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BYU Studies Vol. 44 (2005)

Issue 1
Sorensen, Peter J. “The Lost Commandments: The Sacred Rites of Hospitality.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 4.
Grua, David W. “Joseph Smith and the 1834 D. P. Hurlbut Case.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 33.
Cohen, Charles L. “No Man Knows My Psychology: Fawn Brodie, Joseph Smith, and Psychoanalysis.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 55.
Fluhman, J. Spencer. “Early Mormon and Shaker Visions of Sanctified Community.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 79.
Galli, Craig D. “Building Zion: The Latter-day Saint Legacy of Urban Planning.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 111.
Vousden, Peter J. “Dissent and Restoration in a Corner of London: A Personal View of the Remarkable Religious History of the Parish of St. Luke’s.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 137.
Nielson, Marilyn Nelson. “Reality through Reflection.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 151.
Adams, Stirling. “Two books on race and slavery.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 157.
Eliason, Eric A. “Book of Mormon Reference Companion.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 170.
Welch, John W. “On Human Nature: The Jerusalem Center Symposium.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 171.
Welch, John W. “Voices from the Dust: Book of Mormon Insights.” BYU Studies 44, no. 1 (2005): 171.
Issue 2
Reynolds, Noel B. “The Israelite Background of Moses Typology in the Book of Mormon.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 5-23.

Nephi tells the story of the founding events of the Nephite people in such a way that his readers will see him as a second Moses. Although Nephi’s use of the Moses typology has been previously noted, what has not been noticed before is that his father, Lehi, also employs this same typology in his farewell address in 2 Nephi 1-4 in order to persuade his descendants of his own divine calling and of their new covenant relationship to the same God who had given the promised land to ancient Israel. The fact that Nephi and Lehi both saw themselves as Moses figures demonstrates their awareness of a recognizable feature of preexilic Israelite literature that has only recently been explicated by Bible scholars.

Barrett, Robert T. “Setting a Standard in LDS Art: Four Illustrators of the Mid-Twentieth Century.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 24.
Rushton, Patricia. “Cholera and Its Impact on Nineteenth-Century Mormon Migration.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 123.
Toshiko, Yanagida. “Memoirs of the Relief Society in Japan, 1951–1991.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 145.
Tice, Richard Ellis. “As Fire.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 168.
Nielson, Marilyn Nelson. “Sheep.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 176.
Watabe, Masakazu. “Elijah’s Promise: An Oriental View.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 155.
Wells, Thomas R. “A Superlative Image: An Original Daguerreotype of Brigham Young.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 96.
Johnson, Janiece Lyn. “‘The Scriptures Is a Fulfilling’: Sally Parker’s Weave.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 110.
Woodger, Mary Jane. “‘Twenty Years Ago Today’: David O. McKay’s Heart Petals Revisited.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 160.
Sawin, Mark M. “Desert Patriarchy: Mormon and Mennonite Communities in the Chihauhua Valley.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 177.
Bennion, George. “Reverence: Renewing a Forgotten Virtue.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 181.
Gonzalez, Joseph E. “Two books on the history of the Church in South America.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 188.
Grover, Mark L. “Historia de los Santos de los Últimos Días en Paraguay: Relatos de Pioneros.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 189.
Jackson, Kent P. “Behold I.” BYU Studies Quarterly 44, no. 2 (2005): 169-75.

On two occasions while he worked on his New Translation of Genesis in 1830, the Prophet Joseph Smith dictated to his scribe Oliver Cowdery a word combination that in English is awkward and umgrammatical, though in the Hebrew it is not: “Behold I.” The first occurrence reads, “Behold I am the Lord God Almighty.” The second reads, “Behold I send me.” Both passages are in the Book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price, but “Behold I” is not found in either of those passages today because, after the time of Joseph Smith, each was edited out of the text . .

Issue 3
Wilkins, Richard G. “The Principles of the Proclamation: Ten Years of Hope.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 4.
Bennett, Richard E. “‘Line upon Line, Precept upon Precept’: Reflections on the 1877 Commencement of the Performance of Endowments and Sealings of the Dead.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 38.
Jensen, Robin Scott. “A Witness in England: Martin Harris and the Strangite Mission.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 78-98.

Throughout his long life, Martin Harris consistently testified that he knew Joseph Smith translated the Book of Mormon from golden plates. At first affiliated with Joseph Smith and the main body of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, for a time Harris associated with a schism led by James J. Strang. He served a mission in England in 1846 for the Strangites, but he claimed to the end of his life that he never preached against Mormonism or against the Book of Mormon. Indeed, he was a powerful witness of the Book of Mormon during his mission.

