from Izapa, Mexico, as a Representation of Lehi’s Vision of the Tree of Life.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8, no. 1 (1999): 12-18, 20-21, 77.

Stela 5, a large stone monument discovered in 1941 in Izapa, Mexico, was identified a decade later by M. Wells Jakeman as a bas-relief of Lehi’s vision of the tree of life. Scholars and laymen alike have both accepted and scoffed at this theory. This article provides a historical sketch of reactions to this claim and discusses some of the implications of accepting or rejecting Jakeman’s theory. Jakeman was the first to publish an LDS interpretation of Stela 5; later V. Garth Norman proposed a different interpretation based on a series of high-quality photographs of the monument. Suzanne Miles, a non-Mormon, postulated that Izapa Stela 5 presented a “fantastic visual myth,” and Gareth W. Lowe proposed that Stela 5 presents an original creation myth. Further criticisms and responses ensued over the years.

Keywords: Creation Myth; Izapa; Izapa Stela 5; Mesoamerica; Stela 5; Tree of Life
ID = [2991]  Type = journal article  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 42074  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Book of Mormon Archaeology,: A Rich Source for LDS Folklore.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Excerpts from a letter written in 1962 reveal how Jakeman’s interpretation of Stela 5 quickly stimulated a body of folklore among some Latter-day Saints.

ID = [2992]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 5311  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Clark, John E. “A New Artistic Rendering of Izapa Stela 5: A Step toward Improved Interpretation.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8, no. 1 (1999): 22-33, 77.

Aided by creative techniques, Ajáx Moreno carefully prepared more accurate, detailed renderings of the Izapa monuments, including Stela 5, with its complex scenes of gods and other supernatural creatures, royalty, animals invested with mythic and value symbolism, and mortals. The author raises relevant questions about reconciling Jakeman’s view with the new drawing: Are there Old World connections? Can Izapa be viewed as a Book of Mormon city? Did the Nephites know of Lehi’s dream? Are there name glyphs on the stela? The scene, if it does not depict Lehi’s dream, fits clearly in Mesoamerican art in theme, style, technical execution, and meaning. The basic theme of Stela 5 may be the king as intercessor with the gods on behalf of his people.

Keywords: Dream; Izapa; Izapa Stela 5; Lehi (Prophet); Mesoamerica; Nephite; Stela 5; Tree of Life; Vision
ID = [2993]  Type = journal article  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 43347  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Roper, Matthew P. “Swords and Cimeters in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Roper examines the use of the terms sword and cimeter in a Mesoamerican setting as well as in the Book of Mormon text. The macuahuitl was a fearsome weapon consisting of a long, flat piece of hardwood with grooves along the side into which sharp fragments of flint or obsidian were set and glued. Our knowledge of this weapon comes more from written accounts than actual artifacts because few specimens have survived. The Book of Mormon sword of Laban was used as a model for making swords, but they were not necessarily made of the same material. The discussion in Alma 24:12 having to do with stained swords would make particular sense with wooden swords. Cimeters, or scimitars, differ from swords in having curved blades. Several kinds of swords and cimeters that were in use in ancient Mesoamerica are plausible candidates for Book of Mormon weapons.

ID = [2994]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 44520  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Near Eastern Weapon Parallels.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Parallels between sickle swords and two-bladed knives in ancient Mesoamerica and the Near East may strengthen the possibility of some historical link between the areas. Similarities in weapons terminology may also lead to fruitful research.

ID = [2995]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 10111  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Yerman, Bruce E. “Ammon and the Mesoamerican Custom of Smiting off Arms.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Ammon, a Nephite missionary who chose to serve a Lamanite king as his servant, gained fame by cutting off the arms of the king’s enemies. The practice of smiting off arms of enemies as trophies fits a cultural pattern known among the later Aztecs and Maya in pre-Spanish Mesoamerica.

ID = [2996]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 9316  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Arnold, Marilyn. “Unlocking the Sacred Text.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8, no. 1 (1999): 48-53, 79.

Literary analysis provides useful tools in the study of sacred texts, including the Book of Mormon. For the author, three transforming events that enhanced her study of the Book of Mormon included reading the book in earnest as a complex and masterful literary text, the entrance of the Spirit into her study of the book, and a prayerful desire to experience the great change of heart described by King Benjamin and Alma. Nephi begins his record with sincerity and honesty and serves notice that he intends to prepare a true record. The opposition between Nephi and his brothers Laman and Lemuel illustrates well Lehi’s teachings on the necessity of opposition in all things. More subtly, the reader notes a contrast between the characters and personalities of Nephi and Jacob. Jacob is portrayed as an empathetic and compassionate person who was tutored by exile and isolation.

Keywords: Conversion; Jacob (Son of Lehi); Literary Analysis; Literature; Nephi (Son of Lehi); Opposition; Scripture Study
ID = [2997]  Type = journal article  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 37343  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Potter, George D. “A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

The author serendipitously discovered a stream east of the Gulf of Aqaba that seems to share the physical features of Lehi’s “river of water” that “emptied into the Red Sea” and was “continually running.” The river Laman ran through the valley of Lemuel, described as “firm, steadfast, and immovable.” The stream and the canyon seem to fulfill the conditions of the river of Laman and the valley of Lemuel.

ID = [2998]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 26060  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Berrett, LaMar C. “New Light: The So-Called Lehi Cave.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Berrett discusses point by point reasons why an ancient burial complex at Khirbet Beit Lei, sometimes called “Lehi’s cave,” is unlikely to have Book of Mormon connections. Brown describes a carved altar inscribed to the tribe Nihm discovered in the southwest Arabian peninsula (Yemen)—this location may be the place Nahom where Nephi’s father-in-law, Ishmael, was buried, according to the Book of Mormon record. The characters on the Anthon transcript reportedly taken by Martin Harris to New York to show to Professor Charles Anthon bear resemblance to characters on two Mexican seals made of baked clay. Szink identifies another possible Semitic source for the name Alma in the tablets of Ebla uncovered in Syria.

ID = [2999]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 34860  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Book of Mormon Answers.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

Responses to the following questions appear here: “Did the Nephites have authority to sacrifice?” and “Did the Nephites sacrifice first-born animals contrary to the law of Moses?”

ID = [3000]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 4977  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 8 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1999).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2738]  Type = book  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 15  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Bell, James P. “A Reader’s Library: Efficacious Scholarship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8, no. 1 (1999): 72-73.

Bell reviews the following books about Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon: Susan Easton Black and Charles D. Tate Jr.’s edited volume Joseph Smith: The Prophet, the Man; Scot Facer Proctor and Maurine Jensen Proctor’s edition of The Revised and Enhanced History of Joseph Smith by His Mother; John W. Welch and Stephen D. Ricks’s edited volume King Benjamin’s Speech: “That Ye May Learn Wisdom”; and Donald W. Parry and John W. Welch’s edited volume Isaiah in the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Book of Mormon; Early Church History; Joseph; Jr.; Smith; Translation
ID = [3001]  Type = journal article  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 10127  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Siegel, Lee. “Out of the Dust.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 1 (1992).

It is highly unlikely that an object found in Lake Michigan could be a Jaredite barge. Lee Siegel reports about an archaeological dig at Piedras Negras, Guatemala, conceived and run by Brigham Young University’s Dr. Stephen Houston. A bronze sword discovered in Texas may be an Old World artifact. A linguist documents convincingly that the Ket language in western Siberia shares cognates with the Na-Dene language family of North America, thus showing possible transcontinental linguistic links.

ID = [3002]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 17325  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 8, No. 2 (1999)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).
ID = [3003]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 4591  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Introduction to the current issue.

ID = [3004]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 5373  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Wilson, Marian Robertson. “Leroy Robertson and the Oratorio from the Book of Mormon: Reminiscences of a Daughter.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Marian Robertson Wilson recounts her memories of her father, Leroy Robertson, and of the creation of his masterpiece, the Oratorio from the Book of Mormon. The idea to compose an oratorio based on the Book of Mormon first came to Robertson when Elder Melvin J. Ballard of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles casually suggested it to him one day in 1919. After his conversation with Elder Ballard, Robertson dedicated much of his time to studying the Book of Mormon and choosing sections of scripture to use in his compilation. The piece eventually received attention from LDS church leadership and from the renowned Maurice Abravanel. It significantly impacted missionary work, as well as the work of other LDS composers.

ID = [3005]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 42722  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hedges, Andrew H. “All My Endeavors to Preserve Them: Protecting the Plates in Palmyra, 22 September-December 1827.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

After Joseph Smith received the gold plates from the angel Moroni, he had to take great measures to protect them from people who wanted to steal them for their monetary value. Although Joseph did not leave much documentation of such experiences, the people who were closely associated with him at the time did. Using what records still exist, Hedges pieces together some of the stories of Joseph’s challenges in obtaining and protecting the gold plates.

ID = [3006]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 51188  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Seely, David Rolph, and Jo Ann H. Seely. “Lehi and Jeremiah: Prophets, Priests, and Patriarchs.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Old Testament prophet Jeremiah and Book of Mormon prophet Lehi were contemporaries, and both preached repentance to the people of Jerusalem. Despite their common love for the truth, these men led very different lives because the first was commanded to remain in Jerusalem and the latter was commanded to leave. This article examines the lives and teachings of Jeremiah and Lehi and compares them to each other, suggesting that Jeremiah’s life symbolizes God’s justice and that Lehi’s life symbolizes God’s mercy.

ID = [3007]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 66307  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Welch, John W. “Weighing and Measuring in the Worlds of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8, no. 2 (1999): 36-45, 86.

This article addresses the seemingly misplaced discussion of weights and measures in the middle of Alma 11 in the Book of Mormon. Although the interruption initially seems strange, John Welch offers new insights to explain its purpose in the Book of Mormon. For instance, knowledge of the Nephite monetary system supplements a reader’s comprehension of the bribery and corruption that occurred in that society. Evidence of this monetary system also shows a link between Near Eastern civilizations and Book of Mormon civilizations, thus providing further evidence for the divinity of Joseph Smith’s work.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Bribery; Corruption; Economic; Economy; Money; Nephite; Weights and Measures
ID = [3008]  Type = journal article  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,welch  Size: 47943  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Smith, Robert F. “Table of Relative Values.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8, no. 2 (1999): 46.

This table compares Nephite weights and measures with Egyptian values and gives possible equivalents in grams and ounces.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Economics; Economy; Egypt; Nephite; Weights and Measures
ID = [3009]  Type = journal article  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1729  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “A Mesoamerican System of Weights and Measures? Did the ancient peoples of Mesoamerica use a system of weights and scales in measuring goods and their values?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Ancient Mesoamericans used some systems of weights and measures; items in the market, though, were usually sold by volume. The Mesoamerican weights and measures may coincide with the weights and measures described in Alma 11 of the Book of Mormon, but more research is necessary in order to make conclusive claims.

ID = [3010]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 27131  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Packard, Dennis J., and Sandra Packard. “Pondering the Word.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8, no. 2 (1999): 48-69, 86.

Despite the emphasis that the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints places on scriptures, particularly the Book of Mormon, some members find it difficult to truly love the scriptures. This article claims that by pondering the scriptures often, members can better understand and appreciate the prophetic words. In order to find a deeper love for the scriptures, readers should consider the following details while reading: the setting of a passage; the meaning of various words and phrases; the author’s attitude when he wrote the passage; the possible comparisons between passages; the possible implied messages of the authors; the possible reasons for the inclusion of a specific passage; the organization of the scriptures; the repetition of ideas, words, and sounds; and the emphasis of certain words. By pondering each of these aspects, readers can gain a greater love for and appreciation of the scriptures.

Keywords: Emphasis; Organization; Ponder; Repetition; Scripture; Scripture Study; Structure
ID = [3011]  Type = journal article  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 51551  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Bitton, Davis. “B. H. Roberts and Book of Mormon Scholarship.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

Brigham Henry Roberts, a Book of Mormon scholar in the early twentieth century, was a pioneer in his field. He conducted research regarding the culture and the geography of the Book of Mormon peoples in an attempt to determine the setting of the Book of Mormon. His extensive work in this area has significantly influenced the progress of Book of Mormon research. Roberts also enthusiastically defended the book when others criticized it. He was able to do so effectively because of his study of and familiarity with the Book of Mormon. Roberts did, however, have a few limitations, the most detrimental being his unfounded assumption that “the narrow neck of land” in the Book of Mormon is the Isthmus of Panama. Yet, Roberts’s pioneering efforts remain today a crucial catalyst to modern analytical studies of the Book of Mormon.

ID = [3012]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 56040  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Godfrey, Kenneth W. “What is the Significance of Zelph in the Study of Book of Mormon Geography?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8, no. 2 (1999): 70-79, 88.

In June 1834, members of Zion’s Camp discovered skeleton bones that Joseph Smith reportedly revealed as belonging to a “white Lamanite” named Zelph. Many Latter-day Saints have referenced this unearthing as evidence that the Book of Mormon took place in North America, rather than in Mesoamerica. This article explores the significance and reliability of the accounts concerning Zelph’s existence, and it claims that although such a discovery is exciting and insightful, many of the accounts are inconsistent and most of the details surrounding Zelph and his life remain unknown. The skeleton cannot, therefore, provide conclusive evidence for anything, and Latter-day Saints should remember that more important than identifying the location of Book of Mormon events is strengthening their belief in the book’s divinity.

Keywords: Ancient America; Archaeology; Book of Mormon Geography; Book of Mormon Geography – Heartland; Early Church History; Joseph; Jr.; Lamanite; Mesoamerica; Smith; Zelph; Zion’s Camp
ID = [3013]  Type = journal article  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 36821  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Raish, Martin H. “A Reader’s Library.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

This author requests help in compiling a list of useful reference books that readers can use when studying the Book of Mormon. Such a list would include dictionaries, encyclopedias, and atlases.

ID = [3014]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 10115  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Out of the Dust.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1992).

This article examines several interesting discoveries pertaining to the Book of Mormon.

Anthony W. Ivins suggests that the Jaredites may not have been completely extinct, that Coriantumr, the alleged last Jaredite, may have had children with Mulekite women after he discovered the people of Zarahemla.

A wooden vessel that was found in Lake Michigan turns out to be a prototype of a proposed “sea-going tow barge” developed in World War II for the Navy.

Arrowheads discovered in Israel show that steel was in use by about 1000 BC; the name Aha was engraved with steel on one arrowhead, thus giving a Hebrew-language source for this name found in the Book of Mormon.

Researchers have found similarities between the Anthon Transcript and Old South Arabian (Arabic).

ID = [3015]  Type = journal article  Date = 1992-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 18797  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 8 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 8 no. 2 (1999).

Bell reviews the following books about Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon: Susan Easton Black and Charles D. Tate Jr.’s edited volume Joseph Smith: The Prophet, the Man; Scot Facer Proctor and Maurine Jensen Proctor’s edition of The Revised and Enhanced History of Joseph Smith by His Mother; John W. Welch and Stephen D. Ricks’s edited volume King Benjamin’s Speech: “That Ye May Learn Wisdom”; and Donald W. Parry and John W. Welch’s edited volume Isaiah in the Book of Mormon.

ID = [2739]  Type = book  Date = 1999-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 13  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 9, No. 1 (2000)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).
ID = [3016]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 714  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

Introduction to the current issue.

ID = [3017]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 899  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Adams, William James, Jr. “Synagogues in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

The Book of Mormon mentions synagogues in twenty-five passages. An important resource that may help us understand what the Book of Mormon means by the word synagogue is the body of research on biblical synagogues. This is especially true of research related to the years prior to the Babylonian captivity of the Jews, which began in 586 BC, since this is the time period when Lehi left Jerusalem. We would expect, therefore, that the nature of biblical synagogues before the captivity would have greatly influenced the concept of the synagogue that Lehi and his family took with them to the New World. In this article, William J. Adams Jr. details the historical development, nature, and cultural function of synagogues of the biblical era and relates them to the history, form, and religious function of synagogues in the New World.

ID = [3018]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1752  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Davidson, Karen Lynn. “The Book of Mormon in Latter-day Saint Hymnody.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 14-27, 76-77.

A church member who has loved the Book of Mormon since childhood and who takes it for granted that the Book of Mormon is central to LDS class instruction, general conference addresses, and missionary discussions is likely to be surprised that we have only six Book of Mormon hymns in our 1985 hymnbook. Early hymn writers turned to the Book of Mormon itself for their texts. Twelve Book of Mormon hymns were introduced into Mormon hymnody by Emma Smith’s first hymnal, but the Book of Mormon as a theme almost disappeared from later hymnals. Only one hymn relating to the Book of Mormon was among the forty-nine new hymns added to the 1985 hymnal. In this article, Book of Mormon hymns are listed, discussed, and categorized. Most of the Book of Mormon hymns that have been written are narrative, rather than devotional. Each new hymnbook must meet the needs of its age. Devotional hymns are likely to be more forthcoming as literary appreciation of the Book of Mormon continues to grow.

Keywords: Hymn; Literary; Literature; Music
ID = [3019]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1950  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Seeking Agreement on the Meaning of Book of Mormon Names.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

Over two hundred proper names of peoples or places appear in the Book of Mormon text. Although some of those names appear in the Bible, a large majority of them are unique to the Book of Mormon. Paul Y. Hoskisson leads the Onomasticon Project, which seeks to identify and interpret Book of Mormon names using standard principles and methods. This article introduces five subsequent articles that demonstrate to nonspecialists how this type of research can and should be applied to the Book of Mormon. Prepared scholars—Hoskisson, Jeffrey R. Chadwick, Dana M. Pike, John A. Tvedtnes—display the type of interchange that is required to clarify and settle the issues surrounding Book of Mormon proper names. This article also introduces two additional articles that complement the onomastic discussion.

ID = [3020]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1797  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hoskisson, Paul Y. “Lehi and Sariah.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 30-31, 77.

Hoskisson begins the onomastic discussion with the names Lehi and Sariah. These are two Book of Mormon names that are close in time and space to ancient Jerusalem. Hoskisson suggests etymologies for these two names. He introduces his explanation of their names with a discussion of ancient names in general. He suggests that Sariah’s name is composed of common Hebrew and Semitic elements and probably means “Jehovah is my prince.” Lehi’s name has a few possible meanings, evidence that it is not yet possible to come to a firm conclusion about some names. Ambiguity reminds scholars that the study of onomastica does not always yield clear results, that conclusions cannot be dogmatic, that previous suggestions should always be reevaluated, and that new suggestions are welcome.

Keywords: Etymology; Language; Language - Hebrew; Lehi (Prophet); Name; Onomastics; Sariah
ID = [3021]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1641  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “The Names Lehi and Sariah—Language and Meaning.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 32-34, 77.

Unlike the Old and New Testaments, where a variety of Hebrew and Greek texts exist to aid us, for the Book of Mormon we have only the King James English translation produced by Joseph Smith. The languages of the Book of Mormon were hardly the same throughout the original composition. Chadwick continues the onomastic discussion of the names Lehi and Sariah by suggesting that the Book of Mormon name Lehi matches the spelling in the King James Bible in the place-name Ramath-lehi; therefore the two must necessarily represent the same Hebrew term. He agrees with one of Hoskisson’s meanings for Lehi’s name— “jaw”— and indicates this may be a nickname rather than a proper name. Sariah is attested as a female name in a Near Eastern document. Although not found as a female name in the Bible, it is well documented as a male name in ancient Israel. In this light, the name means “Jehovah is Prince,” meaning Jehovah is the son of a king.