Keywords: Harris; Martin; Strangite; Testimony
Holzapfel, Richard Neitzel. “The Dedication of the Oliver Cowdery Monument in Richmond, Missouri, 1911.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 99.
Vousden, Peter J. “London Missionaries and the Great Exhibition of 1851.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 122.
Crandall, Marilyn J. “The Little Gardner Hymnal, 1844: A Study of Its Origin and Contribution to the LDS Musical Canon.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 136.
Hopkin, Shon D. “The Psalm 22:16 Controversy: New Evidence from the Dead Sea Scrolls.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 161-172.

Few verses in the Bible have produced as much debate and commentary as Psalm 22:16: “For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.” The discussions center on the last character (reading right to left) of the Hebrew וראכ (“pierced/dug”), assumed to be the word from which the Septuagint Greek ὢρυξαν (“they have pierced”) was translated—assumed because the original Hebrew texts from which the Septuagint was translated are no longer extant. If the last character of the Hebrew word was a waw ()ו, as the Greek seems to indicate, then the translation “pierced” is tenable. But a later Hebrew text called the Masoretic text has a yod (×™) instead of a waw (ו), making the word יראכ, which translated into English reads “like a lion my hands and my feet.” Thus, two divergent possibilities have existed side by side for centuries, causing much speculation and debate. The controversy has often been heated, with large variations in modern translations into English, as evidenced by a brief survey of some important Bible translations.

Keywords: Bible Translation; Crucifixion; Dead Sea Scrolls; Masoretic Text; Prophecy; Psalms (Book); Septuagint; Textual Criticism
Christensen, Shannon. “Guardians of the Family.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 193.
Fleming, Stephen J. “Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonial Ancestors.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 173.
Pulsipher, Jenny Hale. “Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonial Ancestors.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 176.
Mason, Patrick Q. “God on the Quad: How Religious Colleges and Missionary Generation Are Changing America.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 180.
Mason, Patrick Q. “American Jesus: How the Son of God Became a National Icon.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 184.
Coutts, Alison V. P. “Early Christians in Disarray: Contemporary LDS Perspectives on the Christian Apostasy.” BYU Studies 44, no. 3 (2005): 188.
Issue 4
Bushman, Richard Lyman. “Introduction 44:4.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 0.
Unattributed. “Part 1: Joseph Smith in His Own Time.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 1.
Bushman, Richard Lyman. “Joseph Smith’s Many Histories.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 3.
Remini, Robert V. “Biographical Reflections on the American Joseph Smith.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 21-30.

I have long thought that the importance and role of Joseph Smith in the history of religion in America has been muted more than necessary by the Latter-day Saint church. As his biographer, I was and remain very anxious that his contribution to American culture and religion in general be recognized and appreciated, both by Mormons and by non-Mormons.

Keywords: Biography; Joseph; Jr.; Smith
Hughes, Richard T. “Joseph Smith as an American Restorationist.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 31-39.

Richard Bushman’s wonderfully expansive paper “Joseph Smith’s Many Histories” reminds us in forceful ways of the historical complexity that helped create the Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith. Bushman also reminds us that while historical complexity is embedded in history, it embeds itself as well in the hearts and minds of human beings who discover the various realities of history and then appropriate those realities for their own purposes. As an illustration of this point, Bushman tells the story of Christopher Columbus—how his standing as the grandfather of the United States was neither acknowledged nor celebrated until after 1776.

Keywords: Christopher; Columbus; Joseph; Jr.; Smith
Underwood, Grant. “Attempting to Situate Joseph Smith.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 41-52.

Undergirding Richard Bushman’s insightful paper is a profound recognition (and a reminder) that histories are the creations of authors, not photographs of the past. Every aspect of writing a history, from the selection of sources to the interpretation of those sources bears the imprint of the author. The profoundly precarious and contingent character of all reconstruction of the past led Roland Barthes to quip that biography is “a novel that dare not speak its name.” Clearly, this is an overstatement, but it does warn us away from an unhealthy critical complacency when engaging in studying written histories.

Keywords: Bushman; Histories; Joseph; Jr.; Richard L.; Smith; Sources
Unattributed. “Part 2: Joseph Smith and the Recovery of Past Worlds.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 53.
Givens, Terryl L. “Joseph Smith: Prophecy, Process, and Plenitude.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 55-68.