Keywords: Greek; Joseph; Jr.; Language; Language - Hebrew; Lehi (Prophet); Name; Onomastics; Sariah; Smith
ID = [3022]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1898  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Pike, Dana M. “Response to Paul Hoskisson’s ‘Lehi and Sariah’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 35-36, 77.

In this article Pike responds to Hoskisson’s conclusions about the etymology of the names Lehi and Sariah. He agrees with Hoskisson that Sariah is a theophoric name, which was common in ancient Israel and means “My prince is Jehovah.” However he suggests that the name should be grammatically distinguished from the masculine biblical personal name Seraiah. Although he offers an additional possibility for the meaning of the name Lehi, he agrees with Hoskisson’s suggestion that the name means “cheek.” The remainder of the article discusses the challenge of doing onomastic analysis on ancient non-English names when only an English form is available and further mentions the frequency of giving newborns in ancient Israel names of a religious nature.

Keywords: Language; Lehi (Prophet); Name; Onomastics; Sariah; Theophoric
ID = [3023]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1710  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A. “Lehi and Sariah Comments.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 37, 77.

Tvedtnes adds to the onomastic discussion of the names of Lehi and Sariah in this article. He suggests that scholars should not be dissuaded by the fact that the name Sariah is found only for men. He discusses the difference between etymology and attestation of names. In the first article of this discussion, Hoskisson concluded that personal names containing parts of the body are rare in all the ancient Semitic languages. Tvedtnes, on the other hand, finds numerous examples of personal names derived from body parts. He concludes with his analysis that Sariah means “Jehovah is (my/a) prince” and that Lehi means “cheek, jawbone.”

Keywords: Language; Lehi (Prophet); Name; Onomastics; Sariah
ID = [3024]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1517  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hoskisson, Paul Y. “Response to the Comments.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 38-39, 77-78.

Hoskisson responds to and elaborates on the comments about the names Lehi and Sariah that Chadwick, Pike, and Tvedtnes provided in this onomastic discussion. Where Hoskisson disagrees with their conclusions, he uses examples to defend his position. He acknowledges the contribution this discussion has provided to the study of Book of Mormon proper names. He welcomes further examples on the points suggested by these scholars

Keywords: Lehi (Prophet); Name; Onomastics; Sariah
ID = [3025]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1321  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tvedtnes, John A., John Gee, and Matthew P. Roper. “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

In recent years, a large number of ancient writings have been found in and around Israel. While many of these include names found in the Bible and other ancient texts, others were previously unattested in written sources. Some of these previously unattested names, though unknown in the Bible, are found in the Book of Mormon. The discovery of these Hebrew names in ancient inscriptions provides remarkable evidence for the authenticity of the Book of Mormon and provides clear refutation of those critics who would place its origin in nineteenth-century America. This article explores several Book of Mormon proper names that are attested from Hebrew inscriptions. Names included are Sariah, Alma, Abish, Aha, Ammonihah, Chemish, Hagoth, Himni, Isabel, Jarom, Josh, Luram, Mathoni, Mathonihah, Muloki, and Sam—none of which appear in English Bibles.

ID = [3026]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 14338  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Woodger, Mary Jane. “How the Guide to English Pronunciation of Book of Mormon Names Came About.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 52-57, 79.

Nobody in the early days of the church attempted to define in print how the proper names appearing in the Book of Mormon—but not the Bible—were to be pronounced. Joseph Smith spelled out unfamiliar proper names to his scribes during the translation process, and he never formally recorded his pronunciations. Throughout the twentieth century, several church committees attempted to standardize the pronunciation and provided a printed guide for English-speaking church members. In studying the pronunciation guide’s evolution for English-speaking church members, one thing becomes clear: church members will probably never pronounce Book of Mormon proper names correctly until either the ancients themselves tell us how they said their names or the Lord reveals the proper pronunciations.

Keywords: Early Church History; Joseph; Jr.; Language; Name; Pronunciation; Smith
ID = [3027]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1826  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Huchel, Frederick M. “The Deseret Alphabet as an Aid in Pronouncing Book of Mormon Names.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 58-59, 79.

One approach to reconstructing the Prophet Joseph Smith’s pronunciation of the proper names in the Book of Mormon is to determine how his close associates in the early days of the church later pronounced the names. In the Deseret Alphabet we have a record of the pronunciation in vogue in 1869. It is plausible that pronunciation of the names did not change much between 1830, when the scripture first appeared in English, and the publication of the Deseret Alphabet Book of Mormon in 1869. This article includes a table of pronunciation of eighteen names from the Book of Mormon according to the phonetic Deseret Alphabet characters compared with the sounds recommended in the “Pronouncing Guide,” which appears in all English-language editions today.

Keywords: Deseret Alphabet; Early Church History; Joseph; Jr.; Language; Name; Pronunciation; Smith
ID = [3028]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 2658  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Bokovoy, David E. “From Distance to Proximity: A Poetic Function of Enallage in the Hebrew Bible and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 60-63, 79-80.

This essay analyzes examples of poetry in the Hebrew Bible and the Book of Mormon that do not conform to the standards to which prose is typically confined. Each of these poems contains a syntactic device that scholars have come to identify by the term enallage (Greek for “interchange”). Rather than being a case of textual corruption or blatant error, the grammatical variance attested in these passages provides a poetic articulation of a progression from distance to proximity.

Keywords: Enallage; Grammar; Language; Language - Hebrew; Poetic; Poetry; Structure
ID = [3029]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 1591  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 9 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2740]  Type = book  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 20  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Fullmer, Robert. “Paul Henning: The First Mormon Archaeologist.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

Paul Henning was born in Germany in 1872 and passed away in 1923. He was the first Latter-day Saint to become a professional archaeologist and Mesoamerican scholar. He was also the first to bring his professional knowledge to bear on how to correlate the Book of Mormon record with the physical remains and history of the area now widely considered among church members as the core Book of Mormon location. While his ideas on these matters were never published, he deserves to be saluted as a pioneer of Book of Mormon studies. This biographical article includes information about his association with Benjamin C. Cluff Jr., president of Brigham Young University, and his contribution to the university.

ID = [3030]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1648  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Raish, Martin H. “A Reader’s Library.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

Martin Raish suggests that although there are only two dictionaries of Mesoamerican archaeology and culture, both are quite good and can be augmented with some excellent travel guides and wall maps. Together they help readers better understand the terminology of art history and archaeology, become more conversant with the names of sites and cultures, and feel more confident about the general outlines of history in likely Book of Mormon lands. The author specifically recommends two dictionaries, a volume on Mesoamerican religions, an atlas, some traveler’s guides, and some National Geographic Society maps.

ID = [3031]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1481  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Out of the Dust.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

This article details three topics. First, Oliver Huntington was an early LDS pioneer who wrote or dictated numerous reminiscences, including on his association with Joseph Smith. On 16 February 1895, he wrote the names of the three Nephites who “do not sleep.” Historians find that some of what he recorded does not square with other reports. Without corroborating statements from other sources, we cannot know if he is correct. Second, Monument 6 near Palenque, Mexico, prophesies the descent of the god Bolon Yokte K’u. This monument allows confidence that the practice of prophesying future happenings was going on within a few centuries after the end of the Book of Mormon period. Third, two landmark publications raised the profile of the long-debated question about transoceanic contact. The article also briefly mentions a report about research that uncovers evidence of an Atlantic crossing.

ID = [3032]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1786  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “New Light.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

Recent genetic studies indicate that Polynesians were connected to ancient America. Careful reading of native sources led European scholar Michel Graulich to conclude that pre-Columbian Americans held beliefs that may arise out of the Christian tradition. Whether he or those he opposes are correct, the caution to allow more than one interpretative stance remains appropriate. Interpretations of scriptural history are possibly “contingent upon the theoretical inclinations” of the investigators. The historical process of the Anufo people of the Ivory Coast territory suggests how “robbers” or “secret societies” could have grown to be players on the sociopolitical scene in Mesoamerica.

ID = [3033]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1558  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “In Memoriam, Franklin S. Harris Jr.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

Recent genetic studies indicate that Polynesians were connected to ancient America. Careful reading of native sources led European scholar Michel Graulich to conclude that pre-Columbian Americans held beliefs that may arise out of the Christian tradition. Whether he or those he opposes are correct, the caution to allow more than one interpretative stance remains appropriate. Interpretations of scriptural history are possibly “contingent upon the theoretical inclinations” of the investigators. The historical process of the Anufo people of the Ivory Coast territory suggests how “robbers” or “secret societies” could have grown to be players on the sociopolitical scene in Mesoamerica.

ID = [3034]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 1024  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “In Memoriam, John L. Hilton.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 1 (2000).

In memory of John L. Hilton and his contribution to Book of Mormon word-print studies.

ID = [3035]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 1002  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 9, No. 2 (2000)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).
ID = [3036]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 4051  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

The introduction to this issue is a discussion of the emphasis of the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies as defined by the editors.

ID = [3037]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 5209  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Olson, Camille Fronk. “Desert Epiphany: Sariah and the Women in 1 Nephi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

Insights can be gained by considering the eight-year wilderness sojourn of Lehi’s company through the eyes of the women who were there. Leaving the comforts of civilization for the difficulties of the desert would have been very challenging. While the record in 1 Nephi mentions nine women, Sariah was the only one identified by name. Nephi records Sariah’s struggles as well as her testimony. The record of the women in 1 Nephi communicates much about the need to seek and receive one’s own witness of truth.

ID = [3038]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 52926  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Peterson, Daniel C. “Nephi and His Asherah.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 2 (2000): 16-25, 80-81.

Asherah was the chief goddess of the Canaanites. She was El’s wife and the mother and wet nurse of the other gods. At least some Israelites worshipped her over a period from the conquest of Canaan in the second millennium before Christ to the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC (the time of Lehi’s departure with his family). Asherah was associated with trees—sacred trees. The rabbinic authors of the Jewish Mishna (second–third century ad) explain the asherah as a tree that was worshipped. In 1 Nephi 11, Nephi considers the meaning of the tree of life as he sees it in vision. In answer, he receives a vision of “a virgin, . . . the mother of the Son of God, after the manner of the flesh.” The answer to his question about the meaning of the tree lies in the virgin mother with her child. The virgin is the tree in some sense and Nephi accepted this as an answer to his question. As an Israelite living at the end of the seventh century and during the early sixth century before Christ, he recognized an answer to his question about a marvelous tree in the otherwise unexplained image of a virginal mother and her divine child—not that what he saw and how he interpreted those things were perfectly obvious. What he “read” from the symbolic vision was culturally colored. Nephi’s vision reflects a meaning of the “sacred tree” that is unique to the ancient Near East. Asherah is also associated with biblical wisdom literature. Wisdom, a female, appears as the wife of God and represents life.

Keywords: Asherah; Canaanite; Nephi (Son of Lehi); Sacred Tree; Tree; Vision; Wife of God; Wisdom
ID = [3039]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,peterson  Size: 62651  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Reynolds, Noel B. “Lehi As Moses.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

Lehi and his people understood their own times in terms of types and shadows from the past. God’s leading the family out of Jerusalem and reinstituting his covenant with Lehi in a new promised land can be understood only by comparison with the exodus and the roles of Lehi and Nephi in terms of Moses. This article identifies fourteen Mosiac themes and circumstances that Lehi invoked in his sermon recorded in 2 Nephi 1 and illustrates close parallels with these themes in Deuteronomy. Lehi may have compared himself to Moses as a rhetorical device to help his children see the divine direction behind his actions. In his final words to his children, Lehi invokes Moses’ farewell address to the Israelites. In so doing, Lehi casts himself in a role similar to that of Moses. Nephi portrays himself in similar terms on the small plates, apparently following the pattern set by his father.

ID = [3040]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 61885  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Phillips, W. Revell. “Metals of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

For three weeks in February 2000, a team of BYU geologists worked in coastal Dhofar, focusing on geological formations that could have produced the metals needed by Nephi for making tools to build a ship. This article discusses the ores and processes that Nephi would have employed and considers the possibility that the coast of Dhofar may be a candidate for the location of Nephi’s shipbuilding.

ID = [3041]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 24426  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Phillips, W. Revell. “Copper, Bronze, and Brass.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

Although Nephi’s tools were most likely made of iron or steel, bronze remains a possibility. The making of brass or bronze requires the creation of a copper alloy, and examples of such alloys are found in both the Old World and the New World. The nature of the alloys differed depending on the minerals available.

ID = [3042]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 9083  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “Last-Ditch Warfare in Ancient Mesoamerica Recalls the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 2 (2000): 44-53, 82-83.

Warfare is a constant theme in the Book of Mormon. Conflicts with varying motivations erupted between the Nephites and Lamanites from the beginning of their sojourn in the New World. Ultimately, the Nephites as a sociopolitical group were exterminated in one climactic battle when hundreds of thousands died in a single day. Have Mesoamerican archaeologists detected an intensity and scale of warfare great enough to account for the extermination of a people like the Nephites? Yes, there is now good reason to believe that the period when the Nephites were being destroyed by their enemies was characterized in southern Mexico and Guatemala by widespread disruption rather than an orderly evolution in the Classic era that once was the standard claim of archaeologists. The process of the complete destruction of the Nephites and their culture agrees with a recurrent pattern in Mesoamerican history.

Keywords: Archaeology; Extermination; Lamanite; Mesoamerica; Nephite; Warfare
ID = [3043]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 56738  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “Was There Hebrew Language in Ancient America? An Interview with Brian Stubbs.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

In an interview with John L. Sorenson, linguist Brian Stubbs discusses the evidence he has used to establish that at least one language family in Mesoamerica is related to Semitic languages. Stubbs explains how his studies of Near Eastern languages, coupled with his studies of Uto-Aztecan, helped him find related word pairs in the two language families. The evidence for a link between Uto-Aztecan and Semitic languages, or even Egyptian or Arabic, is still tentative, although the evidence includes all the standard requirements of comparative or historical linguistic research: sound correspondences or consistent sound shifts, morphological correspondences, and a substantial lexicon consisting of as many as 1,000 words that exemplify those correspondences.

ID = [3044]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 28283  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hoskisson, Paul Y. “What’s in a name?: Nephi.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

Though the name Nephi conforms in some ways to common Semitic patterns, none of the possible consonantal roots that appear in Hebrew can be applied to the name. Other possible sources such as Ugaritic or Egyptian may be considered.

ID = [3046]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 18478  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “The Problematic Role of DNA Testing in Unraveling Human History.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

Over the last century, new techniques of scientific analysis have been developed that have been applied with the intent to clarify the course of human history. Immediately after World War II, blood group data seemed to provide a magic key to open up the history of the world’s populations, but by the 1960s such studies were shown to be unrealistic and misleading. The new tool in human biology and anthropology is DNA analysis. Despite cautions from the best scientists about the limits the new findings have for interpreting human history, some enthusiasts continue to claim too much for DNA study.

ID = [3047]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 57880  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Out of the Dust: Finding Things Where They Are Not Supposed to Be.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

Archaeological discoveries that challenge previously accepted theories of the history of civilization are found all over the world.

ID = [3048]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 22185  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “Centenary of a Giant.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

It has been 100 years since George Reynolds published his massive work, A Complete Concordance of the Book of Mormon. Reynolds worked on this project, begun while serving a prison sentence for polygamy, over 21 years of his life. He tabulated virtually every word used in the Book of Mormon except a few of the most common words, and gave a portion of the sentence in which each cited word appeared. He himself paid all the printing costs.

ID = [3045]  Type = journal article  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 16913  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 9 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9 no. 2 (2000).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2741]  Type = book  Date = 2000-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 13  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 10, No. 1 (2001)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).
ID = [3049]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 4859  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

Introduction to the current issue.

ID = [3050]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 14583  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Madsen, Ann N. “What Meaneth the Words That Are Written?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

When the prophet Abinadi preached repentance to the Nephites, the people were upset and turned him over to King Noah. While in the king’s presence, Abinadi explained to the king and to the priests the meaning of Isaiah’s messianic prophecies. Although they did not heed Abinadi’s teaching, modern readers of the Book of Mormon are now able to better understand the life of Jesus Christ and the key principles of the atonement through Abinadi’s teachings.

ID = [3051]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 46908  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Henrichsen, Kirk B. “How Witnesses Described the Gold Plates.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

This article contains descriptions of the gold plates quoted directly from individuals who were closely associated with Joseph Smith Jr. Among those quoted are Martin Harris, Orson Pratt, and Emma Smith. The compiler also comments on the material of the plates.

ID = [3052]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 24302  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Of What Material Were the Plates?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

Contrary to what some may assume, the plates were most likely made not of pure gold but rather of an alloy termed tumbaga by the Spanish.

ID = [3053]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 28132  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sjodahl, Janne M. “The Book of Mormon Plates.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 1 (2001): 22-24, 79.

Janne Sjodahl discusses how the Book of Mormon would have taken up less space on the plates than in its current translated and printed form. Because the plates were written in a language comparable to Hebrew, Sjodahl had fourteen pages of the English Book of Mormon translated into Hebrew and written out. This Hebrew text covered only one page. According to this finding, the Book of Mormon could be written using as few as twenty-one plates (or even forty-eight if written in larger characters). Sjodahl presents estimates of the size and weight of the plates.

Keywords: Characters; Gold Plates; Language - Hebrew; Writing; Writing System; Epigraphy
ID = [3054]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 19264  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Gee, John. “Epigraphic Considerations on Janne Sjodahl’s Experiment with Nephite Writing.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 1 (2001): 25, 79.

Having studied Janne Sjodahl’s work on the number of plates required for the original Book of Mormon text, John Gee examines the potential drawbacks of Sjodahl’s experiment. He concludes that the size of Miller’s script suffices for Sjodahl’s test.

Keywords: Epigraphy; Nephite; Plates; Script
ID = [3055]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 15063  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Swanson, Vern G. “The Book of Mormon Art of Arnold Friberg: Painter of Scripture.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

Arnold Friberg is arguably the most influential artist on Latter-day Saint scriptural art. His depictions of the people and the landscape of the Book of Mormon are well known to Latter-day Saints. This article explains the genesis and completion of Friberg’s series of twelve Book of Mormon paintings and gives the author’s own observations on each painting.

ID = [3056]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 41940  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Jones, Gerald E. “The Journey of an 1830 Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 1 (2001): 36-43, 79.

When the Book of Mormon was first published in 1830, there were 5,000 copies printed. It is unclear how many of those copies still exist today, but each was worth approximately $5,000 in the 1980s. One such copy, after being passed from one person to another for over a century, finally fell into the hands of Gerald E. Jones. Using a note left on the inside cover by a former owner, Jones was able to track the journey of the book and discover who many of its owners were.

Keywords: 1830 Book of Mormon; Book of Mormon; Early Church History; NY; Palmyra
ID = [3057]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 31905  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “The Book of Mormon as a Collectible.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

This article discusses the evolution of book collecting, particularly by Latter-day Saints. Although the circle of book collectors used to be small, it has since expanded, probably because of the spread of the Internet. Latter-day Saints throughout the world are now able to locate and purchase old and rare books within minutes. While this innovation can be productive and beneficial, the easy access can be risky. Because people are so anxious to buy these types of books, they have the potential to be deceived by those who create fraudulent products, and unlike the older, more experienced buyers, newcomers often do not inspect books closely for authenticity and condition before purchasing them. Because of these potential mistakes, it is essential that book collectors be more aware of the risks and take the necessary precautions to avoid them.