Joseph Smith was an explorer, a discoverer, and a revealer of past worlds. He described an ancient America replete with elaborate detail and daring specificity, rooted and grounded in what he claimed were concrete, palpable artifacts. He recuperated texts of Adam, Abraham, Enoch, and Moses to resurrect and reconstitute a series of past patriarchal ages, not as mere shadows and types of things to come, but as dispensations of gospel fullness equaling, and in some cases surpassing, present plenitude. And he revealed an infinitely receding premortal past—not of the largely mythic Platonic variety and not a mere Wordsworthian, sentimental intimation—but a fully formed realm of human intelligences, divine parents, and heavenly councils.

Keywords: Joseph; Jr.; Prophecy; Prophet; Smith
Clark, John E. “Archaeological Trends and the Book of Mormon Origins.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 83.
Welch, John W. “Joseph Smith and the Past.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 105-117.

My thoughts on Joseph Smith’s interest in past worlds cluster into three sections. The first deals with the challenge of evaluating and assessing Joseph Smith’s recoveries of texts or views from past worlds or civilizations.The second develops a list of ways in which the past functioned in Joseph Smith’s process of continuing revelation. The third focuses on the dynamic link between the past and the present in Joseph Smith’s concept of priesthood authority and its restoration.

Keywords: Joseph; Jr.; Revelation; Smith; Translation
Unattributed. “Gallery Display.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 119.
Unattributed. “Part 3: Joseph Smith in a Personal World.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 151.
Oaks, Dallin H. “Joseph Smith in a Personal World.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 153-172.

My subject is Joseph Smith in a personal world. My lens is primarily a personal one—his impact on me and believers I have known during my lifetime. I will also discuss Joseph Smith’s own personal world and his impact on his acquaintances and friends. A major focus will be Joseph Smith’s role as a prophet and his teachings on the reality of revelation. By prophet I mean one who speaks for God in revealing divine truth to others. By revelation I mean God’s communication to man—to prophets and to every one of us, if we seek.

Keywords: Joseph; Jr.; Smith; Testimony
Unattributed. “Part 4: Joseph Smith and the Theological World.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 173.
Mouw, Richard J. “Joseph Smith’s Theological Challenges: From Revelation and Authority to Metaphysics.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 213-221.

In his published dialogue with the Evangelical theologian Craig Blomberg, Stephen Robinson observed that one of the factors that makes it so difficult for Mormons and Evangelicals to understand each other is the issue of terminology. The theology of the Latter-day Saints, he noted, has not been shaped by the same developments that Protestants have experienced since the days of the Reformation. This means, Robinson said, that “Latter-day Saints are generally quite naïve when it comes to the technical usage of theological language.”

Keywords: Metaphysics; Restoration; Theology
Balmer, Randall. “Speaking of Faith: The Centrality of Epistemology and Perils of Circularity.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 223.

It is difficult for me to respond to David Paulsen. I am not—nor have I ever claimed to be—a theologian.I will not presume to engage many of the issues or to intrude on the conversations in his paper.I am intrigued,however, by several themes raised in his paper. I will comment, first, on the crisis of authority; second, on the centrality of epistemology and the perils of theological circularity; and third,on the quintessentially modern enterprise of apologetics.

Keywords: Apologetics; Authority; Circularity; Epistemology; Faith; Mormon; Rebuttal
Millet, Robert L. “Joseph Smith’s Christology: After Two Hundred Years.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 231-250.

During the last decade, a recurring question has been posed to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; Is the church “changing?” In addition, it is asked,Is there some effort on the part of the church leadership to have the church and its teachings, particularly those concerning Jesus Christ, become more acceptable to and thus more accepted by other Christians? The natural Latter-day Saint inclination is to react sharply that the church’s doctrines concerning Jesus Christ are intact and even eternal, that doctrines of Joseph Smith’s day and the doctrines of our own day are one and the same, that little of consequence has been altered.

Keywords: Christology; Joseph; Jr.; Smith
Unattributed. “Part 5: Joseph Smith and the Making of a Global Religion.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 251.
Davies, Douglas J. “World Religion: Dynamics and Constraints.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 253.
McDermott, Gerald R. “Testing Stark’s Thesis: Is Mormonism the First New World Religion since Islam?” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 271.
Shipps, Jan. “Joseph Smith and the Making of a Global Religion.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 293.
Keller, Roger R. “Authority and Worldwide Growth.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 307.
Unattributed. “Contributors.” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 317.
BYU Studies Staff. “Index (44:4).” BYU Studies 44, no. 4 (2005): 319.


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