ID = [3058]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 30578  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Nyman, Monte S. “Other Ancient American Records Yet to Come Forth.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 1 (2001): 52-61, 79-80.

Many critics of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that there cannot be any scripture added to the Bible, thus making the Book of Mormon blasphemous. However, many scriptures refer to other books of scriptures, including the Book of Mormon and other records that are not currently available to the world. Monte S. Nyman discusses here the plausibility of receiving modern revelation and scripture from God. He also suggests that by studying the Book of Mormon and other scriptures in conjunction with the Bible, Latter-day Saints can better prepare for the day when lost records are restored.

Keywords: Hidden Books; Lost Records; Revelation; Scripture
ID = [3059]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 54207  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Seely, David Rolph. “Lehi’s Altar and Sacrifice in the Wilderness.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 1 (2001): 62-69, 80.

After the Book of Mormon prophet Lehi left Jerusalem with his family, he built an altar in the wilderness and offered a sacrifice to God. This practice appears to contradict biblical law as outlined in Deuteronomy 12, which states that sacrifices should be made only on an altar within a temple. However, David Rolph Seely provides three possible explanations as to why Lehi was not breaking the law of Moses.

Keywords: Altar; Law of Moses; Lehi (Prophet); Sacrifice; Temple; Wilderness
ID = [3060]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 33424  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hallen, Cynthia L. “What’s in a Word?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

This article explains the benefits of studying specific words in the context of the Book of Mormon. Focusing on the origin of a word provides additional meaning and insight to a particular verse of scripture and helps the reader better understand the intended meaning of the author.

ID = [3061]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 19766  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Raish, Martin H. “A Reader’s Library.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

This article lists and discusses multiple texts that comment on the Book of Mormon and recommends them as supplements to Book of Mormon study.

ID = [3062]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 13651  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “New Light.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

Richardson Benedict Gill’s book The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death provides substantial evidence of the natural physical events that occurred in Mesoamerica. These events are comparable to events recorded in the Book of Mormon.

ID = [3063]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 16332  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Out of the Dust.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).

Evidence suggests that ancient Mesoamericans may have had horses. Excavations have produced horse bones that archaeologists believe date to before the Spanish Conquest. The article also mentions an artifact found in Bolivia that may have characters in a Semitic script. Locals have asked for assistance in examining the piece, but it is not yet clear whether it is relevant to the Book of Mormon.

ID = [3064]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 19042  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 10 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 1 (2001).
ID = [2742]  Type = book  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 16  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 10, No. 2 (2001)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).
ID = [3065]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 4826  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

Introduction to the current issue and the new editorial team.

ID = [3066]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 10685  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Marsh, W. Jeffrey. “Brigham Young and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 2 (2001): 6-15, 69.

Brigham Young studied the text of the Book of Mormon for approximately two years before he decided to be baptized. This article discusses how his family life prepared him to receive the teachings of the Book of Mormon and the influence his testimony had on him throughout his life, as second president of the church, and as the first governor of the state of Utah. Despite his conversion to the Book of Mormon, Brigham did not often refer to its teachings in his sermons. This seemingly strange practice was likely a result of the cultural dependence on the Bible at that time and of Brigham’s careful attention to the prophet Joseph Smith Jr.’s teaching style, which did not include a large number of Book of Mormon references. Even though Brigham did not incorporate direct references in his teachings, he was greatly influenced by the principles taught in the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Brigham; Conversion; Early Church History; Missionary Work; Young
ID = [3067]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,brigham,farms-jbms  Size: 44788  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Givens, Terryl L. “The Book of Mormon and Dialogic Revelation.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 2 (2001): 16-27, 69-70.

This article has been adapted from the author’s book By the Hand of Mormon: The American Scripture That Launched a New World Religion. The author discusses three common understandings of the term revelation: (1) revelation as doctrine, (2) revelation as history, and (3) revelation as inner experience. He suggests that the Book of Mormon introduces a fourth type: revelation as dialogue. This form of revelation allows individuals to have direct contact with God, rather than only through the scriptures, and can be applied to our lives just as it was to the lives of those living in Book of Mormon times.

Keywords: Conversion; Dialogue; Doctrine; Experience; History; Revelation
ID = [3068]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 55276  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Williams, Clyde J. “More Light on Who Wrote the Title Page.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 2 (2001): 28-29, 70.

The title page of the Book of Mormon was most likely written by Moroni, but in recent years scholars have suggested that Mormon, Moroni’s father, may have written the first six lines of the title page, with Moroni writing the rest. However, a more in-depth analysis of the text on that page and the specific language that is used provides evidence supporting the notion that the title page was, in fact, written solely by Moroni.

Keywords: Authorship; Mormon; Moroni; Title Page
ID = [3069]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 11793  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Reynolds, Noel B., and Royal Skousen. “Was the Path Nephi Saw ‘Strait and Narrow’ or ‘Straight and Narrow’?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 2 (2001): 30-33, 70.

The two spellings strait and straight are often considered synonymous; however, they come from different Middle English words and have different meanings. Strait means “narrow” or “tight,” whereas straight means “not crooked.” The difference in these meanings affects the interpretation of the scriptural phrase “strait/straight and narrow path” and others like it. Reynolds and Skousen explore possible meanings that the original Book of Mormon authors may have intended in their use of the two words.

Keywords: Middle English; Nephi; Straight; Strait
ID = [3070]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 17888  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Tanner, John S. “Two Hymns Based on Nephi’s Psalm.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

The first line of Nephi’s Psalm (found in 2 Nephi 4:16– 35) matches perfectly the iambic pentameter of Jean Sibelius’s Finlandia, more commonly known among Latter-day Saints as the hymn Be Still, My Soul. Because of this coincidence, John S. Tanner decided to write lyrics based on Nephi’s Psalm, called I Love the Lord, after which he solicited the help of Ronald J. Staheli in composing a musical arrangement based on Finlandia. Tanner later wrote another adaptation of Nephi’s Psalm, called Sometimes My Soul, using the tune of an American folk song. He explains the process of writing these two songs and the accompanying challenges.

ID = [3071]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 18083  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Skinner, Andrew C. “Serpent Symbols and Salvation in the Ancient Near East and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10, no. 2 (2001): 42-55, 70-71.

The serpent is often used to represent one of two things: Christ or Satan. This article synthesizes evidence from Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Greece, and Jerusalem to explain the reason for this duality. Many scholars suggest that the symbol of the serpent was used anciently to represent Jesus Christ but that Satan distorted the symbol, thereby creating this paradox. The dual nature of the serpent is incorporated into the Old Testament, the New Testament, and the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Duality; Jesus Christ; Paradox; Satan; Serpent; Snake; Symbolism
ID = [3072]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,old-test  Size: 53486  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Aston, Warren P. “Newly Found Altars from Nahom.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

Ancient altars in Yemen bear the inscription Nihm, a variant of the word Nahom. According to the Book of Mormon, one of the travelers in Lehi’s group, Ishmael, was buried at a place called Nahom. Because the altar has been dated to about the sixth or seventh century BC (the time of Lehi’s journey), it is plausible that the Nihm referred to on the altar could be the same place written about in the Book of Mormon. This article discusses the discovery site, the appearance of the altars, and the process of dating the altars, as well as the place-name Nahom in its Book of Mormon setting.

ID = [3073]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 13902  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hallen, Cynthia L. “What’s in a Word?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

The use of the word judge in the scriptures can cause confusion. By researching the etymologies and scriptural uses of the words judge and righteous, Cynthia Hallen observes that there is a difference between judging and judging righteously.

ID = [3074]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 13758  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Out of the Dust: When the Day Turned to Night.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

The timing of volcanic eruptions in the Veracruz area, where many scholars suggest the Book of Mormon may have taken place, is contemporary with events recorded in the Book of Mormon, thus providing further evidence of the authenticity of that book.

ID = [3075]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 10052  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “New Light: Sunken Ruin Off Cuba.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

Reports of an underwater city off the island of Cuba have caused many Latter-day Saints to believe that the city is a remnant of a Book of Mormon city. However, archaeologists have not found any reason to support that idea.

ID = [3076]  Type = journal article  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 2753  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 10 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 10 no. 2 (2001).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2743]  Type = book  Date = 2001-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 12  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 11, No. 1 (2002)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).
ID = [3077]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 6393  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Summary of current issue.

ID = [3078]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 6778  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Wirth, Diane E. “Quetzalcoatl, the Maya Maize God, and Jesus Christ.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11, no. 1 (2002): 4-15, 107.

Many scholars suggest that Quetzalcoatl of Mesoamerica (also known as the Feathered Serpent), the Maya Maize God, and Jesus Christ could all be the same being. By looking at ancient Mayan writings such as the Popol Vuh, this theory is further explored and developed. These ancient writings include several stories that coincide with the stories of Jesus Christ in the Bible, such as the creation and the resurrection. The role that both Quetzalcoatl and the Maize God played in bringing maize to humankind is comparable to Christ’s role in bringing the bread of life to humankind. Furthermore, Quetzalcoatl is said to have descended to the Underworld to perform a sacrifice strikingly similar to the atonement of Jesus Christ. These congruencies and others like them suggest that these three gods are, in fact, three representations of the same being.

Keywords: Atonement; Jesus Christ; Maize God; Maya; Mesoamerica; Popol Vuh; Quetzacoatl; Underworld
ID = [3079]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 53378  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Clark, John L. “Painting Out the Messiah: The Theologies of Dissidents.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Despite the establishment of Christ’s church in the New World by the Book of Mormon prophet Nephi, many dissenters during its thousand-year history attempted to thwart the church and preach alternative theologies. This article first discusses the doctrine that Nephi taught to his people concerning Jesus Christ. Historical context then provides further understanding of the society in which Nephi and his descendants lived. Having come from Jerusalem in the Old World, the Nephites were still accustomed to the law of Moses, which certainly would have influenced their view of a Messiah. This, along with the political circumstances of the Nephite people, facilitated the dissension of many. The experiences of the Anti-Christ Sherem, the priests of Noah, and the Zarahemla dissidents demonstrate these points. Lastly, those who altered Nephi’s teachings appeared to do so for five specific reasons, which are discussed in this article, thus showing how the dissenters erased the doctrine of a Redeemer from their theologies.

ID = [3080]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 67745  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Brown, S. Kent. “The Sesquicentennial of Four European Translations of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Introduction to the following four articles on early translations of the Book of Mormon into French, German, Italian, and French.

ID = [3081]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 2520  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
McClellan, Richard D. “Traduit de L’Anglais: The First French Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

When the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was first organized in the year 1830, the Book of Mormon had been published in only one language: English. But the church was growing quickly and spreading to other parts of the world. One of the first publications of the Book of Mormon in another language was in French. This article gives an account of the French translation from 1850 to 1852, when Elder John Taylor, a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, presided over a newly opened mission in France. Elder Taylor oversaw the translation process, which was done primarily by recent French converts Mr. Wilhelm and Louis Bertrand and one of Elder Taylor’s counselors, Elder Curtis E. Bolton. While these men were translating, Paris was in the midst of political unrest and was wary of unfamiliar social, political, and religious organizations. In fact, both Elder Taylor and Brother Bertrand had to hide from government officials. Despite all the complications that came about during this process, the work was ultimately a success.

ID = [3082]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 32292  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Scharffs, Gilbert W. “Das Buch Mormon: The German Translation of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

While on assignment from the LDS prophet Joseph Smith to visit Jerusalem in 1840, Elder Orson Hyde of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles suggested opening a mission in Germany and translating the Book of Mormon into German. By April 1852, the new prophet, Brigham Young, had sent Daniel Carn to Germany to be the mission president and to help with the translation, and by May of the same year, Das Buch Mormon had been published. However, when East Germany was created and placed behind the “Iron Curtain,” matters grew worse for the Latter-day Saints. Because they were unable to print anything themselves, they relied on missionaries and members of the church in West Germany to smuggle copies of Das Buch Mormon into East Germany so they could have the scripture that was so central to their beliefs. Members still had to burn all manuals and church material that had been published after 1920 to avoid arrest, but since Das Buch Mormon had been published in 1852, the Saints were able to keep their copies of that scripture.

ID = [3083]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,brigham,farms-jbms  Size: 33805  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Homer, Michael W. “Il Libro di Mormon: Anticipating Growth Beyond Italy’s Waldensian Valleys.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

In the year 1850, Elder Lorenzo Snow of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles arrived in Italy as a missionary. He and his companions spent much of their time with a Waldensian community. Elder Snow soon began sending missionaries to Switzerland to preach the gospel to French speakers there and began publishing church materials into French. The new materials caused a lot of opposition from Swiss Protestants and Italian Catholics. Elder Snow then went to England, where he solicited the help of an anonymous translator, and together they completed the translation of the Book of Mormon into Italian. Elder Snow returned to Italy soon after, bringing copies of Il Libro di Mormon with him, but he and the other missionaries did not find much success. Because of the influence of the Catholic Church on the government, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was not given much freedom in their preaching. Il Libro di Mormon similarly did not significantly help the missionary work. Almost all the Italian converts to the church were French-speaking Waldensians. Because of the lack of progress, the Italian mission was closed in 1867 and not reopened until a century later, in 1966.

ID = [3084]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 30206  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Dennis, Ronald D. “Llyfr Mormon: The Translation of the Book of Mormon into Welsh.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

In 1840, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints established its first branch in Wales. The branch had been organized and converts baptized without the help of Welsh translations of the Book of Mormon and other church materials. In this specific area in Wales, English was widely spoken; thus translating the Book of Mormon into Welsh had not been a priority. However, after being sent to a different area of Wales by Elder Lorenzo Snow of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, William Henshaw quickly realized that such a translation was imperative to the spreading of the gospel throughout the rest of Wales. In 1845, Captain Dan Jones arrived in Wales as a new missionary. Elder Jones used a press belonging to his brother, a Welsh clergyman, to print church pamphlets that he had translated into Welsh. One of the employees who worked at the press, John S. Davis, eventually was baptized. In 1850, Davis translated the Doctrine and Covenants into Welsh. The next year, he asked the Welsh Saints to subscribe to the official Mormon periodical, which would publish a part of the Book of Mormon each week. The subscriptions would provide the funds necessary to do so. The Saints responded enthusiastically, and as a result, the Welsh translation of the Book of Mormon was eventually all published.

ID = [3085]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,d-c,farms-jbms  Size: 23620  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Arts, Valentin. “A Third Jaredite Record: The Sealed Portion of the Gold Plates.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11, no. 1 (2002): 50-59, 110-111.

In the Book of Mormon, two records (a large engraved stone and twenty-four gold plates) contain the story of an ancient civilization known as the Jaredites. There appears to be evidence of an unpublished third record that provides more information on this people and on the history of the world. When the brother of Jared received a vision of Jesus Christ, he was taught many things but was instructed not to share them with the world until the time of his death. The author proposes that the brother of Jared did, in fact, write those things down shortly before his death and then buried them, along with the interpreting stones, to be revealed to the world according to the timing of the Lord.

Keywords: Brother of Jared; Gold Plates; Jaredite; Prophet; Record; Revelation; Sealed Portion
ID = [3086]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 45732  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Abunuwara, Ehab. “Into the Desert: An Arab View of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11, no. 1 (2002): 60-65, 111.

The Book of Mormon culture is found to be strikingly similar to that of the Middle East. An Arab Latter-day Saint tells his experience with the Book of Mormon and how he is able to relate to the stories within its pages because of his cultural origins. Among the congruities discussed are the structure of the family, the concept of taking oaths, the behavior of women, and the danger of the desert. Together, these points demonstrate the worth of the Book of Mormon and show how each reader is able to draw from his or her own cultural background in order to infer different messages.

Keywords: Arabia; Behavior; Book of Mormon; Culture; Desert; Middle East; Oaths
ID = [3087]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 31814  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Williams, Camille Stilson. “Women in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Feminist readers, particularly, have argued that biblical writing is sexist because the majority of the text was written by men who seem to place little significance on the role of women. This observation has become a serious concern among some because it calls into question the nature of God: does this supposedly perfect being love men and women equally? This study delves into the text of the Book of Mormon and its female characters to suggest that women were not considered lower than men in Book of Mormon times; likewise, women are not considered lower than men in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints today.

ID = [3088]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 109701  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “An Interview With John L. Sorenson.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Editors of the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies interview renowned Book of Mormon scholar John L. Sorenson to discuss his experience in doing Book of Mormon research for more than fifty years. Sorensen tells of becoming interested in the Book of Mormon and in Mesoamerican anthropology and archaeology. He also articulates how to be a faithful member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints while conducting objective and scholarly research on the Book of Mormon. Sorenson explains how this approach has helped people throughout the world better understand the Book of Mormon and how it will continue to help.

ID = [3089]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 27713  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Faulconer, James E. “With Real Intent.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Faulconer discusses the evolution of his testimony of the Book of Mormon; years passed before he recognized the importance of that book to his life as a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. After reading an article explaining the tree of life that is written about in 1 Nephi, he gained a deeper understanding of the purpose of the Book of Mormon—that the book prepares members of the church to enter into covenants with God in the temple and explains what those covenants are. In addition to that objective, the book testifies of and brings people to Jesus Christ.

ID = [3090]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 30355  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hoskisson, Paul Y., Brian M. Hauglid, and John Gee. “What’s in a Name? Irreantum.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11, no. 1 (2002): 90-93, 114-115.

The Book of Mormon was written in a language that was grounded in Hebrew and Egyptian; the people of the Book of Mormon most likely spoke this same language. It is interesting, then, that the Book of Mormon authors periodically included definitions for certain terms that they used in their writing, as if their audience did not understand them. This technique, known as a gloss, suggests that those terms may not have been a part of that ancient language. In an attempt to uncover the true origin of such words, this article dissects the Book of Mormon term Irreantum and delves into its linguistic characteristics to determine whether the term could have originated from Hebrew, Egyptian, ancient South Semitic, or another language.

Keywords: Egyptian; Gloss; Irreantum; Language; Language - Hebrew; Name; Onomastics; Reformed Egyptian; Semitic
ID = [3091]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 21817  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hallen, Cynthia L. “What’s in a Word? Tender and Chaste and Delicate Feelings Are Pleasing to the Lord.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

The word tender is used repeatedly throughout the Book of Mormon, but the modern connotations of the term may skew readers’ understanding of what Book of Mormon authors intended to convey when employing it in their writing. By examining the etymology of tender and the etymologies of similar words, readers can better comprehend the intended meaning of the ancient Book of Mormon authors.

ID = [3092]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 16565  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Raish, Martin H., and C. Gary Bennett. “A Reader’s Library.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

Two critics evaluate the book By the Hand of Mormon: The American Scripture That Launched a New World Religion. Raish opines that Givens’s book effectively explains why a person might accept the Book of Mormon and facilitates a reader’s desire to better understand the Book of Mormon. Bennett adds that Givens approaches his discussion of the Book of Mormon as a scholar, resulting in a more accepting readership. Givens also studies the Book of Mormon with respect to its role in promoting the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as a worldwide religion.

ID = [3093]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 16312  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “New Light: The Queen of Sheba, Skyscraper Architecture, and Lehi’s Dream.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

The Book of Mormon prophet Lehi received a vision commonly referred to as the tree of life. Within that vision, he observes a building that he describes as “strange.” A possible reason Lehi labels it this way is that the architecture of the building was dissimilar to the architecture popular in Jerusalem at the time. The building in Lehi’s dream was plausibly structured similar to the buildings found in south Arabia during Lehi’s time. By studying the architectural styles of Jerusalem and south Arabia, one can better evaluate and understand the vision of the tree of life.

ID = [3094]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 8809  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 11 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2744]  Type = book  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 19  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Out of the Dust: The Ossuary of James, . . . Brother of Jesus.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 1 (2002).

A recently discovered ossuary with the inscription “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus” may be the resting place of the bones of James the Just, the brother of the Lord, from the New Testament. Analyses of the carving, the language, and the history of Israeli ossuaries are being undertaken in an attempt to unveil further information on this ossuary. If this ossuary is authentic and corresponds to the correct time period, it can be more strongly proposed that the bones that used to rest inside the ossuary did, in fact, belong to James, the brother of Jesus of Nazareth.

ID = [3095]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 16043  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 11, No. 2 (2002)

Anonymous. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).
ID = [3096]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 4178  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Bradford, Miles Gerald. “Introduction.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).

Introduction to the book.

ID = [3097]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 14897  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Skousen, Royal. “History of the Critical Text Project o the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).

Royal Skousen details the history of the critical text project of the Book of Mormon. He describes that project, including his work with both the original manuscript and the printer’s manuscript of the Book of Mormon. After six years of pursuing this venture, Skousen was asked by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to temporarily resign as a professor at Brigham Young University and focus primarily on the project. Skousen agreed, and for the following seven years he continued his work on the Book of Mormon text, often collaborating with the Church Scriptures Committee. In this article, Skousen shares several discoveries that have surfaced because of his research and the meaning that those discoveries have had in his life.

ID = [3098]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 44330  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Espinosa, Robert J. “Fragments of the Original Manuscript.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).

Robert Espinosa was approached by Royal Skousen in 1991 with a request for him to join Skousen on the critical text project of the Book of Mormon. Espinosa shares his experience working with Skousen and the developments that they were able to make. After meeting with the owners of some fragments of the original manuscript of the Book of Mormon, Espinosa and Skousen were able to conserve, examine, and photograph the fragments. They also carefully analyzed the physical characteristics of the printer’s manuscript.

ID = [3099]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 15296  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Romig, Ronald E. “The Printer’s Manuscript.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).

Ronald Romig, archivist for the RLDS Church (now renamed the Community of Christ), played a significant role in Royal Skousen’s critical text project. Romig was responsible for overseeing the handling of the printer’s manuscript of the Book of Mormon, which was made available on two different occasions for Skousen to examine for his research. Skousen also examined over twenty copies of the first edition of the Book of Mormon belonging to the Community of Christ. Romig explains his responsibilities and the process of assisting Skousen in the project and also mentions how Skousen’s work has improved the relationship between the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints and the Community of Christ.

ID = [3100]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 19461  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Skousen, Royal. “Findings about the Printer’s Manuscript.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).

Royal Skausen gives information about the history, corrections, and the use of the printer’s manuscript of the Book of Mormon.

ID = [3101]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 4846  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Draper, Larry W. “Book of Mormon Editions.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).

Larry Draper describes his role in providing Royal Skousen with copies of various early editions of the Book of Mormon for use in the critical text project. Draper also describes the printing process of the Book of Mormon, which process was made clearer because of Skousen’s project. Draper explains the stereotyping method of printing that was used for the 1840 Cincinnati/Nauvoo edition and the 1852 Liverpool edition of the Book of Mormon.

ID = [3102]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 17092  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Skousen, Royal. “The Systematic Text of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).

Royal Skousen explains in detail the internal consistency of the original text of the Book of Mormon. He references several verses of the Book of Mormon to discuss five main points: consistency in meaning; systematic phraseology; variation in the text; conjectural emendation; and revising the text. By examining these five aspects, Skousen shows that neither the message nor the doctrine of the Book of Mormon loses credibility as a result of textual changes. Skousen also mentions that the consistency in the manuscripts suggests that Joseph Smith did not receive the text as a concept but rather received it word for word.

ID = [3103]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 56408  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Peterson, Daniel C. “A Response: ‘What the Manuscripts and the Eyewitnesses Tell Us about the Translation of the Book of Mormon’” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).

According to the traditional account, when Joseph Smith translated the gold plates into what is now known as the Book of Mormon, he did not create the text himself or copy the text from another existing manuscript. Rather, he translated the text through an interpreting device, which only worked when Joseph was spiritually and emotionally prepared. The article supports this claim by including several stories of the translation process as told by eyewitnesses.

ID = [3104]  Type = journal article  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,peterson  Size: 20337  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 11 Issue 2. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 11 no. 2 (2002).
ID = [2745]  Type = book  Date = 2002-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 9  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 12, No. 1 (2003)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).
ID = [3105]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 717  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

Introduction to the current issue.

ID = [3106]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 6019  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Brown, S. Kent. “The Book of Mormon at the Bar of DNA Evidence.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

Editor’s introduction to a four-part series on the relationship of DNA studies to Book of Mormon origins.

ID = [3107]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 2045  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Sorenson, John L., and Matthew P. Roper. “Before DNA.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

Critics of the Book of Mormon often cite genetic evidence in their attacks on the historicity of the text, saying that the lack of any Near Eastern–American Indian DNA links conclusively proves that no emigration ever occurred from the Near East to the Americas. Their simplistic approach—that the Book of Mormon purports to be a history of the entire American Indian race—is not supported by archaeological or Book of Mormon evidence. The authors pose and respond to questions about the geographical scene, the spread of Book of Mormon peoples, Latter-day Saint traditions about the scenes and peoples of the Book of Mormon, the terms Nephites and Lamanites, the possible presence of others in the land, ocean travel, Mesoamerican native traditions, languages of the Western Hemisphere, Old World peoples coming to the Americas, archaeological evidence, and ethnically distinct populations in ancient American art. These questions set out the social, cultural, and geographical contexts that are necessary for geneticists to understand before reaching major conclusions.

ID = [3108]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms,sorenson  Size: 104822  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Whiting, Michael F. “DNA and the Book of Mormon: A Phylogenetic Perspective.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 1 (2003): 24-35, 115-116.

This paper debunks the myth that the Book of Mormon has been proved false by modern DNA evidence. Critics have tried to apply American Indian DNA-based research to the Book of Mormon without designing a study specifically for that purpose. It is extraordinarily difficult to use DNA sequence information to track the lineage of any group with such a complex lineage history as the Nephites and Lamanites. Possible hypotheses about the populations from the Book of Mormon include the global colonization hypothesis (in which the three colonizing groups came to a land void of humans) and the local colonization hypothesis (in which the land was already occupied in whole or in part by people of an unknown genetic heritage). The latter hypothesis, generally viewed by Book of Mormon scholars as a more accurate interpretation, is much more difficult to investigate by way of DNA evidence. Issues such as genetic introgression, genetic drift, and the founder effect would seriously hamper any attempt to produce a funded, peer-reviewed study of Book of Mormon genetics.

Keywords: DNA; Genetics; Phylogenetics
ID = [3109]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 66635  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Butler, John M. “A Few Thoughts From a Believing DNA Scientist.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 1 (2003): 36-37.

The Book of Mormon does not give sufficient information about the background of Ishmael’s wife, the wives of Ishmael’s sons, and Nephi’s sisters to test the mitochondrial DNA of the group. Other problems for critics’ assertions include the uncertainty of Lehi’s possession of an Abrahamic Y chromosome and the complete disregard for the entire Jaredite population (remnants of which may have survived their final battle). Confident scientific conclusions are difficult to attain and cannot replace a spiritual witness of the truthfulness of the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: DNA; Genetics; Ishmael; Mitochondrial DNA; Y Chromesome
ID = [3110]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 7004  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Meldrum, D. Jeffrey, and Trent D. Stephens. “Who Are the Children of Lehi?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 1 (2003): 38-51, 116.

By covenanting with Abraham, God promised him that through his seed all the families of the earth would be blessed—his seed would be as leaven within bread. This metaphor can likewise be applied to the children of Lehi, who introduced the Abrahamic covenant to the much larger indigenous Mesoamerican population. The larger gene pool with which the children of Lehi assimilated makes it very likely that no genetic evidence will ever substantiate an American–Middle Eastern link, although Native American populations show a strong affinity with Asian populations. The assumption that all modern-day Native Americans are descended exclusively from Book of Mormon peoples is not required by the scriptures. The genetic link, however, may be less important than the nongenetic transmission of memes, including ideas, behaviors, information, languages, and divine kinship.

Keywords: DNA; Genetics; Lineage; Abrahamic Covenant; Ancient America; Mesoamerica
ID = [3111]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 66416  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Taylor, Leslie A. “The Word of God.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 1 (2003): 52-63, 116.

The term word of God is used in rich and varied ways in the Book of Mormon. The word of God is of great worth and is clearly identified with Christ, or the Logos. The word of God is often portrayed as a two-edged sword, is associated with creation and power, provides both comfort and discomfort, is nourishing and enlightening, and plays a role in the last days. The fundamental characteristics of the word of God are constant throughout scripture.

Keywords: Imagery; Jesus Christ; Logos; Two-Edged Sword; Word of God
ID = [3112]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 45499  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Mouritsen, Paul. “Secret Combinations and Flaxen Cords: Anti-Masonic Rhetoric and the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 1 (2003): 116-118.

Some critics of the Book of Mormon claim that Joseph Smith drew certain terminology from his nineteenth-century environment. In particular, they suggest that terms such as secret society and secret combination may reflect anti-Masonic rhetoric from the period or even that the term flaxen cord has Masonic overtones. This article traces many varied uses of secret combination in nineteenth-century writings that have nothing to do with the Masons. The appearance of these terms in the Book of Mormon does not weaken the historical claims of the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Anti-Mason; Early Church History; Historicity; Joseph; Jr.; Nineteenth-Century American History; Oaths; Rhetoric; Secret Combinations; Smith
ID = [3113]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 60883  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Jordan, Benjamin R. “Volcanic Destruction in the Book of Mormon: Possible Evidence from Ice Cores.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 1 (2003): 78-87, 118-119.

Third Nephi 8 preserves a written account of a natural disaster at the time of Christ’s death that many assume to have been caused by volcanic activity. In a modern-day science quest, the author examines research done on glacial ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. Ice-core records can reveal volcanic gases and ashes that are carried throughout the world—the gases are detected by measuring the acidity of the ice at various layers. Many factors influence the findings and the proposed datings of the volcanic events. The ice-core records offer some evidence, though not conclusive, of a volcanic eruption around the time of Christ’s death.

Keywords: Natural Disaster; Volcanic Eruption
ID = [3114]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 41272  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Thomas, Mark D. “Moroni: The Final Voice.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 1 (2003): 88-99, 119-120.

Moroni, the final writer and compiler of the Book of Mormon, provides three endings to the book. His first ending, in Mormon 8–9, can be called a “signature ending”—the primary purpose here is to state that the writing is finished and to identify the author and his father and nation. Moroni, yet alive, provides a second ending, a “farewell ending,” in Ether 12. This type of ending both concludes the work and wishes the reader well but then warns or rejoices that the narrator will meet the reader at the final judgment. In the final farewell ending (in Moroni 10), Moroni, the lone survivor of his people, expresses joy and hope. The three endings remind latter-day readers to acknowledge the destruction of the Nephite and Jaredite nations and provide doctrinal, logical, and scriptural arguments in defense of the Book of Mormon and its doctrines.

Keywords: Farewell; Moroni (Son of Mormon)
ID = [3115]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 40148  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Dadson, Andrew E. “With Real Intent: A Priceless Gem.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

Dadson shares his experience of gaining a testimony of the Book of Mormon while a young teenager at boarding school in Ghana. He was blessed through clean living, studying the Book of Mormon, and paying his tithing.

ID = [3116]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 20327  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hallen, Cynthia L. “What’s in a Word? Etymology!” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 1 (2003): 105-107, 120.

Scriptural records are important in preserving the words of prophets as well as the language of our ancestors. An etymological study of the important words in scriptures can link us to the thoughts and feelings of people who lived in the past. An example is the word heart, which has meaning both as an essential body part and as a metaphor for one’s thoughts and feelings.

Keywords: Etymology; Heart; Metaphor; Scripture Study
ID = [3117]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,farms-jbms  Size: 12631  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Bradford, Mary Lythgoe. “A Reader’s Library: Hugh Nibley: A Legend in His Own Time.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 1 (2003): 108–110, 120.

This review enthusiastically endorses Boyd Petersen’s biography of his father-in-law, Hugh Nibley. Petersen intersperses narrative chapters with thematic ones in Hugh Nibley: A Consecrated Life.

Keywords: Hugh; Nibley; Scholarship
ID = [1648]  Type = Journal Article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,farms-jbms,nibley  Size:   Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:34
Brown, S. Kent. “New Light: Nahom and the Eastward Turn.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

The account of the journey of Lehi’s family through the wilderness mentions one local name, Nahom, where Ishmael was buried. The discovery of the tribal name NHM on three altars from the seventh and sixth centuries BC provides a likely location for that stopping point on their trip. This site is located at the bend of the incense trail that went in the opposite direction of Lehi’s group—westward to NHM and then turning northward.

ID = [3119]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 7555  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Volume 12 Issue 1. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 1 (2003).

The Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting understanding of the history, meaning, and significance of the scriptures and other sacred texts revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith.

ID = [2746]  Type = book  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size:   Children: 15  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:36

Journal of Book of Mormon Studies Vol. 12, No. 2 (2003)

Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. “Contributors.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).
ID = [3120]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 7527  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Brown, S. Kent. “The Editor’s Notebook.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).

Introduction to the current issue.

ID = [3121]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = farms-jbms  Size: 6047  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Cracroft, Richard H. “Had for Good and Evil: 19th-Century Literary Treatments of the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).

Moroni prophesied on 21 September 1823 that Joseph’s name, and by implication the book he would eventually translate and publish, should be had for good and evil among all nations, kindreds, and tongues. Many current criticisms of the Book of Mormon trace their roots to the antagonistic critiques by 19th-century authors, beginning with Abner Cole, Alexander Campbell, and E. D. Howe. Campbell in particular was responsible for introducing the environmental theory: that Joseph Smith introduced 19th-century elements into his story. Travelers to Salt Lake City published their exposés, which were mostly critical of the Latter-day Saints and their book of sacred scripture. Mark Twain’s dismissive treatment of the book forged lasting popular misconceptions of the book. Fiction writers of the 19th century contributed to suspicion of and ignorance about Mormonism and the Book of Mormon. In more recent times, Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas O’Dea, and Robert V. Remini perpetuated environmental claims about the book. Recent Latter-day Saint scholars— Hugh Nibley, Richard Bushman, and Terryl Givens— represent those who speak good of the book and try to correct misperceptions about it.

ID = [3122]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 71353  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Rees, Robert A. “Irony in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 2 (2003): 20-31, 111-112.

The Book of Mormon appears replete with examples of verbal and dramatic irony, something unlikely to have been produced intentionally by Joseph Smith with his level of rhetorical and expressive skills. Dramatic irony occurs when an exceeding young Nephi, who is large in stature, admires the exquisite sword of Laban and then grapples with the distasteful command to kill Laban with that sword. Having passed the test, Nephi has matured into a man large in stature. Dramatic irony also occurs in Abinadi’s experience with King Noah and in the similar experiences of Alma and Korihor with the power of speech and silence. Verbal irony is apparent in Lehi’s expectations for Laman to be like a river, continually running into the fountain of all righteousness, and for Lemuel to be like a valley, firm and steadfast, and immovable in keeping the commandments of the Lord. Nephi also refutes his older brothers’ false knowledge by reminding them of what they already know.

Keywords: Abinadi (Prophet); Alma the Younger; Irony; Joseph; Jr.; King Noah; Korihor; Nephi; Rhetoric; Smith; Sword of Laban
ID = [3123]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 61041  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Duke, James T. “Word Pairs and Distinctive Combinations in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 2 (2003): 32-41, 112-113.

The literary richness of the Book of Mormon is attested by the appearance of word pairs, in both parallel and conjoined pairs. On occasion, combinations of three, four, or even more words appear together more than once. Possible reasons for the scriptural use of word pairs include literary functions, echoes of the law of Moses, theological terms, universals (or merisms), repetition, and mnemonic function. Duke builds on previous studies of word pairs in the Book of Mormon by Kevin Barney and John Tvedtnes. The frequency of word pairs and other combinations of words witnesses to the Hebrew roots of the language of the book.

Keywords: Language - Hebrew; Law of Moses; Literary; Literature; Parallelism; Word Pairs
ID = [3124]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 52597  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Welch, John W. “Counting to Ten.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 2 (2003): 42-57, 113-114.

The regular occurrence of things occurring ten times in the scriptures tends to relate to perfection, especially divine completion. Welch approaches this phenomenon through ten topics: perfection, worthiness, consecration, testing, justice, reverence, penitence, atonement, supplication, and ascension into the holy of holies or highest degree of heaven. The significance of the number ten in the ancient world relates to the tenfold occurrences in the Book of Mormon.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Atonement; Consecration; Justice; Law of; Perfection; Reverence
ID = [3125]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms,welch  Size: 70050  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Hoskisson, Paul Y. “Straightening Things Out: The Use of Strait and Straight in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12 no. 2 (2003).

Confusion between the use of strait and straight existed in Joseph Smith’s day and continues to persist today. This confusion is manifest in the spelling of the term in the original manuscript (strait preserved in 10 of 11 existing occurrences), the printer’s manuscript (all 27 instances spelled strait), and the 1830 edition (in which the compositor changed all 27 instances to straight). Through close examination of meanings, comparison to Hebrew words and usage, and analysis of poetic form, Hoskisson examines each instance of strai(gh)t in the Book of Mormon and recommends a spelling for each one.

ID = [3126]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bom,farms-jbms  Size: 86164  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Chadwick, Jeffrey R. “Has the Seal of Mulek Been Found?” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 2 (2003): 72-93, 117-118.

A small stamp seal bearing the inscription belonging to Malkiyahu, son of the king, arguably belonged to Mulek, son of Zedekiah, who accompanied one of the Israelite groups that settled in the New World. Jeremiah 38:6 mentions Malchiah the son of Hammelech, which could also be a reference to this same Mulek. Discussion centers on similar seals, the meaning of Ben Hamelek, the possible age of Malkiyahu, and Book of Mormon claims about Mulek. This seal could conceivably have been left behind in Jerusalem and found centuries later, thus representing an archaeological artifact of a Book of Mormon personality.

Keywords: Ancient Near East; Archaeology; Jerusalem; King Zedekiah; Mulek; Old Testament; Seal
ID = [3127]  Type = journal article  Date = 2003-01-01  Collections = bmc-archive,bom,farms-jbms  Size: 55591  Children: 0  Rebuilt: 3/1/24 17:00:37
Johnson, Clark V. “A Test of Faith: The Book of Mormon in the Missouri Conflict.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 12, no. 2 (2003): 84-87, 118.

While imprisoned in Liberty Jail in Missouri in 1839, the Prophet Joseph Smith directed the church members to gather statements and affidavits about the sufferings and abuses put on them by the people of Missouri. Of the surviving affidavits, five speak directly about the Book of Mormon as a test of faith. Several were offered their lives, property, and safety if they would deny the Book of Mormon and denounce the divine calling of the Prophet Joseph Smith. Those who refused to recant were robbed of their property, whipped, beaten, slandered, and jailed.